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Protein; meat


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Meat structure, nutrition, cooking methods, religion, health scares

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Protein; meat

  1. 1. Starter: Complete the protein test, in silence and on your own. Ensure you read each question carefully.
  2. 2. Meat <ul><li>There is a large range of meat and meat products available to purchase. The quality of the product will depend on how the animal has been kept, what it is fed on, its age, and how it is processed and cooked. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Classification <ul><li>Animal types: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beef </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lamb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pork </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Veal (young male calf) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Classification <ul><li>Poultry types: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chicken </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Duck </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turkey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ostrich </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pigeon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pheasant </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Classification <ul><li>Offal (organs) types: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kidney </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxtail – tail taken from cow or calf </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tongue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tripe – stomach - traditionally beef </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Classification <ul><li>Game types (hunted rather than farmed): </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pheasant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rabbit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Venison (deer) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Game birds can include: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grouse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Partridge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pheasant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wild duck </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wild geese </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Structure of meat: <ul><li>Meat is the muscle tissue of animals. Muscle tissue is made up of muscle fibres, which are held together by connective tissue. 2 types: </li></ul><ul><li>Collagen – dissolves to gelatine </li></ul><ul><li>Elastin – binds muscle together. It is tough and yellow in colour. It provides elasticity and strength. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Structure of meat:
  9. 9. Structure of meat: <ul><li>The parts of the animal which do the most work (neck and shin) have large, long fibres. These tend to be tough cuts of meat. </li></ul><ul><li>The parts of the animal which don’t do as much work (breast, rump and ribs) have short fibres. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Structure of meat: <ul><li>Lean meat comes from young animals and the parts of the animals that do not do as much work. About 2/3 of the weight of lean meat is water. </li></ul><ul><li>Poultry muscle fibres are similar to meat, but they have less connective tissue which makes it more tender. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cooking influences <ul><li>Colour: myoglobin is the pigment that causes the colour if raw meat to be red or purplish. Different meats vary in colour. When cooked above 65°C colour goes from red to brown. </li></ul><ul><li>Texture: the proteins in the muscle coagulate, the texture becomes firmer over cooking can make it hard/tough. </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture: as muscle becomes firm and shrinks, meat juices are squeezed out. </li></ul><ul><li>Flavour/smell: fat melts and adds moisture/flavour and distinct aromas are created. </li></ul><ul><li>Tenderness: cooking makes meat more tender and digestible. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Methods of tenderising <ul><li>Methods of </li></ul><ul><li>tenderising </li></ul>Pounding. The weight of the mallet flattens the meat into thinner slices, and the bumps help to break up some of the connective tissue. The end result is a thin, tender cut of meat. Marinating Letting meat soak in a marinade, particularly one with many acid-based ingredients, is an effective tenderizing method. The acidity is important because it breaks up the tougher tissue of the meat. Slow Cooking Slow cooking methods require the meat to be cooked in liquid. The heat will eventually break down the tough fibres and the meat will absorb some of the cooking liquid.
  13. 13. Factors affecting meat consumption <ul><li>Health risks: In the 90’s there was the BSE scare and now people are cautious of eating beef. </li></ul><ul><li>Jews: do not eat shellfish or pork. Meat and dairy must not been eaten at the same meal. They only eat kosher meat (slaughtered in a particular way, soaked and then treated with kosher salt) </li></ul><ul><li>Hindus: do not eat beef. They are usually vegetarian. </li></ul><ul><li>Sikhs: do not eat beef. Some Sikhs are vegetarian. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims: do not eat pork as the pig is seen as unclean. They only eat Halal meat (slaughtered in a particular way so no blood remains) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Nutrition of red meat <ul><li>Iron - is required for the formation of red blood cells. </li></ul><ul><li>B vitamins - are required for the release of energy and other metabolic functions in the body. Vitamin B12 is found only in foods of animal origin like beef and lamb, fish, milk, and eggs. B12 is required for the formation of red blood cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Zinc - Red meat contributes about a quarter of zinc in the diet. It assists with the body's immune system to fight infection and diseases. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Nutrition of red meat <ul><li>Protein - is required for growth and repair of body tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin D - assists with the absorption of calcium. Research shows that red meat is a valuable source of vitamin D. </li></ul><ul><li>Omega-3 fatty acids - Long chain omega-3 fatty acids have potential benefits in relation to heart health, especially those who have already suffered a heart attack. Only a small amount of these long-chain omega-3 fatty acids are found in meat. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Nutrition of Poultry <ul><li>It is low in fat, particularly saturated fat, and it contains a high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids, important in the reduction of cholesterol levels in the diet. </li></ul><ul><li>Chicken is high in protein, providing all the essential amino acids. It also provides us with very useful amounts of Vitamin B. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Questions <ul><li>What are the main nutrients found in meat? (2) </li></ul><ul><li>What does anaemic mean? If you were anaemic, which types of meat would you try to include in your diet? (2) </li></ul><ul><li>If you were trying to reduce the amount of fatty foods you consume, which types of meat would you choose? (2) </li></ul><ul><li>How should you store meat safely and correctly and why? (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Meat can be expensive. Using the internet or by visiting shops, compare the costs between different types and cuts of meat. Why do you think the prices vary? Which types and cuts of meat are the most and least expensive? (5) </li></ul>