Enzymes In Diseases

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Enzymes In Diseases

  1. 1. MEDICAL APPLICATION OF ENZYMES HARIS P MSC BIOTECHNOLOGY MA COLLEGE ERNAKULAM
  2. 2. Medical Application <ul><li>For enzyme therapy. </li></ul><ul><li>For clinical diagnosis. </li></ul><ul><li>For diseases of liver, kidney, heart etc. </li></ul><ul><li>For enzyme deficiency diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>For determination of metabolites. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzyme immuno assay. </li></ul>
  3. 3. THERAPEUTIC APPLICATION Enzyme Reaction use <ul><li>Amylase </li></ul>Starch hydrolysis Diagestive disorders Collagenase Collagen hydrolysis Skin ulcers Ficin, Papain, Proteinase Protein hydrolysis Deworming, digestive -disorders,narcotic tissue removal Glutaminase Gln  Glu Leukemia Asparginase Asn  Asp Leukemia Lysozyme Bacterial CW hydrolysis As Antibiotics Bilirubin oxidase Bilirubin hydroxylase hyperbilirubinemia Enzyme Reaction Use Rhodanase Degradation of cyanide Cyanide poisoing RNase RNA digestion Antiviral RNA hydrolysis  lactamase Pencillin  Pencilloate Pencillin allergy Streptokinase/urokinase Plasminogen  plasmin Blood clot dissolving uricase UA  allatoin Gout Hyaluronidase ?HUA hydrolysis Viral infection SOD 2O2+2H+  H2O2+O2 antioxidant/antiinflammatory urease Urea hydrolysis Hyperureamia Arginase Arginine hydrolysis Cancer
  4. 4. ENZYMES IN DISEASES Organ Enzymes Diseases Liver ALP,GDH,SGOT,SGPT,Glutamyl Tranferasess,Glutathione S Tranferases, Viral/toxic hepatitis or cirrhosis, myocardial infraction,jaundice, Heart Creatne Kinases,LDH, AST/ALT, Myocardial Infraction , skelital muscle disorders. Other diseases Amylases,Aldolases,TG Lipases,CK,ALP,ACP,Choline Esterases,HMG CO A Reductases,Xanthine Oxidases, GIT disorders, jaundice,bone diseases, rickets,
  5. 5. Enzyme Deficiency Disorders <ul><li>Genetic mutation  loss of enz activity </li></ul><ul><li>Increased amount of substrate in serum </li></ul><ul><li>Prenatal diagnosis in amniotic fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Enzyme therapy for EDD like </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Galactosemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glu.6.phosphate dehydrogenase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chole esterases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phenylketonuria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Albinism,alkaptonuria etc. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. ENZYME DEFICIENCY DISEASES Diseases Enzyme Gout (X linked recessive) PRPP Synthase Lesch Nyhan Syndrom hypoxanthine-guanine- Phosphoribosyl transferase Cystic fibrosis DNase Alcaptonuria Homogentisate oxidase Maple syrup urine disease (various forms Branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase Immunoinsufficiency( autosomal Recessive) Adenosinedeaminase Disease Enzyme Tay-Sachs disease hexosaminidase A Krabbe's disease b-galactosidase Niemann-Pick disease sphingomyelinase Farber's disease ceramidase Fabry's disease a-galactosidase Alcaptonuria homogentisate oxidase Gauchers desease b-glucosidase Lactose intolerance Lactase
  7. 7. Use of Enzymes in determination of Metabolites of clinical importance <ul><li>Blood Glucose  Glucose Oxidase </li></ul><ul><li>Uric acid  Urate oxidase </li></ul><ul><li>Urea  Urease </li></ul><ul><li>Chlolesterol  cholesterol oxidase </li></ul><ul><li>Creatinin  CK, Ammonia  GDH, </li></ul><ul><li>Ethanol  ADH, Lactate  LDH,etc. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Enzyme inhibitors & Drug Design Drug/Inhibitor Enzyme Disease Mevinolin, Copactin, Monacolk HMG CoA Reductase Hypercholesteremia Penicillins & antibiotics Peptidyl transferase, RNA polumerases,DNA Polymerases etc. Infections after Surgery,Other infectious diseases Allopurine Xanthine Oxidases Gout, Hyperureamia HIV Protease Inhibitors HIV Proteases AIDS Methotrexate Folate reductase Cancer,infections Ethanol Alcohol Dehydrogenase Methanol poisoning,
  9. 10. CANCER THERAPY PRODRUG DRUG ENZYME Methotrexate  phe. methotrexate Carboxy peptidase A Etoposide phosphate Etoposide ALP  N bis 2-chloroehyl aminobezoyl glu. Benzoic acid mustard Carboxypeptidase-G2 Mtomycin phosphate mitomycin ALP Aniline mustard glucuronide Aniline mustar Glucuronidase 5-flurrocytosine 5-flurouracinl Cytosine deaminase 2 L  amino acyl methotrexate mmethotrexate aminopeptidase
  10. 11. Assay of Plasma Enzymes <ul><li>Should have a normal range in the plasma </li></ul><ul><li>Elevated levels are seen in diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Increased levels due to tissue damage, cellular proliferation,necrosis,decreased clearance by kidney,etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue specific isoenzymes  location of damaged tissue </li></ul><ul><li>used in forensic science. </li></ul>
  11. 12. ENZYME IMMUNO ASSAY <ul><li>Indirect method for measuring the concentration of substrate </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are used as a type of amplification system </li></ul><ul><li>Can measure conc. Of hormones, drugs, antigenic determinants of pathogens etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the specificity of ag-ab reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Eg:ELISA, </li></ul><ul><li>Greater specificity, stability, sensitivity, avoiding radioactive subtances than RIA </li></ul>

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