Sustainable Development Revision Guide -2011There is a 1-hour exam. It can begin with multiple-choice questions but themajority of questions will be open questions, which will require a lot of detail.An example of a high level answer – which will gain full marks:Manufacturers have started putting clear labels on the front of packets about GDA’s (Guideline DailyAmounts) of food. Some are using the traffic light system to help people choose foods more easily.However some consumers are finding the different types of labels confusing. Manufacturers arealso making their products healthier by reducing the amounts of fat, sugar and salt. Too much fatcan lead to obesity and heart disease. Too much sugar has been linked to diabetes and causes toothdecay. The manufacturers have also started to target products at certain groups of people e.g.weight watchers. They are calorie controlled to help weight loss. Another example is the GI dietwhere the GI index of high, medium or low is shown to help consumers choose foods that takelonger to digest. More organic foods are available now as the consumer’s thinks these are better forthem and contain more nutrients. They don’t contain chemicals like fertiliser. However they aremuch more expensive.What the examiner said about this response:The candidate has covered a wide range of relevant points; there is evidence of good knowledge andunderstanding with explanations and examples being given for each point made. The candidate hasalso included references to the limitations of the manufacturer’s responses e.g. confusing labellingand the cost of organic foods. Specialist terms have been used but it has been qualified with areference to nutrients so credit has been given the candidate also acknowledges that fats do notnecessarily cause heart disease. The answer is well written and structured. Spelling, punctuationand grammar are correct.Top tips • Use specialist terms – avoid words like ‘pollution’ instead aim for ‘air pollution’. • Read the question two times and underline key words • Take time to think about your answer and Plan your answer in bullet points at the side • PEE (POINT, EXAMPLE,EXPLAIN) • ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS
Definitions of the 6 R’s Rethink and make a better choice about something. ForRethink example rethink your lifestyle in relation to diet, food miles, seasonal, local, animal cruelty and sustainability Reuse packaging for another purpose. Reuse leftoverReuse ingredients. This normally doesn’t involve any further processing Reuse a product – this normally requires further processing,Recycle eg, from a coke can into another coke can! Can we repair what we may throw away? How nutrientsRepair help as to repair our bodies. What can we do to repair the UK diet? Try to reduce our food intake. Reduce food miles and theReduce consumption of processed foods. Reduce packaging.Refuse Say no to something. For example chose free range instead of battery. Refuse products high in fat/salt/sugar. Refuse foods which contain additives/fertilisers/pesticides
Recycling The following materials can be recycled: Glass Paperboard/ Metal cans Some plastics card / paper It can be difficult to recycle packaging from mixed materials i.e. foil, plastic or card bonded together. Why should we ● ● ● ● ● ● recycle? It uses up natural It causes pollution resources including: Trees Air Oil Land Metal Water ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● What can consumers do?If it cannot be recycled or Buy reusable containers – bags / jars / egg cartonsbiodegrades then it has to be disposed of in landfill Use re-useable bags when shopping. sites Use recycling centres to recycle glass / cans or paper ● ● ● Buy minimum packaging – choose products which have little packaging
How can manufacturers minimise waste?Reduce the amount of packaging i.e.: Easter egg boxes. Cardboard box packaging 2 crunchies individually wrapped Hard plastic case to hold the egg in Foil covering of eggOr you could design an egg which: Foil Covering Mini eggs in a small plastic bag Other ideas: 1. Use paper or card from sustainable forests. 2. Choose materials for packaging that consumers can use. 3. Printing symbols on the packaging that inform consumers i.e. recycling logos or keep Britain tidy logos. 4. Provide information about the packaging materials.
