HANDLING, STORAGE AND PRECAUTIONS
TO BE TAKEN
WHILE USING FUNGICIDES
• Pesticide products are very useful tools in
agricultural production. Used correctly, they
contribute to higher productivity and higher
quality characteristics in crops. By protecting crops
from pests, pesticide products also contribute to
the economical, safe, and nutritious variety of
foods consumers enjoy.
• As well as the benefits of pesticide use, there are
risks to humans, livestock, wildlife, and the
environment. Potential problems can be avoided
by understanding these risks and knowing how to
Some pesticides are classified as Restricted Use pesticides if there
is reason to believe they could harm humans, livestock, wildlife, or
the environment, even when used according to label directions.
To apply these types of pesticides in Pennsylvania, a person is
required to have a pesticide applicator certification or be under
the direct supervision of a certified applicator. All other pesticides
are classified as Unclassified/General Use pesticides, and anyone
can apply them according to label directions.
Hazardous materials are required by law to include a Material
Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) and label. The MSDS gives valuable
information on how to safely handle the chemical. Before using
any farm chemical, you should read the label, understand the
MSDS, do a chemical users course (such as ChemCert), and follow
• aluminium or zinc phosphide – fumigant
• paraquat, diquat
• alkaline and acid cleaning agents
• nutritional supplements – selenium and copper
• livestock vaccines.
Certain pesticides, when they are not stored,
handled, or applied properly, can lead to:
• Human exposure to toxic materials, which may cause
injury, death, or long-term health effects (e.g., cancer,
• Contamination of water, air, soil, and habitat
• Bio-accumulation of some products in body tissues
• Excess residue on food through overuse and/or
improper timing of use on food products
• Pest resistance
• Economic losses due to crop damage or poor pest
• Effect on natural control agents.
Side effects of exposure
Skin rashes and irritation
Diseases of the lungs, liver or kidneys
Nervous system disorders.
1. Pesticide Handling
Pesticide handling is the on-farm transfer, mixing,
and loading of pesticides and pesticide mixture.
These activities pose the greatest risk to human
safety For these reasons, all farmers should
implement best management practices for
When designing or planning a pesticide handling
system, consider the following points:
• Mixing/loading systems are one or a combination of
structures, facilities, equipment used to mix and load
• There are three main types of mixing/loading systems:
• permanent mixing/loading facilities
• mixing/loading at application site
• portable pads and trays.
• Permanent facilities are impermeable concrete pads
designed to contain spills and overflow and/or contaminated
precipitation. When they are properly bermed, they also
divert uncontaminated surface runoff from the
mixing/loading structure. These systems are usually sized to
fit equipment, and storage areas. Liquid that is contained
within the mixing/loading facility is called a sump mixture.
• Permanent handling facilities should be located near storage
areas and should be designed to prevent runoff.
A Sump Mixture
• should contain the tank mix approved product mix
• should not be mixed with other pesticide products
• should be stored in separate containers and labelled
• should be applied to labelled crop or used as part of
the next tank using the same pesticide products.
• Each sump mixture should be collected and stored in a
separate container following the use of that pesticide
(and before a different pesticide is used). This mixture
can then be used to apply to that labelled crop or used
as mix water for the next batch of similar pesticide to
Mixing/Loading at Application Site
• Permanent sites for mixing/loading are the preferred
system for environmental protection. However, due to
practicality or cost, many operators do mixing/loading in
the field or orchard - provided the operation is conducted
no closer than 90 metres (300 ft.) to surface water sources.
• Two acceptable methods are:
• move the mixing/loading area on a regular basis - provided
recommended separation distances are observed
• excavate or berm a shallow area for in-field mixing/loading
and line this area with an impervious liner
• be sure to bring source of water to mixing area and observe
recommended separation distances.
• Permanent mixing/loading facilities should be constructed
with impermeable concrete to contain spills.
Portable Pads and Trays
• There are several commercial products available to help with
mixing/loading at site of spray application.
