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  1. 1. 1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 1
  2. 2. Masonry The term masonry refers to a construction material formed by combining masonry units such as stone and brick with a binding material called mortar. Masonry is used to build masonry wall, which is a vertical structure , thin in proportion to its length and height, that serves to enclose or divide a space and/or support other elements. Masonry is one of the oldest materials of construction; examples can be found in all parts of the world such as the pyramids of Egypt, the Great Wall of China, several Roman and Greek ruins, the arches and vaults of Syria, and the great cathedrals of Europe.1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 2
  3. 3. Masonry Walls can be divided into two typesbased on their location:  Exterior type Load Bearing Wall - are those exposed to the exterior environment on at least one side  Interior type Non-load Bearing Wall - as in a wall that divides two adjacent rooms, have both sides exposed to the interior or environment.1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 3
  4. 4. Based on structural requirements, walls can be divided into two types:Load bearing - are also called structural walls, are those designed to carry loads from other members.Non Load bearing - carry the self weight only. For example, a partition wall that does not support floor or roof loads is a non-load bearing interior wall. Based on the method of construction, walls can be divided into two types: Solid Wall - are masonry walls (stone ,brick or block) Framed Wall - refer to timber or metal wall.1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 4
  5. 5. Each of the above two types of walls (solid and hollow, and framed ) has different characteristics, that satisfy the functional requirements of the wall. One type may have good resistance to fire but may possess poor insulating properties against heat (transfer of heat). One may have poor resistance to rain penetration but good insulation against heat transfer.1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 5
  6. 6. Modular PlanningConcrete masonry walls should be laid out to make maximum use of full- and half-length units, thus minimizing cutting and fitting of units on the job. Length andheight of walls, width and height of openings, and wall areas between doors,windows, and corners should be planned to use full-size and half-size units, whichare usually available . This procedure assumes that window frames and doorframesare of modular dimensions that fit modular full- and half-size units. Then, allhorizontal dimensions should be in multiples of nominal full-length masonry units,and both horizontal and vertical dimensions should be designed to be in multiplesof 8 in. When units 8 by 4 by 16 are used, the horizontal dimension should beplanned in multiples of 8 in. (half-length units), and the vertical dimensions, inmultiples of 4 in. If the thickness of the wall is greater or less than the length of ahalf unit, a special length unit is required at each corner in each course.STRUCTURAL CLAY TILE MASONRYHollow masonry units made of burned clay or shale are called, variously, structuraltiles, 1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 6
  7. 7. 1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 7
  8. 8. MASONRY UNITS Masonry walls are built using various types of masonry units, solid or hollow, and mortar. A masonry unit is brick, tile, stone, glass block, or concrete block, conforming to certain product standards of ASTM. A hollow masonry unit - is a masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area m every plane, parallel to the bearing surface is less than 75% of the gross cross-sectional area in the same plane. A solid masonry unit - is a masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in every plane parallel to the bearing surface is 75% or more of the gross cross-sectional area in the same plane. Generally, a clay unit is a solid masonry unit and a concrete unit is a hollow masonry unit.1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 8
  9. 9. CLAY BRICKS AND STRUCTURAL CLAY TILES A clay brick - is a small solid block, usually rectangular, of burned clay. Note that a solid block of concrete and sand-time (calcium-silicate) is also called a brick. Structural clay tile - is a hollow clay unit, larger than the brick, and developed for use where light weight masonry, as in filter panels and partition walls, is required.1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 9
  10. 10. MANUFACTURE OF BRICKSClays for brick making differ widely in composition from place to place,even in the same field, clay deposits from one part or depth may differsignificantly from those from another part or depth. Clays are composedmainly of silica (grains of sand) and alumna.Alumna is the soft plastic part of the clay, which readily absorb water.Makes the clay plastic, and melts when burned. Present in all clays inaddition to these two compounds are lime, manganese, sulfur, andphosphates.The proportion between these compounds varies from place to place.Iron is useful in improving the hardness and strength of bricks. Limepresent in clays will decompose during burning and promote shrinkageand disintegration when left in bricks.1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 10
