Cont. Chapter 5    09 / 05 / 2010
4 Ethical Theories•   Utilitarianism•   Duty Ethics•   Rights Ethics•   Virtue Ethics                                2
Utilitarianism•  Individual actions should be judged on  whether the most good was produced  in a given situation.• Rules ...
Duty ethics• Immanuel Kant (1724 – 1804)• Duty ethics – ethical acts are the  result of proper performance of  one’s dutie...
Rights ethics• John Locke (1632 – 1704)• People have fundamental rights that  other people have a duty to respect.• Humans...
Ethics• Professional Ethics  – Medical  – Legal  – Accounting  – Engineering  – Computer  – …and others  Q: What are the s...
Engineering is a profession• Work that requires sophisticated skills, the use  of judgment, and the exercise of discretion...
Code of Ethics• Provides a framework for ethical  judgment.• Expresses commitment to ethical  conduct.• Defines the roles ...
Order of an EngineerI am an Engineer, in my profession I take deep pride. To itI owe solemn obligations.Since the Stone Ag...
Order of an Engineer – continuedAs an Engineer, I pledge to practice integrity and fairdealing, tolerance and respect, and...
In April 1975, the ASCE Board of Direction adoptedthe fundamental principles of the Code of Ethics ofEngineers as accepted...
NSPE Code of Ethics for EngineersPreamble Engineering is an important and learned profession. As members of this professio...
Fundamental Canons1. Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health andwelfare of the public and shall strive to comply...
5. Engineers shall build their professional reputation on themerit of their services and shall not compete unfairly withot...
Guidelines to Practice Under the Fundamental Canonsof EthicsCANON 1.Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health andw...
c. Engineers whose professional judgment is overruled undercircumstances where the safety, health and welfare of the publi...
CANON 2. Engineers shall perform services only in areas of their competence.a. Engineers shall undertake to perform engine...
CANON 3.    Engineers shall issue public statements only in an    objective and truthful manner.a. Engineers should endeav...
d. Engineers shall issue no statements, criticisms, or arguments onengineering matters which are inspired or paid for by i...
b. Engineers shall not accept compensation from more than one party forservices on the same project, or for services perta...
f. Engineers shall not use confidential information coming to themin the course of their assignments as a means of making ...
a. Engineers shall not give, solicit or receive either directly orindirectly, any political contribution, gratuity, or unl...
e. Engineers shall give proper credit for engineering work to those towhom credit is due, and shall recognize the propriet...
o Brochures which factually describe experience,facilities, personnel and capacity to render service,providing they are no...
o Permission by engineers for their names to be used incommercial advertisements, such as may be published by contractors,...
a. Engineers shall not knowingly engage in business orprofessional practices of a fraudulent, dishonest or unethicalnature...
e. Engineers should strive for transparency in the procurement andexecution of projects. Transparency includes disclosure ...
a. Engineers should keep current in their specialty fields byengaging in professional practice, participating in continuin...
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Project Organization and Ethics

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Project Organization and Ethics

  1. 1. Cont. Chapter 5 09 / 05 / 2010
  2. 2. 4 Ethical Theories• Utilitarianism• Duty Ethics• Rights Ethics• Virtue Ethics 2
  3. 3. Utilitarianism• Individual actions should be judged on whether the most good was produced in a given situation.• Rules should be broken if doing so will lead to the most good. 3
  4. 4. Duty ethics• Immanuel Kant (1724 – 1804)• Duty ethics – ethical acts are the result of proper performance of one’s duties.• Be honest, be fair, don’t cause suffering. 4
  5. 5. Rights ethics• John Locke (1632 – 1704)• People have fundamental rights that other people have a duty to respect.• Humans have a right to – – Life – Liberty – Property 5
  6. 6. Ethics• Professional Ethics – Medical – Legal – Accounting – Engineering – Computer – …and others Q: What are the special responsibilities of these professionals? 6
  7. 7. Engineering is a profession• Work that requires sophisticated skills, the use of judgment, and the exercise of discretion.• Membership requires extensive formal education.• Special societies or organizations – Set standards for admissions to the profession. – Set standards of conduct for its members. – Enforces the standards.• The practice results in significant public good. 7
  8. 8. Code of Ethics• Provides a framework for ethical judgment.• Expresses commitment to ethical conduct.• Defines the roles and responsibilities of professionals. 8
  9. 9. Order of an EngineerI am an Engineer, in my profession I take deep pride. To itI owe solemn obligations.Since the Stone Age, human progress has been spurredby the engineering genius. Engineers have made usableNature’s vast resources of material and energy forHumanitys [Mankind’s] benefit. Engineers have vitalizedand turned to practical use the principles of science andthe means of technology. Were it not for this heritage ofaccumulated experience, my efforts would be feeble. 9
  10. 10. Order of an Engineer – continuedAs an Engineer, I pledge to practice integrity and fairdealing, tolerance and respect, and to uphold devotionto the standards and the dignity of my profession,conscious always that my skill carries with it theobligation to serve humanity by making the best use ofEarth’s precious wealth.As an Engineer, I shall participate in none but honestenterprises. When needed, my skill and knowledgeshall be given without reservation for the public good.In the performance of duty and in fidelity to myprofession, I shall give the utmost. 10
