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PROJECTREPORT |EFFECTIVENESSOFTV AD ON YOUTH
Impact of TV Advertisements
on Consumer Buying Behavior
: A Case of Talwara T...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour i
“Impact of TV Advertisement on Consumer Buying Beha...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour ii
DECLARATION
hereby declare that the project work e...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
“It is not possible to prepare a ...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour iv
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Advertisements, as part of commu...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour v
Table of Contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.....................
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour vi
NICHE ADVERTISING....................................
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour vii
CLUTTER ............................................
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour viii
LISTOF FIGURES
Figure 1 How old are you ...........
PROJECTREPORT |EFFECTIVENESSOFTV AD ON YOUTH 1
INTRODUCTION
Advertising is the non-personal communication of the informati...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 2
the ads are skipped by them, ads which have some en...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 3
REVIEWOF LITERATURE
CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
Consumer beha...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 4
The other level of arousal is called the active inf...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 5
perceived performance meet. A high satisfaction lev...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 6
cheeseburger, it should taste the same whether you ...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 7
INTEGRATEDMARKETINGCOMMUNICATIONS
One of the most i...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 8
THE PROMOTIONALMIX
The promotional mix is the use o...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 9
trying to spread maximum information about products...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 10
DESIRE
It is the third step of hierarchy of effect...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 11
they appear. For example, an advertisement in the ...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 12
of target customers, and has a variety of programm...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 13
SURROGATE ADVERTISING -ADVERTISINGINDIRECTLY
Surro...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 14
IN-STORE ADVERTISING
This is also a popular advert...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 15
THE FUTURE OF ADVERTISING
DIGITAL SIGNAGE
Already ...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 16
during the Super Bowl 2007, and again in 2009 and ...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 17
such other creative people. Such people are usuall...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 18
ideas into a finished forms Thus the success and f...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 19
inexperience) and continued to show ‘scientific’ c...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 20
and motion and thereby maximises impact on audienc...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 21
be significant as well. It is its multi-sensory ap...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 22
3. 3.Budweiser "Puppy Love"
4. Always "#LikeAGirl"...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 23
DDB Mudra (www.mudra.com)
DDB Mudra is a popular a...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 24
BUYINGTELEVSION TIME
A number of options are avail...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 25
SYNDICATION
Advertisers may also reach TV viewers ...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 26
them. Spot announcements are most often used by pu...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 27
CHARDIKALA TV BAND RATE PER SEC
12PM-1659PM 128
6A...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 28
7AM-9AM 2083
8PM-10PM 519
9AM-12PM 519
10PM-10:30P...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 29
MEASURINGTHE TV AUDIENCE
One of the most important...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 30
Share =
𝐻𝐻 𝑡𝑢𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑤
𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑎 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑠𝑒ℎ𝑜𝑙𝑑𝑠 𝑢𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑇𝑉...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 31
WEEKLY DATA OF BARC (Week 17: Saturday, 25th April...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 32
DISADVANTAGES OF TV ADVERTISEMENT
COSTS
Despite th...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 33
DISTRUST AND NEGATIVE EVALUATION
To many critics o...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 34
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
A study can be initiated with...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 35
SELECTION OF THE STUDY AREA
The study was conducte...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 36
The study was completely consumer oriented and dat...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 37
DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION
1. How old are you?...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 38
3. What is your Family Annual Income?
Figure 3 Fam...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 39
5. How much time do you spend on watching TV (dail...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 40
why to buy, when to buy and from where to buy. Onl...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 41
INTERPRETATION- From this question we can say that...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 42
INTERPRETATION- 66.70 % of the respondents said th...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 43
INTERPRETATION- Majority of the respondents said t...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 44
INTERPRETATION- In the survey it is found that Maj...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 45
INTERPRETATION- About half (47.10 %) of the respon...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 46
SUMMARYOF FINDINGS
In the sample of 102, 42.20% re...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 47
RECOMMENDATIONS
 It is proved in the survey that ...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 48
CONCULSION
TV advertisement is effective because -...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 49
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BARC. (n.d.).WeeklyData. http://www.b...
PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 50
APPENDIX
QUESTIONNAIRE
Impact of TV Advertisement ...
Effectiveness of TV advertisement on Consumer Behaviour
Effectiveness of TV advertisement on Consumer Behaviour
Effectiveness of TV advertisement on Consumer Behaviour
Effectiveness of TV advertisement on Consumer Behaviour
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Effectiveness of TV advertisement on Consumer Behaviour

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1. To analyse the effectiveness of TV Advertisement on the buying behaviour of consumer. 2. To identify the factors effecting the buying behaviour of consumer through TV
advertisement. 3. To identify the factors effecting consumer preference through TV advertisement.