  11. 11. Types of ClaySurface clays- are found near the surface of the earth. They areunconsolidated and un-stratified material. They have high oxide content,about 10 to 25%.Shales- it is also clay in its natural state, but as a result of heavycompression due to heavy soil above is quite firm and had compressedflaking characteristics. Most shales are not soluble in water except inground, becoming plastic with the addition of water. They are costlier toremove from ground and contain large amount of fluxes.Fire clays- it is a material that occurs at greater depths than either surfaceclays or shale. It has more uniform physical characteristics and chemicalcomposition, and is able to withstand high temperatures. Fire clays containless oxide (2 to 10%) which raises their softening point much higher thanthat of surface clays or shales. This gives refractory qualities for bricksmanufactured with fire clays and ability to withstand higher temperatures.1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 11
  12. 12. Three methods of manufacturing: Brick and TilesThe Stiff-mud process - also called the wire-cut process, clay containinga minimum amount of water, generally 12 to15% by weight, is forcedthrough a die. The die molds the mass into desired shapes and sizes forbricks, tiles, and other products. The continued band of clay that is forcedout is later cut into bricks by a wire frame.The Soft-mud Process - is well suited to clays containing too much waterin their natural state, ground clay is hydraulically pressed in steel molds.The Dry Press Process - is suited for clay processing low plasticity,consist of dropping the moist clay (mixed with about 7 to 10% water) intodry press forming machines, where the bricks are molded under lowoperating pressures.1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12
  13. 13. Grades and Types Of BricksBricks may be classified into different types, according to their uses suchas building brick (also called as common brick). Facing Brick, Floor Brick,and Paving Brick. Building Brick is a brick for construction, not producedespecially for appearance (texture and color), and used as a structuralmaterial where strength and durability are the most important requirements.Facing Brick – The term face brick originates from the fact that the brickis used in the front or face side of a wall. The material used and theburning of the brick must meet controlled specifications if the brick are tobe used as face brick. All face brick must meet standards for absorption,uniformity, and strength. The color and texture must meet thespecifications established for the variety of brick being made.Floor Brick – is a smooth, dense brick, highly resistant to abrasion,used on finished floor surfaces.Paving Brick – is a low abrasion, generally furnished with spacing lugsand produced in smooth or wire cut surface finishes. They are used forroads, sidewalk, patios, driveways, and interior floors.1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 13
  14. 14. Building bricks are manufactured in three grades (durability Grades)•Grade SW – Highest min. compressive strength requirements and lowestmaximum water absorption.•Grade MW– Moderate compressive strength requirement•Grade NW– Has the lowest min. compressive strength requirement andno limit on the water absorption.Grading is based on physical requirements (Minimum compressivestrength, maximum water absorption, and maximum saturation coefficient)and is directly related to durability and resistance to weathering.1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 14
  15. 15. Sizes of Bricks Like concrete blocks, bricks and tiles are designated by their nominal dimensions. The most widely used specification for building brick is ASTM C62. Building brick: available standard sizes and shapes1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 15
  16. 16. Properties Of BricksThe physical properties of clay bricks and structural clay tiles are:•Color – Depends on the composition of raw materials for presence ofmetallic oxide and the degree of burning•Texture – Surface appearance ranges from flat to smooth and irregular.•Size – Varies, depends on what is needed•Density – Depends on the specific gravity of the green clay, the methodof manufacture, and the degree of burning. The Specific Gravity of claysand shales ranges from 2.6 to 2.8. The density of the burned materialexceeds100pcf (1600 kg/m³), averaging125pcf (2000 kg/m³)1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 16
  17. 17. The engineering or mechanical properties are: Compressive Strength Modulus of Rupture Modulus of Elasticity Tensile Strength Absorption Thermal Conductivity Fire Resistance1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 17
  18. 18. ABSORPTION Water absorption greatly affects the durability of bricks,measured by it’s resistance to frost action. Very soft underburned bricks may absorb less than 10% of water.The smaller the amount of absorption, the greater is itsdurability.1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 18
