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Indus river basin paper hasrat


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Indus is a river system that sustains communities in both countries India and Pakistan, which have extensively dammed the Indus River for irrigation of their crops and hydro-electricity systems. The river tributaries are Jhelum and Chenab rivers, which primarily flow into Pakistan while other branches—the Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej—irrigate northern India. Conflict in the basin started in 1947 when India stopped water flowing through its canals to Pakistan, forcing the later to approach international agencies for help. Indus Waters Treaty (IWT) was signed by both countries in 1960, giving exclusive rights over the three western rivers of the Indus river system (Jhelum, Chenab and Indus) to Pakistan, and over the three eastern rivers (Sutlej, Ravi and Beas) to India. Competing water demands and inadequate water availability for irrigation and other uses stress regional economy which leads to failing of legal and governance institutions. Water dispute in Indus River Basin (IRB) arose due to poor governance and lack of proper institutions to manage water between two stakeholders, which stressed the amount of water available in the basin. Changing climate worldwide and its effect on mountain snow-caps and glaciers have been exerting new set of challenges to the governance and institutions managing the waters of IRB. Based on the review of secondary literature and scenario analysis, this article exposes the inherent uncertainties and suggests governance solutions.

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Indus river basin paper hasrat

  1. 1. Workshop on Governing Critical Uncertainties: Climate Change and Decision-Making in Transboundary River Basins 21‐ 23 January 2013, Chiang Mai, Thailand
  2. 2. New Challenges of Transboundary Water Conflicts and Climate Change for Governance of Indus River Basin
  3. 3. Introduction• Indus is a river system that sustains 200 millionpeople in India and Pakistan• Both India and Pakistan have extensivelydammed the Indus River• With competing demands of water both sides,the conflicts sustain since 1947, year of partition• Indus Water Treaty (IWT) agreed in 1960• Transboundary water conflicts on climax now• Climate change is supposed to add to conflicts• New challenges to governance and institutions• Need to reform the international legislation andgovernance to cope with uncertainties
  4. 4. Indus River Basin System• Sanskrit – Sindhu• Old Persian – Hindu• Ancient Greek - Ἰ νδός• Old Iranian - Indós• Urdu - Daryā-e Sindh• Hindi - Sindhu Nadī• Sindhi - Sindhu• Punjabi - Sindh• Gujarati - Sindhu• Tibetan - Sênggê Zangbo (Lion River)• Pashto - Abāsin (Father of Rivers)• Turkish – Nilab• Arabic - Naḥ ar al-Sind• Persian - Rūd-e Sind• Latin – Indus
  5. 5. Indus River Basin SystemLength: 3,200 km (2,000 mi)Basin: 1,165,000 km2 (450,000 mi2)Discharge: 6,600 m3/s (230,000 ft3/s)Location Coordinates: India andPakistan ~32046N and 74057EPopulation: 175 million (72% inPakistan; 28% in India)Rainfall: 1000-1400 mmTemperature: 80oC (Winter) - 48oC(Summer)Economic Factor: AgriculturalproductionArea: 450,000 square milesTop uses of water: Irrigation, watersupply, hydropower generation LeftTributaries: Zanskar River, ChenabRiver, Sutlej River, Sohan RiverRight Tributaries: Shyok River, GilgitRiver, Kabul River, Kurram
  6. 6. Indus River Basin System• 21st largest river in the world in terms of annual flow• 60% of Indus basin lies in Pakistan and Pakistan-occupiedKashmir (POK), 10% in Tibet, 25% in India and India-Administered Kashmir, and 7% in Afghanistan• Indus system is largely fed by the snows and glaciers ofthe Himalayas, Karakoram and the Hindu Kush ranges• 80% of water for Upper Indus Rivers comes from Himalayanglaciers• 25 amphibian species and 147 fish species of which 22 areendemic• Indus is the most important supplier of water resources tothe Punjab and Sindh plains
  7. 7. Competing Water Demands& Transboundary Conflicts• Water disputes between Punjab and Sind provinces duringBritish India• Conflict in the basin started in 1947 when India stopped waterflowing through its canals to Pakistan• Dispute over Salal dam was settled in 1978• Controversy on the Wullar Barrage/ Tulbul Navigation projectand Kishanganga hydroelectric dams remains unsettled.• Baglihar dam created severe conflicts, but the issue wassettled by recourse to Neutral Expert• Recent Conflicts created around: 57-metre high Nimoo-Bazgodam in Leh (India); 42-metre high Chuttak dam on Suru river(India-Kashmir); Tulbul Navigation Project in Indian-Kashmir
  8. 8. Some Major Dams on India’s Part of Indus River Basin
  9. 9. Transboundary Governance System• Inter-Dominion Accord of May 4, 1948: required India torelease sufficient waters to Pakistani regions• Pakistan wanted to take the matter to the International Courtof Justice but India refused• In 1951, David E. Lilienthal, former chairman of TennesseeValley Authority, visited India and Pakistan.• Lilienthal wrote an article with suggestions that Indus Basinbe treated, exploited, and developed as a single unit
  10. 10. Transboundary Governance System• World Bank mediated from 1952 onwards, and Indus WatersTreaty (IWT) was signed in September 1960• IWT conferred rights over 3 western rivers of Indus riversystem (Jhelum, Chenab and Indus) to Pakistan, and over 3eastern rivers (Sutlej, Ravi and Beas) to India
