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HANDLING, STORAGE AND PRECAUTIONS
TO BE TAKEN
WHILE USING FUNGICIDES
Introduction
• Pesticide products are very useful tools in
agricultural production. Used correctly, they
contribute to hig...
Some pesticides are classified as Restricted Use pesticides if there
is reason to believe they could harm humans, livestoc...
Common agrichemicals
• glyphosate
• aluminium or zinc phosphide – fumigant
• organophosphates
• pyrethroids
• paraquat, di...
Risks
Certain pesticides, when they are not stored,
handled, or applied properly, can lead to:
• Human exposure to toxic m...
Side effects of exposure
Poisoning
Headache
Nausea
Skin rashes and irritation
Chemical burns
Cancer
Birth defects
Diseases...
1. Pesticide Handling
Pesticide handling is the on-farm transfer, mixing,
and loading of pesticides and pesticide mixture....
Mixing/Loading Systems
• Mixing/loading systems are one or a combination of
structures, facilities, equipment used to mix ...
A Sump Mixture
• should contain the tank mix approved product mix
• should not be mixed with other pesticide products
• sh...
Mixing/Loading at Application Site
• Permanent sites for mixing/loading are the preferred
system for environmental protect...
Portable Pads and Trays
• There are several commercial products available to help with
mixing/loading at site of spray app...
2. Pesticide Storage
Suggestions for the safe storage of chemicals include:
• Always follow the manufacturers’ instruction...
• Keep a record of the chemicals you buy, store and use.
• The safe and proper storage of pesticide is a
component of good...
• The floor of the storage site should be made of
sealed cement, glazed ceramic tile, no-wax sheet
flooring, or another ea...
Labelling statements
• Typical pesticide labelling storage
instructions include:
• Store at temperatures above 32 degrees ...
Prevent water damage
• Water from burst pipes, spills, overflows, excess rain or
irrigation, or flooding streams can damag...
Control the temperature
• The storage site should be indoors, whenever
possible.
• Choose a cool, well-ventilated room or ...
• Excessive heat can cause plastic containers to
melt, glass containers to explode and some
pesticides to volatilize and d...
SAFE TRANSPORT OF CHEMICALS
Suggestions for the safe transporting of chemicals
include:
• Drums of agricultural chemicals ...
3. Precautions to be taken while using
pesticides
• Exposure to insecticides may occur when handling
and spraying insectic...
• Before applying pesticide - general instructions
• Know the pest, and how much damage is really
being done.
• Use pestic...
• Commercial operators using large quantities of
organophosphate pesticides should visit their doctor
and have a blood cho...
IMPORTANT INFORMATION
• Nativo 75WG may be applied to Brussels sprouts, cabbage,
broccoli/calabrese and cauliflower as a f...
• Other specific restrictions:
• Do not apply by hand-held equipment
• In addition to the maximum number of treatments per...
Safe use of chemicals
Suggestions for the safe use of chemicals include:
• Ensure anyone using agricultural chemicals is s...
• Use chemicals only on the plants for which they are
recommended on the label.
• Keep your application equipment in good ...
Care and Laundering of Personal
Protection Equipment
• Rinse items in a washing machine or by hand.
• Wash in a washing ma...
While mixing pesticides and during
application
• Wear appropriate protective clothing. If it is contaminated, remove
and r...
• Always stand upwind when mixing.
• Make sure pesticides are mixed in the correct
quantities.
• Avoid inhalation of chemi...
After application
• RETURN unused pesticide to the store.
• Safely dispose of all empty containers. As it may be difficult...
Disposal of remained pesticides and
empty packaging
• At the end of the day.s work during IRS activities, the inside
of th...
Disposal of Expired Insecticides
• Adequate measures should be undertaken to avoid expiry
of stocks in storehouses.
• Firs...
• Exposure to chemicals can lead to a variety of
immediate or long-term health effects including
headache, poisoning, resp...