Composting When a food cannot be reused it could be composted and is a good fertiliser for a garden. The following can be composted: Tea bags Crushed egg Vegetable peelings Thesewaste Fruit items; shellsFruit wasteVegetable Peelings 1.R o t quickly 2. Provide nitrogen 3. Provide moisture. They are called greens. Cardboard egg boxes, scrunched up paper and fallen leaves are called browns as they rot more slowly. They provide carbon and fibre and allow air pockets to form in the mixture Cooked vegetables, meat, dairy products, diseased plants and dog or cat litter cannot be placed in the bin! Example questions from past papers: 1. When preparing fresh food products containing vegetables there is always going to be some waste. State one environmentally friendly way of disposing of the vegetable food waste (1 mark Jan 10) 2. The cardboard used in the packaging comes from a sustainable source. Explain what sustainable source means? (2 marks Jan 10) 3. 33% of the food we buy (6.7 million tonnes) gets thrown out of UK homes. Most of this food could have been eaten. Much of the waste is fruit and vegetables (40%) and this does not include waste from peelings. Discuss how households could reduce food waste. (6 marks Jan 10) 4. Which of the following should not be put into compost bins?(a) Egg shells (b) Vegetable peelings(c) Polystyrene food packaging (d) Cardboard (1 mark June ‘10) 5. State what is meant by a product being recycled (1mark June’10) 6. True or false there is an increase in the number of households recycling (1 mark July 10) 7. State one environmentally friendly way of disposing of the vegetable food waste (Jan 2010 1 mark)
Reuse – products are reused for the same purpose or as a new product. People don’t plan meals and have People buy BOGOF or special offers shopping lists In the UK we throw away £20 billion worth of unused food – enough to lift 10People don’t think to million people out of People don’t use stockreuse foods starvation Why is this? rotation in their fridgeUsing left overs: The average family throw away £680 worthof food each yearSimple ideas for leftovers: 1. Make a chicken or turkey broth from chicken or turkey carcass 2. Make a bread and butter pudding from stale bread 3. Make a trifle from stale cake 4. Unused vegetables can be used to make a soup. 5. Make a frittata from left over potatoes.Look at the following left over dishes what could you make from:Example Que Soft Roast Cooked Jar of pasta Old bananas tomatoes Chicken sausages sauceExample Questions from past papers Foods should be reheated only once – true or false (1 mark)
Reduce – Health, Energy and Eco Footprint. HealthIn UK a poor diet is costing the NHS millions of pounds. Not because we arelacking food but the wrong foods.The eatwell plate is a visual guide to show us the proportions of food that weshould eat. We should also look at ways of reducing our sugar, salt and fatintake and increasing fibre and fruit and veg.Ways of reducing fat: Trim fat off meat, grill not fry and use lean meat. Use lowfat versions of products i.e. half fat cheeseWays of reducing salt: Use lo salt, remove salt from cooking, use herbs andspices to season rather than salt.Ways of reducing sugar: use sweetener, reduce amount of sugar in a recipeand use natural sugars i.e. fruits rather than sugar. Reducing the Amount of Processed FoodsProcessed foods like ready meals or jarred sauces are high in fat, salt and sugarand contain a lot of packaging. These need to be reduced.The size of processed food packaging has increased. I.e. Crisp packets are now35g rather than 25g.Eating processed foods rather than cooking foods from scratch uses moreenergy – transporting food to manufacturer– processing food – transportingfood to supermarket – energy to store the food in the supermarket – energy tocook the food at home.
Carbon Footprint ‘The amount of carbon emissions produced during the growing, processing and distribution of food.’ Food MileIs the distance food travels from food to plate. It shows the environmentalimpact of the food we eat. 50% of vegetables and 95% fruit eaten in UK comefrom abroad.Why do foods travel? Foods are eaten out of season i.e. Asparagus is grown in the UK in May and June but eaten all year round. For the rest of the year it comes from Spain, Italy or Peru. This means it creates air pollution. Why do people worry about food miles?Because the planes that transport the food burn fossil fuels, which give offcarbon dioxide gases which cause global warming.Some people decide to offset global warming; by planting trees this is calledcarbon offsetting. How can we reduce food miles? 1. Buy local food i.e. at Farmers Markets. 2. Buy seasonal food 3. Reduce the amount of packaging as it saves energy.
Reduce Energy When CookingLots of energy is used in cooking i.e. boiling a kettle for one cup of tea.Other ways: Plan meals using the whole Boil the kettle for Use a microwave of the oven pasta first Use a lid on a Use steamer with Stir-fry is a quick method of cooking saucepan several vegetables cooking at once. Make one-pan Whisk, shred, grate or chop by hand recipes i.e. risotto rather than using equipment Reduce the Use of Pesticides - Organic350 pesticides can be used in Britain. People question their affects on ourhealth and how they pollute our rivers.Organic farming limits the use of artificial fertilisers and pesticides. Thefarms are monitored by organisations such as the Soil Association. Farmersrotate crops, and use natural pesticides. Up until the recession Organic wasbig business, farmers like to grow organic as they believe it is kinder to theenvironment. Organic food is more expensive though