Published in: Marketing

Effectiveness of TV advertisement on Consumer Behaviour

  1. 1. PROJECTREPORT |EFFECTIVENESSOFTV AD ON YOUTH Impact of TV Advertisements on Consumer Buying Behavior : A Case of Talwara Township 5/14/2015 PROJECT REPORT Harish Vasdev CUHP13MBA29
  2. 2. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour i “Impact of TV Advertisement on Consumer Buying Behaviour” A Project Report Submitted to School of Business and Management Studies In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement for the award of degree of Master of Business Administration Of Central University of Himachal Pradesh Session-2013-15 Supervisor SubmittedBy Dr Manpreet Arora HarishVasdev Assistant Professor CUHP13MBA29 School of Business & Management Studies Central University of Himachal Pradesh (Established under Central Universities Act 2009) Dharamshala, District-Kangra, Himachal Pradesh– 176215
  3. 3. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour ii DECLARATION hereby declare that the project work entitled “Impact of TV Advertisement on Consumer Buying Behavior” submitted to the Central University of Himachal Pradesh Dharamshala , is a record of an original work done by me under the guidance of Dr Manpreet Arora, Assistant professor SBMS, and this project work is submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Business Administration. The results embodied in this Project have not been submitted to any other University or Institute for the award of any degree or diploma. Harish Vasdev Roll No: CUHP13MBA29 MBA in Marketing Central University of Himachal Pradesh I
  4. 4. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT “It is not possible to prepare a project report without the assistance & Encouragement of other people. This one is certainly no exception.” On the very outset of this report, I would like to extend my sincere & heartfelt obligation towards all the personages who have helped me in this endeavor. Without their active guidance, help, cooperation & encouragement, I would not have made headway in the project. I am extremely thankful and pay my gratitude to my faculty Dr Manpreet Arora for her valuable guidance and support on completion of this project in it’s presently. I extend my gratitude to Central University of Himachal Pradesh for giving me this opportunity. I also acknowledge with a deep sense of reverence, my gratitude towards my parents and member of my family, who has always supported me morally as well as economically. At last but not least gratitude goes to all of my friends who directly or indirectly helped me to complete this project report. Any omission in this brief acknowledgement does not mean lack of gratitude. Thanking You Harish Vasdev
  5. 5. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour iv EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Advertisements, as part of communication strategies for marketing, are used to draw consumer’s attention and influence their decision to purchase the advertised products and services. Television advertisements are the most authoritative, influential and persuasive advertising medium as compared with other media such as Radio, Newspapers, Magazines and Internet. Television advertisements tend to use well-known presenters, persuasive messages and audio-visual effects in perfect combination for lively display of products and services. TV ads impact viewers due to various factors which have multiple dimensions. In this concept how the relevance factor leads effectiveness of television ads on consumer purchase decision.
  6. 6. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour v Table of Contents ACKNOWLEDGEMENT..................................................................................................................iii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................................................................. iv LIST OF FIGURES........................................................................................................................ viii INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................ 1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE................................................................................................................ 3 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR................................................................................................................. 3 BUYING PROCESS.......................................................................................................................... 3 BRANDING...................................................................................................................................5 BRAND LOYALTY........................................................................................................................... 6 INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS............................................................................... 7 THE PROMOTIONAL MIX............................................................................................................... 8 ADVERTISEMENT.......................................................................................................................... 8 AWARENESS.................................................................................................................................9 INTEREST .....................................................................................................................................9 DESIRE....................................................................................................................................... 10 ACTION...................................................................................................................................... 10 MAJOR ADVERTISEMENT MEANS ................................................................................................ 10 PRINT ADVERTISING - NEWSPAPERS, MAGAZINES, BROCHURES, FLIERS......................................... 10 BILLBOARDS, KIOSKS, TRADE-SHOWS AND EVENTS....................................................................... 11 RADIO ADVERTISING................................................................................................................... 11 TELEVISION ADVERTISING........................................................................................................... 11 MODERN TYPES OF ADVERTISING................................................................................................ 12 ONLINEADVERTISING................................................................................................................. 12 COVERT ADVERTISING - ADVERTISING IN MOVIES ........................................................................ 12 SURROGATE ADVERTISING - ADVERTISING INDIRECTLY................................................................. 13 PUBLIC SERVICE ADVERTISING - ADVERTISING FOR SOCIAL CAUSES............................................... 13 CELEBRITY ADVERTISING............................................................................................................. 13 IN-STORE ADVERTISING .............................................................................................................. 14 COFFEE CUP ADVERTISING.......................................................................................................... 14 DIGITAL OUT OF HOME ADVERTISING.......................................................................................... 14 THE FUTURE OF ADVERTISING..................................................................................................... 15 DIGITAL SIGNAGE ....................................................................................................................... 15 SMARTPHONE ADVERTISING....................................................................................................... 15
  7. 7. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour vi NICHE ADVERTISING................................................................................................................... 15 USER-GENERATED ADVERTISING................................................................................................. 15 ACTIVE PARTICIPANT IN ADVERTISING......................................................................................... 16 TELEVISION ADVERTISEMENT...................................................................................................... 18 THE HISTORY OF ADVERTISING ON TELEVISION............................................................................ 18 WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF ADVERTISING ON TV?............................................................... 20 REACH ....................................................................................................................................... 20 GROWING ABILITY TO DIFFERENTIATE......................................................................................... 20 MULTI-SENSORY APPEAL............................................................................................................. 20 CREATIVITY AND IMPACT............................................................................................................ 21 SELECTIVITY AND FLEXIBILITY...................................................................................................... 21 TOP 10 MOST VIEWED TV ADS ON YOUTUBE................................................................................ 21 TOP 10 ADVERTISING COMPANIES OF INDIA: ............................................................................... 22 BUYING TELEVSION TIME............................................................................................................ 24 NETWORK ADVERTISEMENT........................................................................................................ 24 SPOT AND LOCAL ADVERTISEMENT ............................................................................................. 24 SYNDICATION............................................................................................................................. 