Lect 18 (handling storage and precautions)
Lect 18 (handling storage and precautions)
Lect 18 (handling storage and precautions)
Lect 18 (handling storage and precautions)
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Lect 18 (handling storage and precautions)

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Lect 18 (handling storage and precautions)

  1. 1. HANDLING, STORAGE AND PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN WHILE USING FUNGICIDES
  2. 2. Introduction • Pesticide products are very useful tools in agricultural production. Used correctly, they contribute to higher productivity and higher quality characteristics in crops. By protecting crops from pests, pesticide products also contribute to the economical, safe, and nutritious variety of foods consumers enjoy. • As well as the benefits of pesticide use, there are risks to humans, livestock, wildlife, and the environment. Potential problems can be avoided by understanding these risks and knowing how to manage them.
  3. 3. Some pesticides are classified as Restricted Use pesticides if there is reason to believe they could harm humans, livestock, wildlife, or the environment, even when used according to label directions. To apply these types of pesticides in Pennsylvania, a person is required to have a pesticide applicator certification or be under the direct supervision of a certified applicator. All other pesticides are classified as Unclassified/General Use pesticides, and anyone can apply them according to label directions. Hazardous materials are required by law to include a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) and label. The MSDS gives valuable information on how to safely handle the chemical. Before using any farm chemical, you should read the label, understand the MSDS, do a chemical users course (such as ChemCert), and follow usage instructions.
  4. 4. Common agrichemicals • glyphosate • aluminium or zinc phosphide – fumigant • organophosphates • pyrethroids • paraquat, diquat • alkaline and acid cleaning agents • neonicotinoids • formalin • nutritional supplements – selenium and copper • livestock vaccines.
  5. 5. Risks Certain pesticides, when they are not stored, handled, or applied properly, can lead to: • Human exposure to toxic materials, which may cause injury, death, or long-term health effects (e.g., cancer, asthma) • Contamination of water, air, soil, and habitat • Bio-accumulation of some products in body tissues • Excess residue on food through overuse and/or improper timing of use on food products • Pest resistance • Economic losses due to crop damage or poor pest control • Effect on natural control agents.
  6. 6. Side effects of exposure Poisoning Headache Nausea Skin rashes and irritation Chemical burns Cancer Birth defects Diseases of the lungs, liver or kidneys Nervous system disorders. vomiting
  7. 7. 1. Pesticide Handling Pesticide handling is the on-farm transfer, mixing, and loading of pesticides and pesticide mixture. These activities pose the greatest risk to human safety For these reasons, all farmers should implement best management practices for handling. When designing or planning a pesticide handling system, consider the following points: Location, Practicality, Safety, and Environmental Protection.
  8. 8. Mixing/Loading Systems • Mixing/loading systems are one or a combination of structures, facilities, equipment used to mix and load application equipment. • There are three main types of mixing/loading systems: • permanent mixing/loading facilities • mixing/loading at application site • portable pads and trays. • Permanent facilities are impermeable concrete pads designed to contain spills and overflow and/or contaminated precipitation. When they are properly bermed, they also divert uncontaminated surface runoff from the mixing/loading structure. These systems are usually sized to fit equipment, and storage areas. Liquid that is contained within the mixing/loading facility is called a sump mixture. • Permanent handling facilities should be located near storage areas and should be designed to prevent runoff.
  9. 9. A Sump Mixture • should contain the tank mix approved product mix • should not be mixed with other pesticide products • should be stored in separate containers and labelled • should be applied to labelled crop or used as part of the next tank using the same pesticide products. • Each sump mixture should be collected and stored in a separate container following the use of that pesticide (and before a different pesticide is used). This mixture can then be used to apply to that labelled crop or used as mix water for the next batch of similar pesticide to be made.
  10. 10. Mixing/Loading at Application Site • Permanent sites for mixing/loading are the preferred system for environmental protection. However, due to practicality or cost, many operators do mixing/loading in the field or orchard - provided the operation is conducted no closer than 90 metres (300 ft.) to surface water sources. • Two acceptable methods are: • move the mixing/loading area on a regular basis - provided recommended separation distances are observed • excavate or berm a shallow area for in-field mixing/loading and line this area with an impervious liner • be sure to bring source of water to mixing area and observe recommended separation distances. • Permanent mixing/loading facilities should be constructed with impermeable concrete to contain spills.