• Portable pads can be used at temporary sites to contain spills
from overflow provided they are used at least 90 metres (300
ft.) from any surface water. They are fabric liners with berms
around the perimeter. Ensure that purchased portable pads
are recommended for use with agricultural chemicals. After
use, they can be cleaned and stored for reuse.
• Flexible or inflatable synthetic drive-over pads are designed to
catch drips and spills (like an inflatable swimming pool).
• Shallow (15 centimetres [6 in.] curb) rigid plastic or fibreglass
trays have built-in ramps or elevated vehicle tracks. The trays
measure from 2.4 to 3 metres by 4.8 to 6 metres (8-10 x 16-20
2. Pesticide Storage
Suggestions for the safe storage of chemicals include:
• Always follow the manufacturers’ instructions for proper
• Keep chemicals in their original containers and don’t
pour into smaller bottles.
• Don’t remove labels from containers.
• Store chemicals in a locked, well-ventilated shed with floors
that will contain spills.
• Store the filter(s) from masks separately to contaminated
protective equipment when not in use – for example, in a zip-
locked bag or an ice cream container.
• Do not store liquid chemicals above solids.
• Store animal feeds, seeds and fertilisers separately from other
• Keep a record of the chemicals you buy, store and use.
• The safe and proper storage of pesticide is a
component of good management. A correctly designed
and maintained pesticide storage site is essential
• Lock all chemicals in a building or cabinet.
• Protects people and animals from accidental exposure
• Protects the environment from accidental
• Prevents damage to pesticides from temperature
extremes and excess moisture
• Post legible signs on doors and windows to alert
people that pesticides are stored there. The signs
should clearly state, "DANGER PESTICIDES - KEEP OUT."
• The floor of the storage site should be made of
sealed cement, glazed ceramic tile, no-wax sheet
flooring, or another easily cleaned material.
Carpeting, wood, soil and other absorbent floors
are difficult or impossible to decontaminate in
case of a leak or spill. For ease of cleanup,
shelving and pallets should be made of non-
absorbent materials such as plastic or metal. If
wood or fibreboard materials are used, they
should be coated or covered with plastic or a
polyurethane or epoxy paint.
• Typical pesticide labelling storage
• Store at temperatures above 32 degrees Fahrenheit.
• Do not contaminate feed, foodstuffs or drinking water
• Store in original container only.
• Do not store near ignition sources such as electrical sparks,
flames or heated surfaces.
• Flammable. Do not use, pour, spill or store near heat or
open flame. Do not cut or weld container.
Prevent water damage
• Water from burst pipes, spills, overflows, excess rain or
irrigation, or flooding streams can damage pesticide
containers and pesticides. Water or excess moisture can
• Metal containers to rust
• Paper and cardboard containers to split or crumble
• Pesticide labelling to peel, smear, run or otherwise
• Dry pesticides to clump, degrade or dissolve
• Pesticides to move away from the storage site.
• If the storage site is not protected from the weather or
if it tends to be damp, consider placing metal,
cardboard and paper containers in sturdy plastic bags
or cans for protection.
Control the temperature
• The storage site should be indoors, whenever
• Choose a cool, well-ventilated room or building
that is insulated or temperature-controlled to
prevent freezing or overheating.
• The temperature range normally recommended
for liquid pesticides is 40 to 100 degrees
• The pesticide label may provide more specific
temperature information for the product.
• Freezing temperatures can cause glass, metal
and plastic containers to break.
• Excessive heat can cause plastic containers to
melt, glass containers to explode and some
pesticides to volatilize and drift away from the
storage site. Another adverse effect of
temperature extremes is that the potency of the
pesticide can be destroyed
• Provide adequate light:
• The storage site should be well lighted. Pesticide
handlers using the facility must be able to see
well enough to
• Read pesticide container labelling,
SAFE TRANSPORT OF CHEMICALS
Suggestions for the safe transporting of chemicals
• Drums of agricultural chemicals should not be
transported in enclosed cabins with the driver and
• Insecticides should be transported separately. It should
NOT be transported In the same vehicle as items such
as agricultural produce, food, clothing, drugs, that
could become hazardous if contaminated.
