Waves1/12/1999   Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr   1
When the wind blows across the      water, it changes the waters   surface, first into ripples and then     into waves. St...
• waves and environment Waves have a major  influence on the marine environment and ultimately  on the planets climate.• w...
• waves and wind The wind blows over the water, changing  its surface into ripples and waves. As waves grow in height,  th...
•   Waves in the environment•   Wave motion•   Waves and wind•   Waves entering shallow water•   Wave groups•   Wave refle...
Waves in the environment• Waves in the environment  Without waves, the world would be a different place. Waves  cannot exi...
Waves motion•1/12/1999     Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr   7
Waves and wind1/12/1999      Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr   8
Waves entering shallow enter1/12/1999   Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr   9
Wave groups1/12/1999      Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr   10
Waves reflection1/12/1999        Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr   11
Surf breaker are classified in 3                   types• Spilling breaker• Plunging breaker• Surging breaker1/12/1999    ...
Spilling breakersSpilling breakers are a familiar sight onmost beaches. They arise from longwaves breaking on gently slopi...
Plunging breakersPlunging breakers can occur on steeply sloping beaches.There is only one row of breakers. 1/12/1999      ...
Plunging breakersSurging breakers surge over steeply sloping (butnot vertical) beaches or rocks. Waves break one ata time....
Parts of a Wave•   Picture of a Wave•   Crest and Trough•   Amplitude•   Wavelength•   Frequency1/12/1999         Author: ...
Pictures of a wave•   In the above diagram the white line represents the position of the medium    when no wave is present...
Crest and Trough• The section of the wave that rises above the  undisturbed position is called the crest. That  section wh...
Amplitude• The term amplitude can have slightly different meanings  depending upon the context of the situation.• Its most...
Wavelength• The wavelength of a wave is the distance between any  two adjacent corresponding locations on the wave train. ...
• Actually, the a wavelength exists between any  point on a wave and the corresponding point on  the next wave in the wave...
Frequency• Frequency is often not termed as a part of  a wave, but it makes sense to introduce its  meaning in this sectio...
Longitudinal and Transverse Wave Motion            • Longitudinal              Waves1/12/1999         Author: Tomas U. Gan...
Transverse Waves1/12/1999        Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr   24
Water Waves1/12/1999      Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr   25
Rayleigh surface waves1/12/1999          Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr   26
1/12/1999   Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr   27
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Waves

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Waves

  1. 1. Waves1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 1
  2. 2. When the wind blows across the water, it changes the waters surface, first into ripples and then into waves. Storms can make enormous waves, particularly if the wind, blows in the same direction for any length of time. In this chapter, you can learn what waves are and how they behave.1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 2
  3. 3. • waves and environment Waves have a major influence on the marine environment and ultimately on the planets climate.• wave motion Waves travel effortlessly along the waters surface. This is made possible by small movements of the water molecules. This chapter looks at how the motion is brought about and how waves can change speed, frequency and depth.• wave groupsIn the real world, waves are not of an idealised, harmonious shape but irregular. They are composed of several interfering waves of different frequency and speed.1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 3
  4. 4. • waves and wind The wind blows over the water, changing its surface into ripples and waves. As waves grow in height, the wind pushes them along faster and higher. Waves can become unexpectedly strong and destructive.• waves in shallow water As waves enter shallow water, they become taller and slow down, eventually breaking on the shore.• wave groups In the real world, waves are not of an idealised, harmonious shape but irregular. They are composed of several interfering waves of different frequency and speed.• wave reflectionWater waves bounce off denser objects such as sandy or rocky shores. Very long waves such as tsunamis bounce off the continental slope. 1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 4
  5. 5. • Waves in the environment• Wave motion• Waves and wind• Waves entering shallow water• Wave groups• Wave reflection1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 5
  6. 6. Waves in the environment• Waves in the environment Without waves, the world would be a different place. Waves cannot exist by themselves for they are caused by winds. Winds in turn are caused by differences in temperature on the planet, mainly between the hot tropics and the cold poles but also due to temperature fluctuations of continents relative to the sea. Without waves, the winds would have only a very small grip on the water and would not be able to move it as much. The waves allow the wind to transfer its energy to the waters surface and to make it move. At the surface, waves promote the exchange of gases: carbon dioxide into the oceans and oxygen out. Currents and eddies mix the layers of water which would otherwise become stagnant and less conducive to life. Nutrients are thus circulated and re-used.1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 6
  7. 7. Waves motion•1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 7
  8. 8. Waves and wind1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 8
  9. 9. Waves entering shallow enter1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 9
  10. 10. Wave groups1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 10
  11. 11. Waves reflection1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 11
  12. 12. Surf breaker are classified in 3 types• Spilling breaker• Plunging breaker• Surging breaker1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12
  13. 13. Spilling breakersSpilling breakers are a familiar sight onmost beaches. They arise from longwaves breaking on gently slopingbeaches. There are several rows ofbreakers. 1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 13
  14. 14. Plunging breakersPlunging breakers can occur on steeply sloping beaches.There is only one row of breakers. 1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 14
  15. 15. Plunging breakersSurging breakers surge over steeply sloping (butnot vertical) beaches or rocks. Waves break one ata time.1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 15
  16. 16. Parts of a Wave• Picture of a Wave• Crest and Trough• Amplitude• Wavelength• Frequency1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 16
  17. 17. Pictures of a wave• In the above diagram the white line represents the position of the medium when no wave is present. This medium could be imagined as a rope fixed at one end a few feet above the ground and held by you at the other end.• The yellow line represents the position of the medium as a wave travels through it. We simply say that the yellow line is the wave. If we consider the rope mentioned before, this wave could be created by vertically shaking the end of the rope.• Often, when several waves are traveling along a medium as shown above, the continuous group of waves is called a wave train.1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 17
  18. 18. Crest and Trough• The section of the wave that rises above the undisturbed position is called the crest. That section which lies below the undisturbed position is called the trough. These sections are labeled in the following diagram:1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 18
  19. 19. Amplitude• The term amplitude can have slightly different meanings depending upon the context of the situation.• Its most general definition is that the amplitude is the maximum positive displacement from the undisturbed position of the medium to the top of a crest.1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 19
  20. 20. Wavelength• The wavelength of a wave is the distance between any two adjacent corresponding locations on the wave train. This distance is usually measured in one of three ways: crest to next crest, trough to next trough, or from the start of a wave cycle to the next starting point. 1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 20
  21. 21. • Actually, the a wavelength exists between any point on a wave and the corresponding point on the next wave in the wave train. A few of such distances are shown.1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 21
  22. 22. Frequency• Frequency is often not termed as a part of a wave, but it makes sense to introduce its meaning in this section.• Frequency refers to how many waves are made per time interval. This is usually described as how many waves are made per second, or as cycles per second.1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 22
  23. 23. Longitudinal and Transverse Wave Motion • Longitudinal Waves1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 23
  24. 24. Transverse Waves1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 24
  25. 25. Water Waves1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 25
  26. 26. Rayleigh surface waves1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 26
  27. 27. 1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 27

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