  11. 11. In April 1975, the ASCE Board of Direction adoptedthe fundamental principles of the Code of Ethics ofEngineers as accepted by the Accreditation Boardfor Engineering and Technology, Inc. (ABET).1.using their knowledge and skill for the enhancementof human welfare and the environment;2. being honest and impartial and serving with fidelitythe public, their employers and clients;3. striving to increase the competence and prestige ofthe engineering profession; and4. supporting the professional and technical societies oftheir disciplines 11
  12. 12. NSPE Code of Ethics for EngineersPreamble Engineering is an important and learned profession. As members of this profession, engineers are expected to exhibit the highest standards of honesty and integrity. Engineering has a direct and vital impact on the quality of life for all people. Accordingly, the services provided by engineers require honesty, impartiality, fairness, and equity, and must be dedicated to the protection of the public health, safety, and welfare. Engineers must perform under a standard of professional behavior that requires adherence to the highest principles of ethical conduct. 12
  13. 13. Fundamental Canons1. Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health andwelfare of the public and shall strive to comply with theprinciples of sustainable Development in the performance oftheir professional duties.2. Engineers shall perform services only in areas of theircompetence.3. Engineers shall issue public statements only in an objectiveand truthful manner.4. Engineers shall act in professional matters for each employeror client as faithful agents or trustees, and shall avoid conflictsof interest. 13
  14. 14. 5. Engineers shall build their professional reputation on themerit of their services and shall not compete unfairly withothers.6. Engineers shall act in such a manner as to uphold andenhance the honor, integrity, and dignity of the engineeringprofession and shall act with zero-tolerance for bribery,fraud, and corruption.7. Engineers shall continue their professional developmentthroughout their careers, and shall provide opportunities forthe professional development of those engineers undertheir supervision. 14
  15. 15. Guidelines to Practice Under the Fundamental Canonsof EthicsCANON 1.Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health andwelfare of the public and shall strive to comply with theprinciples of sustainable development in the performanceof their professional duties.a. Engineers shall recognize that the lives, safety, health and welfareof the general public are dependent upon engineering judgements,decisions and practices incorporated into structures, machines,products, processes and devices.b. Engineers shall approve or seal only those design documents,reviewed or prepared by them, which are determined to be safe forpublic health and welfare in conformity with accepted engineeringstandards. 15
  16. 16. c. Engineers whose professional judgment is overruled undercircumstances where the safety, health and welfare of the public areendangered, or the principles of sustainable development ignored,shall inform their clients or employers of the possible consequences.d. Engineers who have knowledge or reason to believe that anotherperson or firm may be in violation of any of the provisions of Canon 1shall present such information to the proper authority in writing andshall cooperate with the proper authority in furnishing such furtherinformation or assistance as may be required.e. Engineers should seek opportunities to be of constructive service incivic affairs and work for the advancement of the safety, health andwell-being of their communities, and the protection of the environmentthrough the practice of sustainable development.f. Engineers should be committed to improving the environment byadherence to the principles of sustainable development so as toenhance the quality of life of the general public 16
  17. 17. CANON 2. Engineers shall perform services only in areas of their competence.a. Engineers shall undertake to perform engineering assignments onlywhen qualified by education or experience in the technical field ofengineering involved.b. Engineers may accept an assignment requiring education orexperience outside of their own fields of competence, provided theirservices are restricted to those phases of the project in which they arequalified. All other phases of such project shall be performed by qualifiedassociates, consultants, or employees.c. Engineers shall not affix their signatures or seals to any engineeringplan or document dealing with subject matter in which they lackcompetence by virtue of education or experience or to any such planor document not reviewed or prepared under their supervisory control 17
  18. 18. CANON 3. Engineers shall issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner.a. Engineers should endeavor to extend the public knowledge ofengineering and sustainable development, and shall not participate inthe dissemination of untrue, unfair or exaggerated statementsregarding engineering.b. Engineers shall be objective and truthful in professional reports,statements, or testimony. They shall include all relevant and pertinentinformation in such reports, statements, or testimony.c. Engineers, when serving as expert witnesses, shall express anengineering opinion only when it is founded upon adequate knowledgeof the facts, upon a background of technical competence, and uponhonest conviction. 18
  19. 19. d. Engineers shall issue no statements, criticisms, or arguments onengineering matters which are inspired or paid for by interested parties,unless they indicate on whose behalf the statements are made.e. Engineers shall be dignified and modest in explaining their work andmerit, and will avoid any act tending to promote their own interests atthe expense of the integrity, honor and dignity of the profession.CANON 4.Engineers shall act in professional matters for eachemployer or client as faithful agents or trustees, and shallavoid conflicts of interest.a. Engineers shall avoid all known or potential conflicts of interest withtheir employers or clients and shall promptly inform their employers orclients of any business association, interests, or circumstances whichcould influence their judgment or the quality of their services. 19