  11. 11. Portable Pads and Trays • There are several commercial products available to help with mixing/loading at site of spray application. • Portable pads can be used at temporary sites to contain spills from overflow provided they are used at least 90 metres (300 ft.) from any surface water. They are fabric liners with berms around the perimeter. Ensure that purchased portable pads are recommended for use with agricultural chemicals. After use, they can be cleaned and stored for reuse. • Flexible or inflatable synthetic drive-over pads are designed to catch drips and spills (like an inflatable swimming pool). • Shallow (15 centimetres [6 in.] curb) rigid plastic or fibreglass trays have built-in ramps or elevated vehicle tracks. The trays measure from 2.4 to 3 metres by 4.8 to 6 metres (8-10 x 16-20 ft.).
  12. 12. 2. Pesticide Storage Suggestions for the safe storage of chemicals include: • Always follow the manufacturers’ instructions for proper storage. • Keep chemicals in their original containers and don’t pour into smaller bottles. • Don’t remove labels from containers. • Store chemicals in a locked, well-ventilated shed with floors that will contain spills. • Store the filter(s) from masks separately to contaminated protective equipment when not in use – for example, in a zip- locked bag or an ice cream container. • Do not store liquid chemicals above solids. • Store animal feeds, seeds and fertilisers separately from other chemicals.
  13. 13. • Keep a record of the chemicals you buy, store and use. • The safe and proper storage of pesticide is a component of good management. A correctly designed and maintained pesticide storage site is essential • Lock all chemicals in a building or cabinet. • Protects people and animals from accidental exposure • Protects the environment from accidental contamination • Prevents damage to pesticides from temperature extremes and excess moisture • Post legible signs on doors and windows to alert people that pesticides are stored there. The signs should clearly state, "DANGER PESTICIDES - KEEP OUT."
  14. 14. • The floor of the storage site should be made of sealed cement, glazed ceramic tile, no-wax sheet flooring, or another easily cleaned material. Carpeting, wood, soil and other absorbent floors are difficult or impossible to decontaminate in case of a leak or spill. For ease of cleanup, shelving and pallets should be made of non- absorbent materials such as plastic or metal. If wood or fibreboard materials are used, they should be coated or covered with plastic or a polyurethane or epoxy paint.
  15. 15. Labelling statements • Typical pesticide labelling storage instructions include: • Store at temperatures above 32 degrees Fahrenheit. • Do not contaminate feed, foodstuffs or drinking water during storage. • Store in original container only. • Do not store near ignition sources such as electrical sparks, flames or heated surfaces. • Flammable. Do not use, pour, spill or store near heat or open flame. Do not cut or weld container.
  16. 16. Prevent water damage • Water from burst pipes, spills, overflows, excess rain or irrigation, or flooding streams can damage pesticide containers and pesticides. Water or excess moisture can cause • Metal containers to rust • Paper and cardboard containers to split or crumble • Pesticide labelling to peel, smear, run or otherwise become unreadable • Dry pesticides to clump, degrade or dissolve • Pesticides to move away from the storage site. • If the storage site is not protected from the weather or if it tends to be damp, consider placing metal, cardboard and paper containers in sturdy plastic bags or cans for protection.
  17. 17. Control the temperature • The storage site should be indoors, whenever possible. • Choose a cool, well-ventilated room or building that is insulated or temperature-controlled to prevent freezing or overheating. • The temperature range normally recommended for liquid pesticides is 40 to 100 degrees Fahrenheit. • The pesticide label may provide more specific temperature information for the product. • Freezing temperatures can cause glass, metal and plastic containers to break.