• Insecticides should be transported in well sealed and
labeled containers, boxes or bags.
• Vehicles transporting pesticides should carry
prominently displayed warning notices.
• Pesticide containers should be loaded in such a way
that they will not be damaged during transport, their
labels will not be rubbed off
3. Precautions to be taken while using
• Exposure to insecticides may occur when handling
and spraying insecticides. The exposures to
insecticides may occur in following situations:
• When handling the insecticide product during opening of the
package, mixing and preparation of the spray.
• When spraying the insecticide.
• When disposing the insecticide solution and containers
• Before applying pesticide - general instructions
• Know the pest, and how much damage is really
• Use pesticides only when really needed.
• Seek advice on the proper method of control.
• Use only the recommended pesticide for the
problem. If several pesticides are recommended,
choose the least toxic to mammals and if
possible the least persistent.
• Read the label including the small print.
• Make sure the appropriate protective clothing is
available and is used, and that all concerned
with the application also understand the
recommendations, and are fully trained in how
to apply pesticides.
• Commercial operators using large quantities of
organophosphate pesticides should visit their doctor
and have a blood cholinesterase test, and have repeat
checks during the season.
• Check application equipment for leaks, calibrate with
water and ensure it is in proper working order.
• Check that plenty of water is available with soap and
towel and that a change of clean clothing is available.
• Check that pesticides on the farm are in a dry, locked
store. Avoid inhaling pesticide mists or dusts, especially
in confined spaces such as the pesticide store.
• Warn neighbours of your spray programme, especially
if they have apiaries.
• Do not eat, drink or smoke while working.
• Wash hands and face with soap and water after
spraying and before eating, smoking or drinking..
• Nativo 75WG may be applied to Brussels sprouts, cabbage,
broccoli/calabrese and cauliflower as a foliar spray at a
maximum individual dose of 0.36 kg product/ha in a water
volume of 200 to 500 L/ha, using the higher volume in
dense crops. The maximum number of doses allowed per
crops is 2. At least 21 days must be allowed between the
final application and harvest.
• MIXING AND CLEANING: Sprayers should be THOROUGHLY
CLEANED before use and filters and jets checked for damage
• Apply as a MEDIUM quality spray
• Other specific restrictions:
• Do not apply by hand-held equipment
• In addition to the maximum number of treatments per crop a
maximum of 3 applications of Nativo 75WG may be applied in
one calendar year.
• READ THE LABEL BEFORE USE. USING THIS
PRODUCT IN A MANNER THAT IS INCONSISTENT WITH THE
LABEL MAY BE AN OFFENCE. FOLLOW THE CODE OF PRACTICE
FOR USING PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS.
Safe use of chemicals
Suggestions for the safe use of chemicals include:
• Ensure anyone using agricultural chemicals is suitably trained to
use both the chemical and any equipment required for application.
• Use chemical decanting kits to reduce the risk of spills and
splashes while mixing chemicals.
• Only mix the quantity of chemical required for the task at hand.
• Make sure the decanting and mixing area is well ventilated. If this
is not possible, ensure that appropriate personal protective
equipment (PPE) is worn for enclosed environments.
• Follow the manufacturers’ instructions on the label.
• Always wear protective clothing such as chemical-resistant gloves,
face shields or masks, overalls and goggles.
• Avoid exposing non-target animals or plants.
• Triple rinse equipment after chemical application and dispose of
the rinse water (rinsate) appropriately. Rinsate contains low
concentrations of the chemical from the cleaning process.
• Use chemicals only on the plants for which they are
recommended on the label.
• Keep your application equipment in good condition and
operating properly to avoid injury to yourself and possible
damage to plants.
• Cover all bird feeders and baths before applying any
pesticide product in or around your home.
• Guard against drifts of pesticide sprays or dusts by making
the application when there is no wind.
• Keep children and pets away from treated surfaces or plants
until the spray has dried or the dust has settled, or as
indicated on the product label.