  19. 19. Weight of water absorbed After 2 hrs in cold water Absorption = ___________________________ X 100 Dry weight of unit Absorption after 2 hrs in cold water Sat. coefficient = ______________________________ X 100 Total absorption after boiling for 5 hrs W2 - W1 = _____________ X 100 W3 - W1 Where W 1 is the dry weight of unit. W 2 the saturated weight of unit after 24 hrs of submersion in water, and W 3 the saturated weight of unit after 5 hrs submersion in boiling water.1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 19
  20. 20. (Weight of brick after 1 min. in ¼ in. water – dry weight of unit) Initial rate of absorption = ___________________________ X 30 Length of unit x width of unit W2 - W1 X 30 = _______________________ LxB Where W 1 is the dry weight of unit. W 2 the weight of unit after partial submersion for 1 min, L the length of unit, and B the width of unit.1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 20
  21. 21. STRENGTH – The compressive strength of clay units depends on: • Composition of the Clay • Method of Manufacturing • Degree of Burning Failure Load Comp. strength = ____________________ Net cross sectional area 1.5 Pl MOR = _______ 2 Bt Where P is the failure load. l the span of length, and t the unit height1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 21
  22. 22. Concrete Masonry Units – also called cinder blocks, hollow blocks, andconcrete blocks, are masonry units, solid or hollow, made from concrete.There are 2 types of masonry units:•Concrete Building Bricks – is a solid masonry unit made from Portlandcement, water, and suitable lightweight or normal-weight aggregates withor without the inclusion of other materials.•Load-bearing concrete Masonry Units– is a solid or hollow masonryunits made from cement, water, and mineral aggregates with or withoutthe inclusion of other materials.1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 22
  23. 23. Both types of units—load-bearing concrete masonry unit andconcrete building brick—are manufactured in 3 weightclassifications:•Normal weight units - are those weighing over 125pcf(2000 kg/m³)•Medium weight units - those in the weight range of 105and 125pcf (1680 to 2000 kg/m³)•Lightweight units - have weights between 85 and 105pcf(1360 and 1680 kg/m³)1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 23
  24. 24. Types and Grades Of Concrete Masonry UnitsLoad-bearing concrete masonry units are manufactured in 2types:•Type I: moisture-controlled units – based on the moisturecontent in the units as delivered to job site. This means thatthese units should be protected from rain or other moisture atthe job site before they are placed in the wall.•Type II: non-moisture-controlled units – are manufacturedwithout special consideration given to controlling moisturecontent are used extensively in construction. These unitsshould not be so moist as to cause excessive shrinkagecracks.1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 24
  25. 25. Concrete building bricks are manufactured in 2 grades and 2types based on strength and absorption requirements:•Grade N (types I & II) – is suitable as architectural veneer orfacing unit in exterior walls and for use where high strengthand resistance to moisture penetration and severe frost actionare required. The average maximum compressive strength ofgrade N bricks, when tested flat wise, should be equal to orhigher than 3500 psi (24.1 Mpa).•Grade S (types I & II) – are for general use where moderatestrength and resistance to frost action and moisturepenetration are required. Their average maximumcompressive strength should be at least 2500 psi (17.3 Mpa.)1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 25
  26. 26. water absorption in a unit = saturated weight – oven dry-weight Gross area = actual width x actual length The net area can be calculated as: Net area = gross area x percentage of solid % of solid = net vol. / gross vol. x 1001/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 26
  27. 27. Types Of concrete Blocks and Bricks1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 27
  28. 28. 1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 28
  29. 29. Notes: Dimensions are actual block sizes a 7 5/8” x 7 5/8” x 15 5/8” block is an 8” x 8” x 16” nominal-size block.1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 29
  30. 30. Concrete blocks come in several different types.Stretcher - A stretcher block is the most commonly used block inconstruction. It is laid with its length parallel to the face of the wall.Corner - A corner block is used for corners at simple window and dooropenings.Double Corner or Pier - A double-corner or pier block is used forconstructing piers pilasters or for any other purpose where both ends ofthe block would be visible.Bull Nose - A bull-nose block serves the same purpose as a corner block,but it is used where round corners are desired.Jamb - A wood-sash jamb block is used with a stretcher and a cornerblock around elaborate window openings. The recess in the block allowsroom for the various casing members, as in a double hung window.1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 30