  18. 18. • Excessive heat can cause plastic containers to melt, glass containers to explode and some pesticides to volatilize and drift away from the storage site. Another adverse effect of temperature extremes is that the potency of the pesticide can be destroyed • Provide adequate light: • The storage site should be well lighted. Pesticide handlers using the facility must be able to see well enough to • Read pesticide container labelling,
  19. 19. SAFE TRANSPORT OF CHEMICALS Suggestions for the safe transporting of chemicals include: • Drums of agricultural chemicals should not be transported in enclosed cabins with the driver and passengers. • Insecticides should be transported separately. It should NOT be transported In the same vehicle as items such as agricultural produce, food, clothing, drugs, that could become hazardous if contaminated. • Insecticides should be transported in well sealed and labeled containers, boxes or bags. • Vehicles transporting pesticides should carry prominently displayed warning notices. • Pesticide containers should be loaded in such a way that they will not be damaged during transport, their labels will not be rubbed off
  20. 20. 3. Precautions to be taken while using pesticides • Exposure to insecticides may occur when handling and spraying insecticides. The exposures to insecticides may occur in following situations: • When handling the insecticide product during opening of the package, mixing and preparation of the spray. • When spraying the insecticide. • When disposing the insecticide solution and containers
  21. 21. • Before applying pesticide - general instructions • Know the pest, and how much damage is really being done. • Use pesticides only when really needed. • Seek advice on the proper method of control. • Use only the recommended pesticide for the problem. If several pesticides are recommended, choose the least toxic to mammals and if possible the least persistent. • Read the label including the small print. • Make sure the appropriate protective clothing is available and is used, and that all concerned with the application also understand the recommendations, and are fully trained in how to apply pesticides.
  22. 22. • Commercial operators using large quantities of organophosphate pesticides should visit their doctor and have a blood cholinesterase test, and have repeat checks during the season. • Check application equipment for leaks, calibrate with water and ensure it is in proper working order. • Check that plenty of water is available with soap and towel and that a change of clean clothing is available. • Check that pesticides on the farm are in a dry, locked store. Avoid inhaling pesticide mists or dusts, especially in confined spaces such as the pesticide store. • Warn neighbours of your spray programme, especially if they have apiaries. • Do not eat, drink or smoke while working. • Wash hands and face with soap and water after spraying and before eating, smoking or drinking..
  23. 23. IMPORTANT INFORMATION • Nativo 75WG may be applied to Brussels sprouts, cabbage, broccoli/calabrese and cauliflower as a foliar spray at a maximum individual dose of 0.36 kg product/ha in a water volume of 200 to 500 L/ha, using the higher volume in dense crops. The maximum number of doses allowed per crops is 2. At least 21 days must be allowed between the final application and harvest. • MIXING AND CLEANING: Sprayers should be THOROUGHLY CLEANED before use and filters and jets checked for damage and blockages. • Apply as a MEDIUM quality spray
  24. 24. • Other specific restrictions: • Do not apply by hand-held equipment • In addition to the maximum number of treatments per crop a maximum of 3 applications of Nativo 75WG may be applied in one calendar year. • READ THE LABEL BEFORE USE. USING THIS PRODUCT IN A MANNER THAT IS INCONSISTENT WITH THE LABEL MAY BE AN OFFENCE. FOLLOW THE CODE OF PRACTICE FOR USING PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS.
  25. 25. Safe use of chemicals Suggestions for the safe use of chemicals include: • Ensure anyone using agricultural chemicals is suitably trained to use both the chemical and any equipment required for application. • Use chemical decanting kits to reduce the risk of spills and splashes while mixing chemicals. • Only mix the quantity of chemical required for the task at hand. • Make sure the decanting and mixing area is well ventilated. If this is not possible, ensure that appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) is worn for enclosed environments. • Follow the manufacturers’ instructions on the label. • Always wear protective clothing such as chemical-resistant gloves, face shields or masks, overalls and goggles. • Avoid exposing non-target animals or plants. • Triple rinse equipment after chemical application and dispose of the rinse water (rinsate) appropriately. Rinsate contains low concentrations of the chemical from the cleaning process.