Example Questions Reduce1. Hands should be washed in cold water before handling foods. True or false. (Jan 2010 1 mark)2. Give two ways that the carbon footprint of the filling ingredients could be reduced (Jan 2010 2 marks)3. State three ways the manufacturer of the sandwich could ensure that the fat content is as low as possible (Jan 2010 3 marks)4. Name one high risk food in the sandwich (Jan 20101 mark)5. Explain what sustainable source means (Jan 2010 2 marks)6. Explain two reasons why consumers may choose to purchase food from a farm shop (Jan 2010 2 marks)7. Give two environmental reasons why we should reduce our food waste? (Jan 2010 2 marks)8. Discuss how households could reduce food waste (Jan 2010 6 marks)9. We should be reducing our intake of hydrogenated fat true / false (June 2010 1 mark)10.Explain how using a steamer can reduce energy consumption when cooking meals (June 2010 2 marks)11.Give three ways other than using a steamer a family could reduce their consumption of energy when cooking food (June 2010 2 marks)12.Give two reasons why watts information on a microwave is useful to the consumer when using a microwave (June 2010 2 marks)13.Explain why some people choose not to purchase imported food products ( June 2010 4 marks)
Refuse Why do food manufacturers package food in a certain way? Shows which social group its targeted at. I.e. families, working Protects the food, like people, older people. tamper evident and egg boxesCertain celebrations Budget products havehave more elaborate simple packaging.packaging i.e. EasterEggs. Why does packaging affect our eco footprint? 1. Packaging, processing and transporting needs lots of energy and causes waste. 2. Throw away containers are popular but end up as litter or in landfill The Facts The Average Person Throw’s away450kg of Waste 149kg of paper / card 90kg vegetable waste Refuse High Fat, Sugar and Sugar Foods. Processed foods contain more salt, sugar and fat. People should refuse to eat products high in fat, sugar and salt. Opting for at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables, increased fibre and people should follow the advice on the eatwell plate. Eating a diet lower in fat, sugar and salt would reduce the amount of people suffering from heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, diverticulosis and some cancers. Example Questions Refuse: 1. We should refuse to buy foods which are over packaged true or false.( Jan 20101 mark)
ReThink DesignRedesign foods, which are thought of as high in fat, sugar and salt and lowin fibre. This can be achieved by adding: fruit, vegetables, nuts, pulses,cereals, and whole-grains to recipes. This improves the taste, texture,colour and aroma of a product. Rethink high fat diets.Use spreads and oils sparingly. Use vegetable fats and oils. Try not to addfat when cooking foods. Use low fat alternatives i.e. skimmed milk ratherthan whole milk. Use yoghurt instead of cream. Grate cheese as it goesfurther. Use stronger cheeses as you use less of it. Use alternatives to meati.e. Quorn or tofu. Use lean meats and remove visible fat or skin. Addpulses to meat dishes, which will increase fibre, content and reduces theoverall fat content. Hydrogenated fats and saturated fats are BAD FOR US. Example Questions Rethink1. Organic foods are cheaper than economy varieties true or false (Jan 2010 1 mark)2. Describe two ways that a manufacturer can make sure that food is safe to eat (Jan 2010 4 marks)3. Why do food manufacturers need to consider the amount of energy used to produce foods (4 marks)4. Give one reason why manufacturers put nutritional labelling on packaging (June 2010 1 mark)5. Explain why we should reduce the amount of fat (2 marks) and sugar in our diet (June 2010 2 marks)6. Discuss how consumers can reduce their calorie intake ( June 2010 6 marks)
Repair Nutrients help the body to repair. The table below shows the functions, sources and deficiencies of vitamins and minerals.Vitamin Function Source Deficiency/mineralA– Eyes healthy, night vision, maintains skin Retinol – liver, egg, oily fish. Night blindness Beta Carotene – red, green and orange vegetables Liver and bone damageD With calcium it build / maintains strong Sunlight, dairy products, oily Rickets – softening of bones and teeth fish, liver bones.B1 Thiamine Helps release energy from nutrients Fortified breakfast cereal, Slows growth & wholegrain, meat, eggs, milk development. Normal nervous system Causes beri beriB2 Normal growth, Healthy skin, Release of Liver, kidneys, meat, milk, eggs, Poor growth. Skin energy green vegetables and eye problemsRiboflavinB3. Metabolism growth and energy release. Meat and poultry, fish, cereals, Rare in UK. Pellagra – Healthy skin and nerves dairy, pulses rough sore skinNiacinFolic Acid Formation red blood cells. Foetal Liver, Kidneys, wholegrain, Tiredness and Development cereals, pulses. anaemiaC Formation of connective tissue, wound Citrus fruit, blackcurrants, Spotty skin, swollen healing, blood vessel formation strawberry, green vegetables, gums, loose teeth, cabbage, new potatoes, pepper scurvyIron Production of haemoglobin and carry Red meat, kidneys, liver, eggs, Anaemia oxygen in the blood bread, green vegetablesCalcium Hardens bones, blood clotting, nerve and Dairy products, fortified white Stunted growth, muscle functions bread, oily fish, green rickets & vegetables. osteoporosis.Phosphorous Bones, teeth, muscle functions Dairy products, nuts, meat, fish Rarely deficient. Can cause tiredness and depressionSodium Nerves and maintains water balance Cheese, bacon, smoked meat, Unlikely saltFluoride Teeth and against decay Fish, tea, drinking water, Tooth decay. toothpaste Nutrients