25 METHODS OF BUYING TIME ........................................................................................................ 25 SPONSORSHIP ............................................................................................................................ 25 PARTICIPATION .......................................................................................................................... 25 SPOT ANNOUNCEMENT.............................................................................................................. 25 SELECTING TIME PERIODS AND PROGRAMS ................................................................................. 26 RATES OF PUNJAB REGIONAL TV FOR COMMERCIALS IN ₹ ............................................................ 26 MEASURING THE TV AUDIENCE................................................................................................... 29 TELEVISION HOUSEHOLD ............................................................................................................ 29 PROGRAMRATING..................................................................................................................... 29 HOUSEHOLDS USING TELEVISION ................................................................................................ 29 SHARE OF AUDIENCE.................................................................................................................. 29 TELEVISION RATING POINT.......................................................................................................... 30 BROADCAST AUDIANCE RESEARCH COUNCIL INDIA ...................................................................... 30 DISADVANTAGES OF TV ADVERTISEMENT.................................................................................... 32 COSTS........................................................................................................................................ 32 LACK OF SELECTIVITY.................................................................................................................. 32 FLEETING MESSAGE.................................................................................................................... 32
  8. 8. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour vii CLUTTER .................................................................................................................................... 32 LIMITED VIEWER ATTENTION ...................................................................................................... 32 DISTRUST AND NEGATIVE EVALUATION....................................................................................... 33 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY......................................................................................................... 34 IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY....................................................................................................... 34 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY.......................................................................................................... 34 SELECTION OF THE STUDY AREA .................................................................................................. 35 SAMPLING DESIGN ..................................................................................................................... 35 TYPE OF DATA COLLECTED .......................................................................................................... 35 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION .................................................................................................. 35 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY........................................................................................................ 35 DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION............................................................................................ 37 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS............................................................................................................. 46 Recommendations...................................................................................................................... 47 BIBLIOGRAPHY........................................................................................................................... 49 APPENDIX .................................................................................................................................. 50 QUESTIONNAIRE......................................................................................................................... 50
  9. 9. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour viii LISTOF FIGURES Figure 1 How old are you ............................................................................................................ 37 Figure 2 Gender.......................................................................................................................... 37 Figure 3 Family annual income .................................................................................................... 38 Figure 4 Most effective means of ad............................................................................................ 38 Figure 5 Time spend on watching TV............................................................................................ 39 Figure 6 convenience power of TV ad........................................................................................... 39 Figure 7 Buying Decision ............................................................................................................. 40 Figure 8 Expectations from TV ad ................................................................................................ 40 Figure 9 Behaviour towards TV ad ............................................................................................... 41 Figure 10 respondent Choice....................................................................................................... 41 Figure 11 Commercial attractiveness ........................................................................................... 42 Figure 12 Character of influence TV ad......................................................................................... 42 Figure 13 ad Viewing habits......................................................................................................... 43 Figure 14 Time............................................................................................................................ 43 Figure 15 Series of commercial.................................................................................................... 44 Figure 16 Average length of TV ad ............................................................................................... 44
  10. 10. PROJECTREPORT |EFFECTIVENESSOFTV AD ON YOUTH 1 INTRODUCTION Advertising is the non-personal communication of the information usually paid for and persuasive in nature about products, services or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media. The advertiser intends to spread his ideas about the products and offerings among the prospects. Popularization of the products is thus, the basic aim of advertising. The majority of the marketers use mass media for their marketing communications. The choice of media is dependent upon the nature of the message and the intended target audience. Television advertising is the bestselling and economical media ever invented. It has a potential advertising impact unmatched by any other media. The advantage of television over the other mediums is that it is perceived as a combination of audio and video features; it provides products with instant validity and prominence and offers the greatest possibility for creative advertising. Over a longer period of time, the TV set has become a permanent fixture in all upper and middle class households, and it is not uncommon even in the poorer society of urban areas and rural households. Reactions to TV advertisements seem to be stronger than the reaction to print advertisements (Corlis, 1999). The advertisers find it more effective to use television rather than print media to reach consumers, partly due to low literacy rate (Ciochetto, 2004). TV advertising not only change emotions but give substantial message exerting a far reaching influence on the daily lives of people (Kotwal et al, 2008). Television is considered as a popular and powerful medium of information and entertainment to reach the audiences. Television advertising has been a popular medium for advertisers ever since the first began to appear in living rooms with the arrival of cable television, production costs and the opportunity to reach smaller and more targeted markets, making it a medium for small to medium - size business programmes like songs, news, interviews, comedy and information attracts the largest audience than any other medium. Due to the technical development, opportunities to advertise on TV have increased over the past years. Audiences are exposed to hundreds and thousands of commercial messages a day. The willingness to watch commercials in TV is decreasing because of various reasons. All the ads are not noticed by the audiences as well as not all
  11. 11. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 2 the ads are skipped by them, ads which have some entertainment value are liked, watched and remembered by audience which is a welcome response for the ad makers. The basic idea of advertising is to inform, educate and motivate potential buyers. In this era, the media of advertisement matters a lot. In the present era, TV seems to be the most popular and potent media as people are greatly influenced by what they see and see repeatedly. In urban areas especially the TV is the most effective medium of advertisement in persuading the viewer that it has become the most reliable channel of promoting products, both existing and newly launched ones.
