Cooking Methods


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Year 10 Cooking methods, conduction convection and radiation, dry and moist heat methods

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Cooking Methods

  1. 1. HOW IS FOOD COOKED? <ul><li>There are 3 methods of heat transfer: </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Toaster and grilling food are good examples. </li></ul><ul><li>When heat is radiated it travels in straight lines and any object in its path becomes heated. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. grilling, toasters and microwaving </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  2. 2. HOW IS FOOD COOKED? <ul><li>Conduction </li></ul><ul><li>Heating a pan on a hob is a good example. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat travels through a solid, e.g. the pan. Metal objects are good conductors of heat and so these are used in the making of saucepans.   </li></ul>
  3. 3. HOW IS FOOD COOKED? <ul><li>Convection </li></ul><ul><li>A gas oven or cooking in boiling water are good examples. </li></ul><ul><li>When heated, the particles of a liquid (e.g. water) or a gas (e.g. air) become lighter and rise, while colder particles sink to the bottom and are then heated in turn. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. baking, roasting </li></ul>
  4. 4. Energy efficiency in the kitchen: <ul><li>Gas cookers are cheaper and use less energy than electric cookers. </li></ul><ul><li>Microwaves use very little energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Toasters usually use less energy than a grill. </li></ul><ul><li>Only boil as much water as you need in a </li></ul><ul><li>kettle. </li></ul><ul><li>When the oven is on, try to cook several dishes at once. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose the correct size pan for the rings on the hob. </li></ul><ul><li>When boiling, don’t use more water than is necessary, turn heat down once boiling, cover pan. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose appliances with a low wattage. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Moist heat <ul><li>Moist-heat cooking methods use a liquid for cooking – usually water, stock or steam. </li></ul><ul><li>T he advantage of steam is that it transfers more heat at the same temperature. As a result, the food cooks faster and fewer nutrients are lost. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Boiling <ul><li>Cooking in a lot of liquid at a temperature of about 100° C. </li></ul><ul><li>Use as little water as possible to minimise the loss of vitamins and minerals. (REDUCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Save the cooking liquid for use in stocks, sauces and casseroles. (REUSE) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Poaching <ul><li>Cooking in liquid at a temperature under the boiling point 75°– 95°C. </li></ul><ul><li>Some loss of nutrients in veg due to the vitamins being boiled out into the liquid. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Steaming <ul><li>Cooking at a temperature of about 100°C in steam </li></ul><ul><li>The food and liquid separated. </li></ul><ul><li>Very little loss of vitamins as the food doesn’t come into contact with water. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Stewing/braising <ul><li>Stewing is adding all ingredients into a pot. </li></ul><ul><li>Often done over a long period of time, therefore less energy efficient. </li></ul><ul><li>Use leftover water for the sauce or as stock for soups. (REUSE) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Homework <ul><li>Choose a recipe which using a moist method of cooking: boil, poach, steam, stew. </li></ul><ul><li>Write out the method with ingredients list and an equipment list and say which method of cooking you will be using. I want this handed in!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Bring in the ingredients on Monday 9 th May to make. </li></ul><ul><li>Recipe must be able to make within an hour ! </li></ul><ul><li>Keep it simple…soup, steamed fish or veg, casserole, something with boiled potatoes. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Year 10s <ul><li>Get your folders out </li></ul><ul><li>the green box on the </li></ul><ul><li>desk. </li></ul><ul><li>Sit in your place. </li></ul><ul><li>Get paper ready for </li></ul><ul><li>mind mapping dry heat </li></ul><ul><li>methods. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Dry heat <ul><li>Heat is transferred through air or fat. The cooking temperature is between 120° – 150°C. </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable for foods rich in proteins, like meat, fish and seafood and where a crust is desired. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Microwaves <ul><li>Cooking with electromagnetic waves, either with or without a small amount of added liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>It is ideally suited for reheating food. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Roasting <ul><li>Cooking with browning on the stove or in the oven with or without adding fat, at a temperature of 140°– 200°C. </li></ul><ul><li>Roast at intense heat to seal the juices inside the meat, then cook at low heat until done. This reduces the loss of vitamins, minerals and moisture. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Sautéing <ul><li>Dry-heat cooking method in which heat is conducted by a small amount of fat (the food is kept in motion). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Grilling <ul><li>Cooking with radiant heat or contact heat, with or without added fat. </li></ul><ul><li>Any fat in the meat drains out. </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamins are partially destroyed. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Baking <ul><li>Hard digestible dough and crusts become light and easy to digest. </li></ul><ul><li>No loss of vitamins and minerals into any liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat-sensitive vitamins are partially destroyed. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Fry cooking <ul><li>Cooking with browning in hot oil at a temperature of 140° – 190°C. The methods are defined according to the amount of fat used. </li></ul><ul><li>Correct frying of potatoes and vegetables preserves vitamins and minerals better than boiling or steaming, but increases the amount of fat and energy. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Deep fry <ul><li>The food is entirely submerged in hot fat. </li></ul><ul><li>Fry as quickly as possible. Longer frying time increases fat absorption. </li></ul><ul><li>The smaller the food being fried, the greater the amount of fat absorbed. </li></ul><ul><li>Drain the food of oil before serving. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Pan fry <ul><li>A special form of deep-frying; browning raw or prepared foods in shallow amounts of fat. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Stir fry <ul><li>Traditional Chinese method for cooking food in a frying pan (e.g. wok) with a small amount of oil. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Canned vegetables <ul><li>Never boil canned vegetables. </li></ul><ul><li>The best way to heat them is the microwave warm up the liquid first, then add the vegetables. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid excessive stirring while warming. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the juice to cook the vegetables in, or add to soups or stocks. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Frozen vegetables <ul><li>Never thaw them before cooking. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat the water first, then add the vegetables. </li></ul><ul><li>If you use them for cold food items, cook them thoroughly beforehand. </li></ul><ul><li>The best way to heat them is in the microwave (less vitamin loss). </li></ul>
  24. 24. Vitamin loss <ul><li>Whenever possible, wash vegetables whole and before peeling under running water. </li></ul><ul><li>Peel thinly or cook with skin on. </li></ul><ul><li>Cut into large pieces. </li></ul><ul><li>Raw vegetables and fruit salads add a little lemon juice or vinegar to slow down vitamin C loss. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the smallest amount of water necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Cook with the lid on. </li></ul><ul><li>Cook until just tender, not mushy. </li></ul><ul><li>Serve immediately. Keeping food warm causes a vitamin C loss of 4 – 17% every hour. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Homework <ul><li>Choose a recipe which using a dry method of cooking: roast, sauté, grill, bake or fry. </li></ul><ul><li>Write out the method with ingredients list and an equipment list and say which method of cooking you will be using. I want this handed in!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Bring in the ingredients on Monday 16 th May to make. </li></ul><ul><li>Recipe must be able to make within an hour ! </li></ul><ul><li>Keep it simple…cake, brownies, stir fry, bread, pizza. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Aim of today’s lesson: <ul><li>To produce a food product using a dry method of cooking. </li></ul><ul><li>Use your time wisely, I want to check drawers and cupboards by 11.25am at the latest. </li></ul><ul><li>No ingredients: </li></ul><ul><li>Complete analysing a food product worksheet </li></ul><ul><li>Complete the packaging crossword </li></ul><ul><li>Complete the packaging exam worksheet </li></ul><ul><li>Complete the preservative and food spoilage worksheet </li></ul>