Nutrient Source Function DeficiencyProtein High Biological Value Growth Growth slows down Meat, fish, poultry, dairy Repair Digestive upset products, soya Hormones Liver fails to function Low Biological Value normally Source of energy Cereals, beans, peas, Muscles become weak nuts, seeds KwashiorkorFat Plant: avocado, nuts, Energy pulses, seeds Insulate Animal: meat , meat products, dairy Protects organs products, fish Source of fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, K Flavour SatietyCarbohydrates Monosaccharides: Energy Disaccharides: Aid Digestion Polysaccharides: Sweeten / flavour food StarchesFibre Insoluble Fibre: Keeps faeces soft and Constipation, wholegrain breakfast bulky cereals, pasta, brown Diverticular disease rice Prevents bowel disorders Soluble Fibre: oats, peas, beans, lentils Control body weight
Example Questions Repair1. State one function of iron in the body (Jan 2010 1 mark)2. Name one function of protein the diet (June 2010 1 mark)3. Give two nutritional reasons why chicken is a popular food (Jan 2010 2 marks)4. Give two changes that could be made to the Tikka Masala to make it healthier (June 2010 4 marks)5. Explain why yoghurt is a more suitable for a child aged 5 -11 years. (June 2010 4 marks)
Moral issuesAdditives are added to foods to improve their shelf life,colour, texture and appearance. 1) Colours: added to colourless foods (like sweets) added to products where colour has been lost (tinned peas when heated lose their colour). Or added to boost colours (like in strawberry yoghurt). Smarties now use natural colourings instead of artificial which come from products like vegetables. 2) Flavour enhancers and flavourings MSG is a flavour enhancer of Chinese foods. People complain that this makes them feel ill after eating, this additive has a negative association. Flavours can be added to anything, ie: make natural plain yoghurt be mango flavour. 3) Emulsifiers These are added to products which have both oil and water. Oil and water do not mix, but in ready meals and mayonnaise these two ingredients are present. To help them mix an emulsifier is added so they stay together. A natural emulsifier is lecithin which is found in egg yolk, however mostly artificial emulsifiers are used.
Free Range (see your class notes)Organic (see your class notes)Ethical Trading initiative (see your homework) if notcompleted visit their website.Fair Trade (see your class notes)Cultural issues • Most countries have a staple food, in our country it is potatoes and wheat, in Italy it is pasta and China it is rice. • All cultures celebrate different occasions; foods are often associated with this. For instance at Christmas in this country we demand mince pies, as Easter we like to eat hot cross buns. • People eat different foods depending on their religion. Hindus are normally vegetarian, but they never eat beef. Muslims do not eat pork, Jews will only eat Kosher meat (meat which has been slaughtered in a special way).
Food SafetyCross contaminationRaw food should be kept separate from cooked foods. Separatechopping boards and equipment and regular hand washing cancombat thisDanger ZoneBetween 5-63 bacteria multiply very rapidly possibly making itunsafe to eat• Foods should only be reheated once• 0-5 the fridge. Bacteria are multiplying slowly• -18 the freezer. The bacteria are laying dormant• 75 bacteria are dead• All people that work with food should have a basic food hygiene certificate• Old food should be kept at the front of the fridge, new at the back• Environmental health officers are the food police, they inspect food premises, give advice, check training records, they can serve you with a notice to improve or shut you down immediately.
Cooking Methods Boiling – rice,pasta. Boiling can make vitamins B+C leach out of vegetables. A MOIST HEAT Simmering – a gentle boil. A MOIST HEAT Poaching – a temperature below simmering. A MOIST HEAT Steaming – food is cooked through steam, either over a saucepan or with a dedicated electric steamer. Retains vitamins better than boiling. A MOIST HEAT Baking – in the oven, cakes, pizzas etc. Considered healthier than frying. A DRY HEAT. Frying – we mostly fry with vegetable oil as it does not burn when heated to high temperatures (unlike margarine).
Gluten free symbolCompostableWaste Sustainable Logos on grown in Britain PackagingMobius loopLets consumers know if products Keep Britain Tidy This product has beencan be recycled Suitable for transported by air vegans The hen has been vaccinated against salmonellaOrganic The Red Tractor Farm Schemes provide effective assurance that the farmer has met a set of safety and quality standardsFair-trade symbol FSC is an international, non-governmental Suitable for organization dedicated to vegetarians promoting responsible management of the world’s forestsand reducing food miles Type ofplastic. Not all plastics can Carbon Footprintbe recycled logo. The growing and distribution