  12. 12. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 3 REVIEWOF LITERATURE CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Consumer behavior is one of the most studied topics in the field of marketing. Various differing theories exist but a few common factors can be found. Consumers and their behavior are influenced by internal and external stimuli. Three of the most common stimuli are cultural factors, social factors and personal factors. In addition, the consumer’s personal factors such as motivation, perception, learning and memory comprise an influence on how the consumer responds to the marketing stimuli. (Kotler & Keller 2012, 151) Ramanuj Majumdar defines consumer behavior as follows: “Consumer behavior entails the totality of consumer’s decision involved in acquiring, consuming and disposing of goods and services, as well as making use of experiences and ideas.” (Majumdar) BUYINGPROCESS Kotler and Keller (2012) introduce a five-stage model of the consumer buying process. In the first stage of this model the buyer recognizes a problem or a specific need that has been triggered by internal or external stimuli, that eventually becomes a driving force. Internal stimuli refer to a feeling coming from the inside of the buyer, the buyers mind. A few examples of this sort of stimuli are basic needs like hunger or thirst. External stimuli on the other hand refer to a stimulus coming from the environment, seeing a piece of advertisement for example. Those circumstances that trigger a particular need can be identified and marketing strategies can be developed following the paths of these circumstances that will push the consumer interest to the next stage of a buying process. (Kotler & Keller 2012, 166) The second stage of the buying process is the phase of information search. At this point, the consumer aroused by internal or external stimuli is inclined to search additional information of the desired product or service. There are two different levels of arousal. Milder arousal refers to a situation where the buyer becomes more receptive of information about the product and will pay more attention to the specific product and similar alternatives. (Kotler & Keller 2012, 166)
  13. 13. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 4 The other level of arousal is called the active information search level. At this stage the buyer talks with other people, actively seeks information on the Internet and visits stores in order to gain as much information about the product as possible. Information may be gathered from personal sources, commercial sources, public sources and experimental sources. (Kotler & Keller 2012, 166) After a triggered interest and information search, the buyer reaches the point where potential alternatives are evaluated. On one hand, the buyer decides on whether the product will satisfy a specific need. On the other hand the buyer is looking for certain benefits of this specific product and its solutions and finally evaluates if the product and its attributes will deliver enough benefits to satisfy this need. By knowing which attributes are most important to different consumer groups, the marketers are able to segment their markets. Buying behavior is influenced by the buyers beliefs and attitudes acquired through experience and learning. An attitude is defined as a personal evaluation of an object or idea and it may be either favorable or unfavorable. An attitude is always an emotional feeling and reflects the buyers’ action tendencies. (Kotler & Keller 2012, 167) The fourth stage of the process is where the actual purchase decisions are made. Nevertheless, there are two factors possible to intervene with the purchase decision. A readymade purchase decision can be rethought due to other people’s attitude toward the buyers chosen alternative and his or her willingness to accord with the other persons wishes. There are also some unforeseen situational factors that may interfere with the buying decision, such as sudden financial trouble or even badly experienced customer service. It is obvious that buyers look for minimizing the risk of their purchases. This can be done by gathering information, preferring national brand names and warranties to mention a few examples. The marketers also play a significant role in reducing risk by providing enough accurate information to the potential buyer. (Kotler &Keller 2012, 168) The final stage of Kotler and Keller’s model takes place after the purchase has been made. One may think that the marketer’s job ends, where the product is bought but in real life the marketer must manage the post-purchase customer relationship as well. The marketer gains valuable knowledge by monitoring post purchase satisfaction, actions and product uses. Satisfaction can be measured at the level where the buyers expectations and the products
