Vitamins, minerals and water


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GCSE food technology

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Vitamins, minerals and water

  1. 1. Vitamins and Minerals Water Thursday 27 th Jan 2011
  2. 2. Need to know: <ul><li>Vitamins A, B, C and D </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals, calcium, iron, sodium (salt) fluoride and phosphorus </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Vitamins are micronutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>Water soluble – dissolve in water – B and C </li></ul><ul><li>Fat soluble – dissolve in fat - A, D, E and K </li></ul>
  4. 4. Water Soluble <ul><li>Destroyed by heat and exposure to oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolved when added to water. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fresh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare them last minute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use little water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steam rather than boil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use left over water for gravy/soup </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Vitamin A comes in 2 forms; Retinol and Beta-Carotene <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps eye adapt to dim light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulates growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cod liver oil, liver, dark leafy veg, herring, egg yolk. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficiency – night blindness in severe cases </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Vitamin D <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps absorb calcium and phosphorus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunlight, fish oils and oily fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficiency – prevents rickets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(causes the softening and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>weakening of bones, which can </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lead to deformities, such as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bowed legs and curvature of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the spine.) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Vitamin B – folic acid <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red blood cell formation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fortified cereals and green leafy vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficiency – tiredness and anaemia </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Vitamin C – ascorbic acid <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical to the immune system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pepper, kiwi and citrus fruit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficiency – prevents scurvy in extreme cases </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Activity in pairs; <ul><li>Look at the 5 images of orange juice. </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the cost, vitamin C content and sugar levels of each juice. </li></ul><ul><li>Produce an argument for the following; </li></ul><ul><li>You have a child and want to give them orange juice with their breakfast. </li></ul><ul><li>Which juice would you choose and why? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Calcium <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aids with strong teeth and bones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All dairy products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficiency – osteoporosis - causing bones to become weak and fragile and more likely to break (fracture). </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Iron <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of haemoglobin in red blood cells to carry oxygen around the body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red meat, kidney, liver and eggs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficiency – anaemia </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Sodium - Salt <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains water balance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheese, bacon, smoked meats, fish, processed foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficiency – highly unlikely </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Phosphorus <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Works with calcium to aid strong teeth and bones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All dairy products, nuts and seeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficiency – is rare but can cause tiredness and depression </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Fluoride <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain strong teeth and bones and prevents tooth decay </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tap water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficiency – tooth decay </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Case study <ul><li>A group of people are starting a lunch club for the elderly who don’t have the best diet as it is difficult to cook for themselves. The lunch club want to give the elderly the correct amount of vitamins but still have a range of flavours and textures. They will be cooking for 30 elderly people each day. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan a tasty 2 course meal that could be served to the elderly guests that will contain a range of vitamins and minerals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can the organisers avoid losing vitamins when they are preparing, cooking and serving this 2 course meal? </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Water <ul><li>65% body made up of water </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates body temperature – sweat evaporates and cools us down. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps the kidneys flush out excess substances from our blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Water transports nutrients, oxygen and carbon dioxide round the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Needed for all processes e.g. digestion </li></ul>
  17. 17. Water <ul><li>Amount needed depends on activity level, weather and amount of salt we eat. </li></ul><ul><li>Atleast 1l of water is lost each day through urine and sweat. </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration = a medical condition resulting from insufficient water in the diet. </li></ul>