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PLANET MARS
Environmental conditions and human exploration
DR. HAROLD CLENET

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

Earth and Plan...
OUTLINE

•

•

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

Mars exploration
• Why Mars?
• History of exploration
• Few geophysical param...
WHY MARS?

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

3

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
MARS EXPLORATION

Giovanni Domenico Cassini

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

4

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
MARS EXPLORATION

Percival Lowell
(≈1900)

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

5

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
MARS EXPLORATION

H.G. Wells, 1898

France Soir, 8/7/1947

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

6

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
MARS EXPLORATION

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

7

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
MARS EXPLORATION
Viking
(1975)

Mariner
(1965-1971)

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

8

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
MARS EXPLORATION

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

9

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
MARS EXPLORATION

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

10

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
MARS EXPLORATION

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

11

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
FEW GEOPHYSICAL PARAMETERS

Propriété

Valeur martienne

Distance au soleil AU

1.524

Valeur terrestre (Mars % Terre)
1

...
FEW GEOPHYSICAL PARAMETERS

Atmospheric pressure
560 Pa (T=105 Pa)

Temperatures
-133°C / 27°C

No liquid water at surface...
OUTLINE

•

•

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

Mars exploration
• Why Mars?
• History of exploration
• Few geophysical param...
RESOURCES AND CONSTRAINTS FOR HUMAN EXPLORATION

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

15

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
EVIDENCE FOR PAST WATER

THEMIS IR Mosaic in the Warrego Valles area

Valley networks
HIRISE image Small Valley Networks i...
EVIDENCE FOR PAST WATER

Lake deltas and fans

High rate of erosion for the
craters in the southern
hemisphere

Wednesday,...
EVIDENCE FOR PAST WATER

MOLA in the Kasei Valles area

Outflow channels

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

18

Dr Harold Clen...
EVIDENCE FOR PAST WATER

Resurfacing of North planes
and rampart craters

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

19

Dr Harold Clen...
ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

20

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS

Layered deposits on the North polar cap

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

21

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL...
ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS

South Polar Ice Cap: 1.6 x 106 km3, which is equivalent to a global
water layer of approximately ...
ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

23

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

24

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

25

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS

Minerals that need water
to be produced

Local detections: Clays in Nili Fossae region

Large sca...
ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS

Terra Meridiani (Opportunity)

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

Interior Layered Deposits (ILD) in V...
ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS

Sulfates in ILD

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

Sulfate over clays in Colombus crater

28

Dr Haro...
ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS
COMMON HYDRATED MG-SULPHATE MINERALS
• Epsomite (MgSO4.7H2O) = 51% H2O
• Kieserite (MgSO4.H2O) = 1...
ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

30

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

31

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
CLIMATE / RADIATIONS

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

32

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
CLIMATE / RADIATIONS

A=Glacial (permanent ice cap); B=Polar (covered by
frost during the winter which sublimates during t...
CLIMATE / RADIATIONS

Wind speed:
60-90 km/h
But not the same effect as
on Earth!

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

34

Dr Ha...
CLIMATE / RADIATIONS

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

35

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
CLIMATE / RADIATIONS

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

36

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE?

Phoenix

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

37

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE?
Phoenix @northern plains

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

38

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE?

Sojourner

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

39

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE?
Sojourner

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

40

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE?

Opportunity
Spirit

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

41

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE?
Opportunity @Endurance crater

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

42

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE?

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

43

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE?

Curiosity

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

44

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE?

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

45

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE?
Curiosity @Gale crater

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

46

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE?
Curiosity @Gale crater

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

47

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
“BUILDINGS” BLOCKS

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

48

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
“BUILDINGS” BLOCKS
Regolith

Basaltic rocks

Sand

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

Clays

49

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
“BUILDINGS” BLOCKS

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

50

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
“BUILDINGS” BLOCKS
Gravel

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

51

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
“BUILDINGS” BLOCKS
Iron/Nickel meteorites
(Opportunity)

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

52

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
CONSTRAINTS FOR THE BASE SITE
Landing ellipse

50 km

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

53

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
CONSTRAINTS FOR THE BASE SITE

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

54

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
DRIVING

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

55

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
DRIVING

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

56

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
CONSTRAINTS FOR THE BASE SITE

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

57

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
THE END

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

58

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
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UEE12 Habiter Mars EPFL

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Lecture on Mars' geology, course living on Mars, UEE12 EPFL