  14. 14. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 5 perceived performance meet. A high satisfaction level result in feeling of joy and it influences a second buy of the same product and positive word of mouth marketing in addition. (Kotler & Keller 2012, 167) JagdishN.Sheth(1974) examines there different aspects of effectiveness of advertising communication. First, how does a specific advertising communication get distorted in the consumer‘s mind, what are the dimensions of distortion and what factors produce the cognitive distortion? Second, how does advertising influence the consumer choice process? Two mechanism called persuasion and reinforcement are discussed and the underlying process of influence and tactics are explored. Third, how does advertising influence consumption behavior? Two mechanisms called reminder precipitation are discussed and the underlying processes and tactics are explored. Finally, the paper discusses a sequential linkage among the four mechanisms of advertising effectiveness and gives opinions on the persuasiveness of advertising through each mechanism. In the same way how measure the effectiveness of TV Ads on Consumer Purchase Decision. BRANDING On the shelves of every grocery store are brand-name products from Oreo cookies to Tide detergent. Strong brands are a great asset to a company and can generate streams of incremental revenue due to the fact that people are willing to pay a premium for brand- name products and over time they reduce marketing costs because a brand’s customers present lower or no purchase barriers. A brand is a name, symbol, term, sign, design, or combination of each of these things, the purpose of which is to identify goods and services of one seller or of a group of sellers and differentiate them from competitors. A brand is also the sum of all characteristics that make a product offering unique. A company can copy a product, but it cannot replicate the brand. In a sense, the brand is the “personality” of the product, what the product means to the customer and the set of emotions evoked when the brand is encountered or used by the customer. Brand Identity a brand’s identity is the company’s vision of the brand and the brand’s promise to consumers. It is also the outward visible identity of the corporate brand or family of brands. McDonald’s, for example, has the golden arches as part of its brand identity, but it also represents convenient and reliable products. When you order a McDonald’s
  15. 15. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 6 cheeseburger, it should taste the same whether you are ordering it in Los Angeles, Hartford, Shanghai, or Moscow and it should be prepared quickly, because it is “fast food.” Brand Image The brand image is the consumer’s actual view of the brand. Companies will try to bridge the gap between brand identity and brand image. Consistency is the key element when promoting a brand or product, and a clear and consistent promotional campaign will help ensure that the brand’s image and the brand identity are very similar. BRAND LOYALTY People who buy only a particular brand of product or service are considered by marketers to be “brand loyal.” There are various levels of brand loyalty, from extremely loyal to brand terrorist and everything in between. Think about the products you buy; are you willing to purchase just any brand of detergent or coffee creamer? Some people will use only Clorox bleach or Coffee-mate coffee creamer, while others will be satisfied using private-label bleach or a generic creamer and may not notice a difference beyond price. Others may be loyal some of the time; however, they will take advantage of a sale or promotion for another competitive product. For example, you may buy Coke regularly, but would you buy Pepsi instead if there were a sale? If so, you are not brand loyal to either Coke or Pepsi; you are capable of switching. People who have bad experiences with brand-name products or services may tell others about their dissatisfaction; these people are deemed “brand terrorists” and may act as an adverse multiplier of reputation. A rule of thumb is that a positive experience will have a one or two-time positive effect, but a customer with a negative experience will tell 8 to 10 people. If you have a terrible meal at a local restaurant, chances are not only will you not eat at the restaurant again, but also you will tell friends or family about your negative experience. The same can be true with your experience with any kind of product. People who have a bad experience with a brand, product, or service are much more likely to express their reaction to their experience than those who have good experiences. While there is no way of ensuring that every person is completely satisfied, companies can take measures to try to please their customers through high levels of customer service. They can also take steps to win over customers, or market share, from other products or services in order to equalize the balance between lost customers and new customers.