  31. 31. The most common concrete block is the hollow, load-bearing stretcher block, which is 8 by 8 by 16 inches nominal size, but 7 5/8 by 7 5/8 by 15 5/8 inches actual size. The heavyweight load-bearing stretcher block weighs from 40 to 50 pounds. the cores taper toward the top of the block, providing a wider face shell. Always lay this block with the wider face up to allow for a greater area on which to lay a bed of Hollow load-bearing stretcher block1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 31
  32. 32. Nominal height of concrete-block walls1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 32
  33. 33. Nominal length of concrete-block walls1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 33
  34. 34. 1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 34
  35. 35. Mortar, Grout, and PlasterMortar – is a mixture of cement, lime, sand and water. Whenmortar is made with lime, sand, and water it is called limemortar. With the addition of cement to lime mortar, it becomescement-lime mortar or simply cement mortar. In general,mortar is a term applied to material used for bedding, jointing,and rendering brickwork, stonework, and concrete blockwork.1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 35
  36. 36. Masonry Construction1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 36
  37. 37. FIRST COURSE OF CONCRETE BLOCKSBefore mixing mortar and laying blocks, you should followthese steps:• Locate the corners of the wall.• Use a chalk line to mark the footing for aligning the firstcourse of blocks.• Check the wall layout by placing the blocks along the wallwithout mortar. Remember to leave a 3/8-inch gap betweeneach block for the mortar. This will tell you if any cutting isnecessary. 1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 37
  38. 38. Laying out block without mortar1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 38
  39. 39. Spreading the Mortar Bed. Spread a full bed of mortar, and furrow it with a trowel. This will ensure that plenty of mortar is on the bottom of the blocks for the first course. Spreading and furrowing the mortar bed1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 39
  40. 40. Lay the corner block first and carefully position it. Be sure to lay all blocks with the thicker side of the face shell up to provide a larger mortar bedding area. Positioning the corner block1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 40
  41. 41. Making Vertical Joints. Apply mortar to the ends of the blocks for verticaljoints. You can save time by placing several blocks on the ends andapplying mortar to the vertical faces in one operation. Then place eachblock over its final position and push downward into the mortar bed andagainst the previously laid block to obtain a well-filled vertical joint. Applying mortar for vertical joints Positioning the block1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 41
  42. 42. Aligning, Leveling, and Plumbing. Lay the first course of blocks with greatcare to ensure that they are properly aligned, leveled, and plumbed. Thiswill make the next course of blocks and the wall itself straight and true.After you have laid three or four blocks, use the masons level as astraightedge to ensure correct alignment of the blocks. Check the firstcourse of blocks carefully with the level, bringing them to the proper grade.Plumb the blocks by tapping them with the trowel handle 1/12/2001 Author: Tomas and plumbing Leveling U. Ganiron Jr the blocks 42
  43. 43. CONTROL JOINTSControl joints are continuous vertical joints that are built into concrete-blockswalls to control cracking from unusual stress. They are usually spaced at 20 to25 foot intervals in long walls and extend to the top course. A wall shorter than20 feet does not normally require a control joint.Using Full- and Half-length Blocks. Use full- and half-length blocks to form acontinuous vertical joint which will permit slight wall movement without cracking.You should lay control joints up in mortar just like any other joint. A control joint using full- and half-length blocks1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 43
  44. 44. Using Paper and Felt. You can make another type of control joint by inserting building paper or roofing felt in the end core of the block and extending it the full length of the control joint. Cut the paper or felt to convenient lengths. Make sure it is wide enough to extend across the joint to prevent the mortar from bonding on one side of the joint. Control joints using paper or felt1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 44
  45. 45. Caulking.If the control joints are exposed to the weather or to view, you should caulk them.When the mortar in the control joint is stiff, rake it out to a depth of 3/4 inch toprovide a recess for the caulking materials. Use a thin, flat caulking trowel to forcethe caulking compound into the joint. Raking mortar from the joints1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 45