  11. 11. Chronology of Indus Water Treaty(adapted from Jutla and Dewayne, 2009) Transboundary Governance System
  12. 12. Industrialization and itsImpacts on Water ResourcesCauses• Deforestation• Industrialization on banks• UrbanizationEffects• Low agricultural production• Westward course shifting• sediment clogging• Salt deposits• Water pollution of rivers
  13. 13. Industrialization and its Impacts on Water ResourcesConstruction of Dams• Both parties constructing onthe tributary rivers & streams• Example: 401 projects on 5river basins i.e. Satluj, Beas,Ravi, Chenab & Yamuna• Himalayas viewed asstorehouse of hydro power• Many projects made thetributaries and rivers non-functional destroying thewater regimes and changinglocal climate profiles
  14. 14. Industrialization and its Impacts on Water ResourcesConstruction of Dams• Run of the river schemesare storage based diversionschemes• Water is diverted throughhead race tunnel (HRT)• Kilometers of river stretchdried• 80% of 35 projects inNorth-Western Himalayashave reservoirs or storagecomponent
  15. 15. Industrialization and its Impacts on Water ResourcesConstruction of Dams• Reservoirs induce anaerobic decomposition of biomassthereby producing methane gas• Methane stays longer in the environment and traps heat• Methane has a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 25 timesmore than CO2.• Accumulation of organic matter in the rivers risen the perunit emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs)
  16. 16. Climate Change and its Impacts on Water ResourcesChanging Environments:• Both countries have largely modified environments, where dam and power projects have been built• Submergence zones have significantly altered the local geography and meteorology• Urbanization across the mountains is also impacting local climate regimes• IRB is faced with major challenges due to population growth, rapid urbanization and industrialization, environmental degradation, unregulated utilization of the resources, inefficient water use and poverty
  17. 17. Climate Change and its Impacts on Water ResourcesChanging Environments:• Himalayan glacial system contains 116,180 km2 of ice.• Himalayan glaciers provide the Indus with 70-80% of its water• IRB collectively provides water for about 1.3 billion people• Climate change affects mountain snow-caps and glaciers• Glacial vulnerability increases manifold• Faster melting and depleting ice stock affecting the flow in lean periods
  18. 18. Climate Change and its Impacts on Water ResourcesChanging Environments:• Conflicting behaviour of glaciers, such as retreating, advancing, and even surging• Study of MoEF, India (May 2011) indicates almost 75% of the glaciers have shown a retreat• Changes in glaciers pose big challenge for hydrogeology and water regimes• Effects on hydropower generation and agricultural production and consequently altering people’s livelihoods
  19. 19. Climate Change and its Impacts on Water ResourcesChanging Environments:• Climate change will affect the temporal and spatial availability of water resources• The effects in the Indus basin though remain uncertain• Glaciers in Karakoram region are mostly stagnating• Glaciers in the Western, Central & Eastern Himalaya are retreating.• It stresses the uncertainty in future water availability for the Indus basin
  20. 20. Climate Change and its Impacts on Water ResourcesChanging Environments:• Snowfall decreasing in all mountain ranges• Decrease in total seasonal snowfall of 280 cm over entire Western Himalayas between 1988-89 and 2006-07• Total rainfall may increase in some areas and decrease in others• Water stress & droughts or floods• Decreasing trend of annual rainfall (-29.7 to -2.1 cm/100 years) observed at Shimla• Monsoon rainfall in all northern mountainous India has declined by 10% between 1844 and Declining trend of snowfall in North-Western 2006. Himalayas (adapted from Ray et al., 2011)
  21. 21. New Challenges to Governance System• Climate change will exacerbate the problems of irregular and low flow in Indus and its tributaries.• Changing climates would exert new set of challenges to governance and institutions managing the waters of IRB.• New troubles have started raising challenges to the IWT and transboundary governance institutions• Hence, fashioning an adaptive governance structure responsive to contingencies of time and situation requires changes in conventional modes of governance
  22. 22. New Challenges to Governance System• Need for enhanced cooperation in irrigation, electricity generation, flood protection, and ecosystem maintenance• Revisiting the IWT terms• Improving the scope for effective international cooperation and integrated resource management
  23. 23. New Challenges to Governance System• Article.VII of IWT requires to share hydrological data, but neither India nor Pakistan publish information on Indus flows• It made difficult for public interest groups, academic analysts, stakeholders, or even decision-makers in other policy departments in either country to participate constructively or contribute to policy formation.• Article.VII expressly envisages the two states could undertake cooperative engineering works, a possibility they have never pursued.
  24. 24. Thank you Werequest to pray