  16. 16. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 7 INTEGRATEDMARKETINGCOMMUNICATIONS One of the most important aspects of advertising and promoting a product or service is consistency. Companies ensure the consistency of their message by coordinating all of their promotional activities. This coordination of activities into a system or strategic plan is referred to as integrated marketing communications (IMC). IMC creates a unified message and enhances the effectiveness of reaching the target consumer. Firms will create one message that will be used consistently throughout a marketing campaign. It is important that the promotional strategy also be in alignment with the organizational goals. There are three major aspects of an IMC plan: research, creative aspects, and the implementation. Research and analysis are used to find the best way to design the product or service, the most effective message and media to use, and the best means to distribute the product or service at the optimal price. The creative aspect is the actual advertising, copywriting, and designing of promotional materials. Implementation is the act of putting the plan together, creating a strategy, and seeing it through. Planning an integrated marketing communications plan also means finding your target market; determining what is unique about the product offering or service you are providing; constructing a positioning strategy for your product or service (building a mental niche in relation to competitor products or services); deciding what the best message would be for your product; and choosing the optimal marketing mix in relation to your allowed marketing budget. As an example of IMC, suppose Nike comes up with a promotional “Just do it” campaign targeting female athletes for its new line of women’s athletic shoes. Marketers will do their research to find what media female athletes use, what time they watch television, what programs they watch, and what types of advertising messages they respond to. Then Nike will create the promotional materials and ads. They learn what’s important about the athletic shoes women wear. Nike may have TV and magazine ads featuring women athletes doing extraordinary things. They may also sponsor a women’s sporting event such as women’s NCAA basketball or hold a contest for a fan to spend day training with the U.S. women’s soccer team. The message would be clear and consistent: Nike cares about female athletes and supports women’s athletics. Ideally, an effective IMC campaign will differentiate the product or service from a competitor’s; generate a flow of leads; be consistent with and support the overall branding strategy; cause the company to have a more prominent place in the market; communicate the company’s experience and knowledge; and help to retain existing customers.
  17. 17. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 8 THE PROMOTIONALMIX The promotional mix is the use of different advertising and communication channels in a coordinated way to run an effective marketing campaign. These coordinated campaigns are part of an effective integrated marketing communications plan. The four main methods of promotion within the mix are advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, and public relations. The most important factor in determining the optimal mix is identifying the target market. This can be determined through extensive market research. Once a company knows its target market, it can then research its use of various media outlets in order to come up with the best combination of marketing materials to reach the defined target. For example, if the target market is stay-at-home moms, an organization might find that television advertisements during certain daytime television shows are most effective for reaching them. If the target market is a young professional, the marketer might find that using billboards in a downtown commercial district and morning drive time radio advertisements are effective for getting the message to this target market. The size of the promotional budget will greatly influence the chosen mix as well. Television advertising can be very costly and, therefore, may not be a feasible option for a company with a smaller marketing budget, at least not during prime viewing hours on major networks. Often the amount of money a firm spends on promotional activities will be affected by the product life cycle, general economic conditions, and the competition. The promotional mix may involve a company coordinating its loyalty program with advertising campaigns and a promotional deal. For example, an airline may send out a mailer to its frequent fliers advertising 5,000 free bonus miles for booking a ticket in the next month. In this instance, the airline is coordinating a direct mailing with loyalty program membership and a promotional campaign. ADVERTISEMENT Advertising is the core idea that is presented in non-personal ways to create purchase intention. For example, it is define as sharing of information about products in a non- personal way usually paid by a sponsor through different media (Datta, 2008). Similarly, Ayanwala et al., (2005) defines advertising as “… a non-personal paid form where ideas, concepts, products or services, and information are promoted through media (visual, verbal, and text) by an identified sponsor to persuade or influence behaviour”. Advertisers are
  18. 18. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 9 trying to spread maximum information about products in target market. Therefore, popularity is the aim of advertising (Ramaswami & Namakumari, 2004). Advertising is done to create likeness, attraction and influence buying behaviour in positive way. Attitude-towards-the ads, is an interesting theory of advertising often used to understand the buying behaviour. Effective advertisement influences the attitude towards brand and finally leads to purchase intention (Goldsmith & Lafferty, 2002). Ideally, consumers buying behaviour is the products purchase decision (Adelaar et al., 2003). Advertisers are using different techniques to effectively convey commercial messages to create purchase decision. Hierarchy of effects model often used to assess the effectiveness of advertisement and is a series of steps such as, attention, interest, desire and purchase decision (Cavill & Bauman, 2004; Grover & Vriens, 2006). The steps of hierarchy of effects model are as follow: AWARENESS It is the first step of hierarchy of effects model, where people get awareness about products. At this stage, advertisers introduce their products, services and information about the usage of products. Initially, advertisers create awareness about products in their target market and its benefits to use (Baca et al., 2005). According to Ashcroft and Hoey (2001) awareness is the cognitive stage to attract customers and is the first step of communication process. INTEREST Advertisement of a product or service is run with the aim to create interest among target viewers because creating interest is the priority of advertisers (Rowley, 1998; Broeckelmann, 2010). Continues buying of a particular product shows consumers’ interest (Ghirvu, 2013). Pharmaceutical companies, for example, often invest to create products interest in target market with aggressive sales force which attempts to motivate customers for further query (Baca et al., 2005).