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UEE12 Habiter Mars EPFL

  1. 1. PLANET MARS Environmental conditions and human exploration DR. HAROLD CLENET Wednesday, February 19, 2014 Earth and Planetary Science Laboratory harold.clenet@epfl.ch Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  2. 2. OUTLINE • • Wednesday, February 19, 2014 Mars exploration • Why Mars? • History of exploration • Few geophysical parameters Resources and constraints for human exploration • Water • Climate / radiation • Building blocks • Constraints for the base site 2 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  3. 3. WHY MARS? Wednesday, February 19, 2014 3 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  4. 4. MARS EXPLORATION Giovanni Domenico Cassini Wednesday, February 19, 2014 4 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  5. 5. MARS EXPLORATION Percival Lowell (≈1900) Wednesday, February 19, 2014 5 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  6. 6. MARS EXPLORATION H.G. Wells, 1898 France Soir, 8/7/1947 Wednesday, February 19, 2014 6 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  7. 7. MARS EXPLORATION Wednesday, February 19, 2014 7 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  8. 8. MARS EXPLORATION Viking (1975) Mariner (1965-1971) Wednesday, February 19, 2014 8 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  9. 9. MARS EXPLORATION Wednesday, February 19, 2014 9 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  10. 10. MARS EXPLORATION Wednesday, February 19, 2014 10 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  11. 11. MARS EXPLORATION Wednesday, February 19, 2014 11 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  12. 12. FEW GEOPHYSICAL PARAMETERS Propriété Valeur martienne Distance au soleil AU 1.524 Valeur terrestre (Mars % Terre) 1 Rayon moyen 3 389,5 km 6 371,0 km (53,2 %) Masse 6,4185×1023 kg 3,711 m/s2 5 027 m/s 1 sol ≈ 1,027 day ≈ 24.6 h 25,19° 6681 sols ≈ 686,971 d 5,9736×1024 kg (10,7 %) 9,780327 m/s2 (37,9 %) 11 186 m/s (44,9 %) 1 d = 24 h (102,75 %) 23,439281° 365d 6h 14m (188,1 %) 492 à 715 W/m2 1 321 à 1 413 W/m2 -63 °C ≈ 210 K 14 °C ≈ 287 K -3 °C ≈ 270 K 58 °C ≈ 331 K -133 °C ≈ 140 K -89 °C ≈ 184 K Gravité de surface à l'équateur Vitesse de libération Durée du jour solaire Inclinaison de l'axe Période orbitale Rayonnement solaire Température moyenne au sol Température la plus élevée Température la plus basse Wednesday, February 19, 2014 12 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  13. 13. FEW GEOPHYSICAL PARAMETERS Atmospheric pressure 560 Pa (T=105 Pa) Temperatures -133°C / 27°C No liquid water at surface conditions Wednesday, February 19, 2014 13 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  14. 14. OUTLINE • • Wednesday, February 19, 2014 Mars exploration • Why Mars? • History of exploration • Few geophysical parameters Resources and constraints for human exploration • Water • Climate / radiation • Building blocks • Constraints for the base site 14 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  15. 15. RESOURCES AND CONSTRAINTS FOR HUMAN EXPLORATION Wednesday, February 19, 2014 15 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  16. 16. EVIDENCE FOR PAST WATER THEMIS IR Mosaic in the Warrego Valles area Valley networks HIRISE image Small Valley Networks in the Ancient Southern Highlands (ESP_012519_1320) Wednesday, February 19, 2014 16 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  17. 17. EVIDENCE FOR PAST WATER Lake deltas and fans High rate of erosion for the craters in the southern hemisphere Wednesday, February 19, 2014 17 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  18. 18. EVIDENCE FOR PAST WATER MOLA in the Kasei Valles area Outflow channels Wednesday, February 19, 2014 18 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  19. 19. EVIDENCE FOR PAST WATER Resurfacing of North planes and rampart craters Wednesday, February 19, 2014 19 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  20. 20. ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS Wednesday, February 19, 2014 20 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  21. 21. ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS Layered deposits on the North polar cap Wednesday, February 19, 2014 21 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  22. 22. ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS South Polar Ice Cap: 1.6 x 106 km3, which is equivalent to a global water layer of approximately 11 meters thick Wednesday, February 19, 2014 22 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  23. 23. ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS Wednesday, February 19, 2014 23 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  24. 24. ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS Wednesday, February 19, 2014 24 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  25. 25. ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS Wednesday, February 19, 2014 25 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  26. 26. ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS Minerals that need water to be produced Local detections: Clays in Nili Fossae region Large scale detections: Clays in Mawrth Vallis Wednesday, February 19, 2014 26 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  27. 27. ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS Terra Meridiani (Opportunity) Wednesday, February 19, 2014 Interior Layered Deposits (ILD) in Valles Marineris (HRSC) 27 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  28. 28. ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS Sulfates in ILD Wednesday, February 19, 2014 Sulfate over clays in Colombus crater 28 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  29. 29. ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS COMMON HYDRATED MG-SULPHATE MINERALS • Epsomite (MgSO4.7H2O) = 51% H2O • Kieserite (MgSO4.H2O) = 14% H2O • Hexahydrite (Mg(SO4) · 6H2O) = 47% H2O • Bloedite (Na2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O) = 37% H2O OTHER COMMON HYDRATED MINERALS • Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) = 14% H2O • Montmorillonite clay (Al,Mg,Fe)8(Si4O10)3(OH)10.12H2O) = 26% H2O Sulfates in ILD Wednesday, February 19, 2014 29 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  30. 30. ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS Wednesday, February 19, 2014 30 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  31. 31. ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS Wednesday, February 19, 2014 31 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  32. 32. CLIMATE / RADIATIONS Wednesday, February 19, 2014 32 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  33. 33. CLIMATE / RADIATIONS A=Glacial (permanent ice cap); B=Polar (covered by frost during the winter which sublimates during the summer); C=North (mild) Transitional (Ca) and C South (extreme) Transitional (Cb); D= Tropical; E= Low albedo tropical; F= Subpolar Lowland (Basins); G=Tropical Lowland (Chasmata); H=Subtropical Highland (Mountain) Wednesday, February 19, 2014 33 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  34. 34. CLIMATE / RADIATIONS Wind speed: 60-90 km/h But not the same effect as on Earth! Wednesday, February 19, 2014 34 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  35. 35. CLIMATE / RADIATIONS Wednesday, February 19, 2014 35 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  36. 36. CLIMATE / RADIATIONS Wednesday, February 19, 2014 36 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  37. 37. HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE? Phoenix Wednesday, February 19, 2014 37 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  38. 38. HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE? Phoenix @northern plains Wednesday, February 19, 2014 38 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  39. 39. HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE? Sojourner Wednesday, February 19, 2014 39 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  40. 40. HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE? Sojourner Wednesday, February 19, 2014 40 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  41. 41. HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE? Opportunity Spirit Wednesday, February 19, 2014 41 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  42. 42. HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE? Opportunity @Endurance crater Wednesday, February 19, 2014 42 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  43. 43. HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE? Wednesday, February 19, 2014 43 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  44. 44. HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE? Curiosity Wednesday, February 19, 2014 44 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  45. 45. HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE? Wednesday, February 19, 2014 45 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  46. 46. HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE? Curiosity @Gale crater Wednesday, February 19, 2014 46 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  47. 47. HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE? Curiosity @Gale crater Wednesday, February 19, 2014 47 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  48. 48. “BUILDINGS” BLOCKS Wednesday, February 19, 2014 48 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  49. 49. “BUILDINGS” BLOCKS Regolith Basaltic rocks Sand Wednesday, February 19, 2014 Clays 49 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  50. 50. “BUILDINGS” BLOCKS Wednesday, February 19, 2014 50 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  51. 51. “BUILDINGS” BLOCKS Gravel Wednesday, February 19, 2014 51 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  52. 52. “BUILDINGS” BLOCKS Iron/Nickel meteorites (Opportunity) Wednesday, February 19, 2014 52 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  53. 53. CONSTRAINTS FOR THE BASE SITE Landing ellipse 50 km Wednesday, February 19, 2014 53 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  54. 54. CONSTRAINTS FOR THE BASE SITE Wednesday, February 19, 2014 54 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  55. 55. DRIVING Wednesday, February 19, 2014 55 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  56. 56. DRIVING Wednesday, February 19, 2014 56 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  57. 57. CONSTRAINTS FOR THE BASE SITE Wednesday, February 19, 2014 57 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  58. 58. THE END Wednesday, February 19, 2014 58 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

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