• Never eat, drink, or smoke when applying pesticides; in fact,
don’t even carry food or smoking items with you. Wash your
hands before using the restroom facilities.
• Practice good personal hygiene
Care and Laundering of Personal
• Rinse items in a washing machine or by hand.
• Wash in a washing machine using heavy-duty
detergent and hot water for the wash cycle.
• Wash only a few items at a time to allow plenty of
agitation and water for dilution. Use the highest water-
• Rinse twice using two rinse cycles and warm water.
• Use two entire machine cycles to wash items that are
moderately to heavily contaminated.
• Run the washer at least one more entire cycle without
any clothing, using detergent and hot water to clean
While mixing pesticides and during
• Wear appropriate protective clothing. If it is contaminated, remove
and replace with clean clothing.
• Never work alone when handling the most toxic pesticides.
• Never allow children or other unauthorized persons near the
• Recheck the instructions on the label.
• Avoid contamination of the skin, especially the eyes and mouth.
Liquid formulations should be poured carefully to avoid splashing.
Avoid powder formulations 'puffing up' into the face. If
contaminated with the concentrate wash immediately.
• Never eat, drink or smoke when mixing or applying pesticides.
• Always have plenty of water available for washing.
• Always stand upwind when mixing.
• Make sure pesticides are mixed in the correct
• Avoid inhalation of chemical, dust or fumes.
• Start spraying near the downwind edge of the field
and proceed upwind so that operators move into
• Never blow out clogged nozzles hoses with your
• Avoid spraying when crops are in flower. Risk to bees
is reduced if sprays are applied in evening when they
are no longer foraging. Never spray if the wind is
blowing towards grazing livestock or regularly used
• Never leave pesticides unattended in the fields.
• Provide proper supervision of those assisting with the
pesticide application, and have adequate rest periods.
• When blood tests are being conducted, do not work
with pesticides if your cholinesterase level is below
• RETURN unused pesticide to the store.
• Safely dispose of all empty containers. As it may be difficult
to bury empty containers after each day's spraying
operations, they should be kept in the pesticide store until a
convenient number are ready for disposal
• NEVER leave pesticides in application equipment. Clean
equipment and return to store.
• Wash well and put on clean clothing. Where there is a
considerable amount of spraying, the operators should be
provided with a shower room.
• Keep a record of the use of pesticides.
• Do not allow other persons to enter the treated area for the
required period if restrictions apply to the pesticide used.
Disposal of remained pesticides and
• At the end of the day.s work during IRS activities, the inside
of the spray pump
• should be washed and any residual insecticide should be
flushed from the lance and nozzle.
• The rinsing water should be collected and carefully
contained in clearly marked drums with a tightly fitted lid.
• Never pour the remaining insecticide into rivers, pools or
• All empty packaging should be returned to the supervisor for
safe disposal according to national guidelines.
• Never re-use empty insecticide containers.
• It shall be the duty of manufacturers, formulators of
insecticides and operators to
• The used packages shall not be left outside to prevent their
Disposal of Expired Insecticides
• Adequate measures should be undertaken to avoid expiry
of stocks in storehouses.
• First Expiry First Out. principle should be strictly followed
• Information about near expiry stock, should be provided to
Dte. of NVBDCP, Delhi well in time so that the stock can be
re-allocated to other locations.
• The expired stock should be returned to manufacturer for
disposal as per guidelines preferably through incineration
• The chemical efficacy should be tested before disposal of
expired insecticide to find out possibility of usage. The
efficacy and active ingredient percentage of insecticide is
tested and certified by the authorized testing laboratory.
For list of authorized laboratory please refer Central
Insecticide Board, Govt. of India website.
• Exposure to chemicals can lead to a variety of
immediate or long-term health effects including
headache, poisoning, respiratory illness, burns
and birth defects.
• Manufacturers and importers are required to
supply a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) that
explains how to handle the chemical safely.
• Always follow the manufacturers’ instructions on
storage, use and disposal of chemicals.
• Organisations such as WorkSafe Victoria can offer
valuable advice on improving health and safety
on your farm.
Things to remember