  19. 19. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 10 DESIRE It is the third step of hierarchy of effects model that deals with the aspiration of target customers to buy a product or service. From advertising view point, desire is said to be the intense level of wanting a product. Creating desire is the precedence of advertisers, where they explain the features and benefits of their products that how much value you have here (Richardson, 2013). At this level, advertisers try to give greater exposure of a product to the customers (Rowley, 1998). ACTION At the fourth level of hierarchy of effects model action on the part of a customer is taken i.e. actually purchasing a product or service. At this stage, customers are ready to pay for the products to fulfil their intense desire for a particular product or services. A number of incentives offered may persuade a customer to take action (purchase). For example discounted prices often entice customers to take action i.e. buy something (Rawal, 2013). As mentioned by Ashcroft and Hoey (2001) action is the behaviour stage involving actual purchasing. According to Hoyer and Macinnis (2009) effective advertising creates positive feelings that lead to actual purchase of advertised products. MAJOR ADVERTISEMENTMEANS PRINTADVERTISING -NEWSPAPERS,MAGAZINES,BROCHURES, FLIERS Print media has always been a popular advertising option. Advertising products via newspapers or magazines is a common practice. In addition to this, the print media also offers options like promotional brochures and fliers for advertising purposes. Often, newspapers and magazines sell the advertising space according to the area occupied by the ad, its position in the publication (front page/middle page, above/below the fold), as well as the readership of the publication. For instance, an advertisement in a relatively new and less popular newspaper will cost far less than an advertisement in an established newspaper that has a high readership. The price of print ads may also depend upon quality of the paper and the supplement in which
  20. 20. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 11 they appear. For example, an advertisement in the glossy (and popular) supplement of a newspaper will cost more than one in a supplement which uses mediocre quality paper. BILLBOARDS, KIOSKS,TRADE-SHOWS ANDEVENTS Advertising makes use of several tools and techniques to attract the customers outdoors. The most common examples of outdoor advertising are billboards, kiosks, and also events and trade-shows organized by a company. Billboard advertising is very popular. However, it has to be really terse and catchy, in order to grab the attention of passers-by. Kiosks not only provide an easy outlet for the company's products, but also make for an effective advertising tool to promote the company's products. Organizing special events or sponsoring those makes for an excellent advertising opportunity and strategy. A company can organize trade fairs, or even exhibitions for advertising their products. If not this, the company can organize several events that are closely associated with their field. For instance, a company that manufactures sports utilities can sponsor some tournament to advertise its products. Mobile billboards are a newer form of this old advertising technique, where a large display screen or billboard is attached to the back of a van or a flatbed truck, and taken to different locations within a city or neighbourhood. RADIOADVERTISING Radio advertising is one of the oldest forms of advertising. In the early 20th century, as radio began to take centre stage in a lot of American homes, businesses realized that they could use this medium to reach a huge audience for their products, and not merely rely on print media such as newspapers and pamphlets. Advertisers can buy airtime from a radio station to air their ads, and prices depend upon the duration, time of the day, and the programs during which the ads are aired. TELEVISION ADVERTISING The holy grail of advertising for more than 50 years, television advertising remains the most sought-after mode of advertising even in the 21st century. It reaches the maximum number
  21. 21. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 12 of target customers, and has a variety of programming schedules which can be effectively used for the insertion of ad content. This is an expensive type of advertising, as reflected by the high price for ad spots during sporting events such as the Super Bowl. There is also a trend of placing banners in the background while a program is playing, to increase the visibility of ads. Computer-based graphics are also used to generate ads, which run in the backdrop of high-profile events such as sporting events and movie premiers. Television jingles for popular products such as 'Here comes the King' (Budweiser) and 'I am stuck on Band-Aid' (Band-Aid), are already of legendary status. MODERN TYPES OF ADVERTISING ONLINE ADVERTISING Broadcast advertising is a very popular advertising medium that constitutes several branches like television, radio, or the Internet. Television advertisements have been very popular ever since they were introduced. The cost of television advertising often depends upon the duration of the ad, the time of broadcast (prime time/lull time), sometimes the show on which it will be broadcast, and of course, the popularity of the television channel itself. The radio might have lost its charm owing to new-age media; however, it remains the choice of small-scale advertisers. Radio jingles has been very a popular advertising medium, and has a large impact on the audience, which is evident in the fact that many people still remember and enjoy old popular radio jingles. COVERTADVERTISING -ADVERTISINGIN MOVIES Covert advertising is a unique kind of advertising, in which a product or a particular brand is incorporated in some entertainment and media channels like movies, television shows, or even sports. There is no commercial advertising as such in the entertainment, but the brand or the product is subtly (or sometimes evidently) showcased in the entertainment show. Some of the famous examples for this sort of advertising have to be the appearance of brand Nokia which is displayed on Tom Cruise's phone in the movie Minority Report, or the use of Cadillac cars in the movie Matrix Reloaded. Pay attention next time, you're sure to come across a lot of such examples.