  20. 20. b. Engineers shall not accept compensation from more than one party forservices on the same project, or for services pertaining to the sameproject, unless the circumstances are fully disclosed to and agreed to,by all interested parties.c. Engineers shall not solicit or accept gratuities, directly or indirectly,from contractors, their agents, or other parties dealing with their clientsor employers in connection with work for which they are responsible.d. Engineers in public service as members, advisors, or employees ofa governmental body or department shall not participate inconsiderations or actions with respect to services solicited or providedby them or their organization in private or public engineering practice.e. Engineers shall advise their employers or clients when, as a resultof their studies, they believe a project will not be successful. 20
  21. 21. f. Engineers shall not use confidential information coming to themin the course of their assignments as a means of making personalprofit if such action is adverse to the interests of their clients,employers or the public.g. Engineers shall not accept professional employment outside oftheir regular work or interest without the knowledge of theiremployers.CANON 5.Engineers shall build their professional reputation onthe merit of their services and shall not competeunfairly with others. 21
  22. 22. a. Engineers shall not give, solicit or receive either directly orindirectly, any political contribution, gratuity, or unlawfulconsideration in order to secure work, exclusive of securing salariedpositions through employment agencies.b. Engineers should negotiate contracts for professional servicesfairly and on the basis of demonstrated competence andqualifications for the type of professional service required.c. Engineers may request, propose or accept professionalcommissions on a contingent basis only under circumstances inwhich their professional judgments would not be compromised.d. Engineers shall not falsify or permit misrepresentation of theiracademic or professional qualifications or experience.. 22
  23. 23. e. Engineers shall give proper credit for engineering work to those towhom credit is due, and shall recognize the proprietary interests ofothers. Whenever possible, they shall name the person or personswho may be responsible for designs, inventions, writings or otherAccomplishmentsf. Engineers may advertise professional services in a way that doesnot contain misleading language or is in any other mannerderogatory to the dignity of the profession. Examples of permissibleadvertising are as follows: o Professional cards in recognized, dignified publications, and listings in rosters or directories published by responsible organizations, provided that the cards or listings are consistent in size and content and are in a section of the publication regularly devoted to such professional cards. 23
  24. 24. o Brochures which factually describe experience,facilities, personnel and capacity to render service,providing they are not misleading with respect to theengineers participation in projects described.o Display advertising in recognized dignified business andprofessional publications, providing it is factual and is notmisleading with respect to the engineers extent ofparticipation in projects described.o A statement of the engineers names or the name of thefirm and statement of the type of service posted onprojects for which they render services.o Preparation or authorization of descriptive articles forthe lay or technical press, which are factual and dignified.Such articles shall not imply anything more than directparticipation in the project described. 24
  25. 25. o Permission by engineers for their names to be used incommercial advertisements, such as may be published by contractors,material suppliers, etc., only by means of a modest, dignified notationacknowledging the engineers participation in the project described. Suchpermission shall not include public endorsement of proprietary products.g. Engineers shall not maliciously or falsely, directly or indirectly,injure the professional reputation, prospects, practice or employmentof another engineer or indiscriminately criticize anothers work.h. Engineers shall not use equipment, supplies, laboratory or officefacilities of their employers to carry on outside private practicewithout the consent of their employers.CANON 6.Engineers shall act in such a manner as to uphold andenhance the honor, integrity, and dignity of theengineering profession and shall act with zero tolerancefor bribery, fraud, and corruption. 25
  26. 26. a. Engineers shall not knowingly engage in business orprofessional practices of a fraudulent, dishonest or unethicalnature.b. Engineers shall be scrupulously honest in their control andspending of monies, and promote effective use of resourcesthrough open, honest and impartial service with fidelity to thepublic, employers, associates and clients.c. Engineers shall act with zero-tolerance for bribery, fraud, andcorruption in all engineering or construction activities in which theyare engaged.d. Engineers should be especially vigilant to maintain appropriateethical behavior where payments of gratuities or bribes areinstitutionalized practices. 26
  27. 27. e. Engineers should strive for transparency in the procurement andexecution of projects. Transparency includes disclosure of names,addresses, purposes, and fees or commissions paid for all agentsfacilitating projects.f. Engineers should encourage the use of certifications specifyingzero tolerance for bribery, fraud, and corruption in all contracts.CANON 7.Engineers shall continue their professional developmentthroughout their careers, and shall provide opportunitiesfor the professional development of those engineers undertheir supervision. 27
  28. 28. a. Engineers should keep current in their specialty fields byengaging in professional practice, participating in continuingeducation courses, reading in the technical literature, andattending professional meetings and seminars.b. Engineers should encourage their engineering employees tobecome registered at the earliest possible date.c. Engineers should encourage engineering employees to attendand present papers at professional and technical societymeetings.d. Engineers shall uphold the principle of mutually satisfyingrelationships between employers and employees with respect toterms of employment including professional grade descriptions,salary ranges, and fringe benefits. 28

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