  46. 46. LAYING UP THE CORNERSAfter the first course of blocks are laid, build up the corners of the wallnext, usually four or five courses higher than the first course. As you layup the corners, cut each course back one-half block.Applying Mortar. For the horizontal joints, apply mortar only to the tops ofthe blocks already laid. You may apply mortar for the vertical joints to thevertical end of the block to be laid, to the vertical end of the blockpreviously laid, or to both.Using a Level. As you lay each course at the corner, check it with amasons level for alignment. Make sure that the corner is level and plumb.Check each block carefully, making certain that the faces of the blocks areall on the same plane. This will ensure true and straight walls.1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 46
  47. 47. Aligning, leveling, and plumbing1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 47
  48. 48. Using a Story Pole. Use a story or course pole (a board with markings 8 inches apart) to determine the height of the wall for each course.1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jror Using a story course pole 48
  49. 49. LAYING CONCRETE BLOCKS BETWEEN CORNERS To ensure a good bond, do not spread mortar too far ahead of the actual laying of the block. When mortar is allowed to sit, it will stiffen and lose its plasticity. As each block is laid, cut off excess mortar with your trowel and work it back into the fresh mortar.1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron excess Cutting off Jr mortar 49
  50. 50. Using a Masons Line.As you fill in the wall between the corners, stretch a masons line fromcorner to corner for each course. Lay the top outside edge of eachblock to his line. Tip the block slightly toward you so you can see theedge of the course below, making sure that the lower edge of the blockis directly over the course below.1/12/2001 Laying the top outside Ganiron Jr the block to the line Author: Tomas U. edge of 50
  51. 51. Making Adjustments. You must make all adjustments to the final position of the block while the mortar is flexible. If you try to make adjustments after the mortar has stiffened, it will break the mortar bond and allow water to penetrate. Level and align each block to the masons line by tapping it lightly with the trowel handle. Installing the Closure Block. The last block to be installed in every course is called the closure block. When you install the closure block butter all edges of the opening in the wall and all four vertical edges of the closure block with mortar. Carefully lower the block into place. If any mortar falls out and leaves an opening in the joint, remove the block and repeat the procedures.1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 51
  52. 52. Installing the closure block1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 52
  53. 53. TOOLING THE JOINTS Proper tooling of mortar joints helps produce a weather tight, neat, and durable concrete-block wall. For exterior concrete, the mortar joints you make should be concave or V-joints. Tool the vertical jointer first, followed by the horizontal joints with a longer jointer. Mortar joints1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 53
  54. 54. Jointers.To finish mortar joints, you will use a jointer, also called a finishing tool. Jointers1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 54
  55. 55. Sled Runner. Use a sled-runner jointer to tool horizontal joint Tooling horizontal joints1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 55
  56. 56. S-Shaped. Use the S-shaped jointer to tool vertical joints. This is called striking. Striking vertical jointsBurrs.You can reduce burring by finishing the horizontal mortar joints before you finish thevertical joints. If mortar burrs remain on the wall after you have finished tooling, youshould remove them. This will prevent small amounts of water from being lodged inthe mortar joint. 1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 56
  57. 57. INTERSECTING WALLSDepending on the type of wall, intersecting walls are tied together with tiebars or meal laths.Bearing Walls.Bearing walls or blocks in intersecting load-bearing walls should not beinterlocked in a bond. Instead, terminate one wall at the face of the otherwith a control joint at the point where they intersect.Placing Tie Bars. Tie bearing walls together with a tie bar that has a rightangle bend on each end. Place a metal lath over the core in the outsidewall to support the concrete or mortar for the next course.1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 57
  58. 58. A tie bar and metal lath1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 58
  59. 59. Spacing Tie Bars.Space tie bars no more than 4 feet apart vertically. Fill the core of the block withmortar or concrete and embed the right angle bend of the tie bar in the core. Filling the core with mortar1/12/2001 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 59
  60. 60. Nonbearing Walls.To tie nonbearing walls to other walls, place metal-lath strips across thejoints in alternate courses between the two walls. If one wall is constructedfirst, build the metal laths into the first wall. Later, tie the metal laths into themortar joints of the second wall and construct control joints where the twowalls meet. 1/12/2001 Metal lath spanningAuthor:joint U. Ganiron Jr the Tomas 60 Metal lath built into the first wall