  26. 26. • Use chemicals only on the plants for which they are recommended on the label. • Keep your application equipment in good condition and operating properly to avoid injury to yourself and possible damage to plants. • Cover all bird feeders and baths before applying any pesticide product in or around your home. • Guard against drifts of pesticide sprays or dusts by making the application when there is no wind. • Keep children and pets away from treated surfaces or plants until the spray has dried or the dust has settled, or as indicated on the product label. • Never eat, drink, or smoke when applying pesticides; in fact, don’t even carry food or smoking items with you. Wash your hands before using the restroom facilities. • Practice good personal hygiene
  27. 27. Care and Laundering of Personal Protection Equipment • Rinse items in a washing machine or by hand. • Wash in a washing machine using heavy-duty detergent and hot water for the wash cycle. • Wash only a few items at a time to allow plenty of agitation and water for dilution. Use the highest water- level setting. • Rinse twice using two rinse cycles and warm water. • Use two entire machine cycles to wash items that are moderately to heavily contaminated. • Run the washer at least one more entire cycle without any clothing, using detergent and hot water to clean the machine.
  28. 28. While mixing pesticides and during application • Wear appropriate protective clothing. If it is contaminated, remove and replace with clean clothing. • Never work alone when handling the most toxic pesticides. • Never allow children or other unauthorized persons near the mixing. • Recheck the instructions on the label. • Avoid contamination of the skin, especially the eyes and mouth. Liquid formulations should be poured carefully to avoid splashing. Avoid powder formulations 'puffing up' into the face. If contaminated with the concentrate wash immediately. • Never eat, drink or smoke when mixing or applying pesticides. • Always have plenty of water available for washing.
  29. 29. • Always stand upwind when mixing. • Make sure pesticides are mixed in the correct quantities. • Avoid inhalation of chemical, dust or fumes. • Start spraying near the downwind edge of the field and proceed upwind so that operators move into unsprayed areas. • Never blow out clogged nozzles hoses with your mouth. • Avoid spraying when crops are in flower. Risk to bees is reduced if sprays are applied in evening when they are no longer foraging. Never spray if the wind is blowing towards grazing livestock or regularly used pastures. • Never leave pesticides unattended in the fields. • Provide proper supervision of those assisting with the pesticide application, and have adequate rest periods. • When blood tests are being conducted, do not work with pesticides if your cholinesterase level is below
  30. 30. After application • RETURN unused pesticide to the store. • Safely dispose of all empty containers. As it may be difficult to bury empty containers after each day's spraying operations, they should be kept in the pesticide store until a convenient number are ready for disposal • NEVER leave pesticides in application equipment. Clean equipment and return to store. • Wash well and put on clean clothing. Where there is a considerable amount of spraying, the operators should be provided with a shower room. • Keep a record of the use of pesticides. • Do not allow other persons to enter the treated area for the required period if restrictions apply to the pesticide used.
  31. 31. Disposal of remained pesticides and empty packaging • At the end of the day.s work during IRS activities, the inside of the spray pump • should be washed and any residual insecticide should be flushed from the lance and nozzle. • The rinsing water should be collected and carefully contained in clearly marked drums with a tightly fitted lid. • Never pour the remaining insecticide into rivers, pools or drinking-water sources. • All empty packaging should be returned to the supervisor for safe disposal according to national guidelines. • Never re-use empty insecticide containers. • It shall be the duty of manufacturers, formulators of insecticides and operators to • The used packages shall not be left outside to prevent their re-use.
  32. 32. Disposal of Expired Insecticides • Adequate measures should be undertaken to avoid expiry of stocks in storehouses. • First Expiry First Out. principle should be strictly followed during stock • movements. • Information about near expiry stock, should be provided to Dte. of NVBDCP, Delhi well in time so that the stock can be re-allocated to other locations. • The expired stock should be returned to manufacturer for disposal as per guidelines preferably through incineration process. • The chemical efficacy should be tested before disposal of expired insecticide to find out possibility of usage. The efficacy and active ingredient percentage of insecticide is tested and certified by the authorized testing laboratory. For list of authorized laboratory please refer Central Insecticide Board, Govt. of India website.
  33. 33. • Exposure to chemicals can lead to a variety of immediate or long-term health effects including headache, poisoning, respiratory illness, burns and birth defects. • Manufacturers and importers are required to supply a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) that explains how to handle the chemical safely. • Always follow the manufacturers’ instructions on storage, use and disposal of chemicals. • Organisations such as WorkSafe Victoria can offer valuable advice on improving health and safety on your farm. Things to remember

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