  22. 22. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 13 SURROGATE ADVERTISING -ADVERTISINGINDIRECTLY Surrogate advertising is prominently seen in cases where advertising a particular product is banned by law. Advertisements for products like cigarettes or alcohol, which are injurious to health, are prohibited by law in several countries. Hence, these companies come up with several other products that have the same brand name, and indirectly remind people of the cigarettes or alcohol of the same brand, by advertising the other products. Common examples include Fosters and Kingfisher beer brands, which are often seen to promote their brand with the help of surrogate advertising. PUBLIC SERVICE ADVERTISING -ADVERTISINGFOR SOCIALCAUSES Public service advertising is a technique that makes use of advertising as an effective communication medium, to convey socially relevant messages about important matters and social causes like AIDS, energy conservation, political integrity, deforestation, illiteracy, poverty, and so on. David Ogilvy, who is considered to be one of the pioneers of advertising and marketing concepts, had reportedly encouraged the use of the advertising field for a social cause. Ogilvy once said, "Advertising justifies its existence when used in the public interest - it is much too powerful a tool to use solely for commercial purposes." Today, public service advertising has been increasingly used in a non-commercial fashion in several countries across the world in order to promote various social causes. CELEBRITYADVERTISING Although the audience is getting smarter and smarter, and the modern-day consumer is getting immune to the exaggerated claims made in a majority of ads, there exists a section of advertisers that still bank upon celebrities and their popularity for advertising their products. Using celebrities for advertising involves signing up celebrities for campaigns, which consist of all sorts of advertising including television or even print ads. How effective these ads are, is something that each consumer himself can determine.
  23. 23. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 14 IN-STORE ADVERTISING This is also a popular advertising method for large malls and departmental stores, popularized by stores such as Walmart. Also known as 'point of purchase advertising', the products are usually displayed prominently at checkout counters and packaged attractively. They aim to influence the customer to make an impulse purchase, rather than actively create a need for the product. Other forms of in-store advertising can be placing the product where the customer can easily see them, and banners inside the store announcing price cuts or new launches. COFFEE CUP ADVERTISING A relatively new form of mass advertising is the placement of small ads or promotional material on paper cups for coffees or onto the table tops of the diner or cafe. Its origins can be traced to Australian companies, and is now gaining popularity in Asia and the Americas. DIGITAL OUTOF HOME ADVERTISING This is a new type of advertising, which is gaining in popularity and effectiveness as a quick way to get the customers' attention. Digital out of home advertising can take many forms, but is essentially a systematic arrangement of media at different venues across a geographic location, where there is a lot of foot traffic such as cafes, bars, gyms, gas stations, and many others. The advent of digital video recorders such as TiVo has enabled viewers to skip through ads shown on television causing advertisers and sponsors significant loss in revenue. This is being tackled by using digital broadcast systems in outdoor public places. Kiosks equipped with LCD screens and customized software can be found in public locations like parks, subways, and gas stations, along with digital televisions. This has also been integrated with Point of Purchase advertising, with many stores having LCD equipped stand-alone systems, where the customer can gain product information and even make a purchase using his credit card.
  24. 24. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 15 THE FUTURE OF ADVERTISING DIGITAL SIGNAGE Already a very widely used form of information dissemination in both public and private areas, digital signage is growing ever more prevalent, as it is a cheap alternative to the costly excesses of television commercials. It is primarily done through the installation of LED or plasma screens in public places, such as railway and subway stations, cafes, airports, retail stores, hotels, and many other similar locations. SMARTPHONE ADVERTISING The world of smartphones is an ever-growing and changing one. The mobile connectivity it offers to consumers makes it fertile ground for advertising. Applications from both network carriers and phone manufactures carry branding and product information for services they offer. Also, games downloaded to mobile platforms display ads when connected to the internet. Advertisers are striving to make ads which are more adaptable to smaller screens, and make them available across a range of operating systems such as Android, iOS and Windows. NICHE ADVERTISING Niche markets are specific areas of consumer demand which a company tries to fulfil with customized or innovative products. Niche advertising deals with targeting this select group of customers with tailored ads. Companies are taking advantage of online blogs and websites which cater to exclusive content such as exotic travel or wines or regional cuisine, and using these as platforms to advertise their products. The use of Internet marketing for these niche offerings ensure that potential customers are exposed to the ads whenever they search for related terms or log on to a particular site. USER-GENERATEDADVERTISING This is a radically new form of advertising that is interactive to the point of letting customers create their own ads for the brand, one of which is chosen as the brands official ad for a particular time period. This was successfully done by PepsiCo for its Doritos brand of snacks
  25. 25. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 16 during the Super Bowl 2007, and again in 2009 and 2010. User-generated ads are not cost prohibitive, and allow the company to generate a lot of publicity via word-of-mouth. ACTIVE PARTICIPANTIN ADVERTISING Following are the group of people who are actively involved in advertising. ADVERTISER: Seller who manufacture and market consumer products are the prominent group of advertisers. Hindustan unilever, proctor and gamble, Siemen and Larson and toubro are the examples of advertisers. Also the retailers are the second prominent segment among advertisers. They stock the products and sell them to the ultimate consumers. Government and social organization is also the active participant in this category. TARGET AUDIENCE: It refers to the recipient of the advertising message. Every message is either directed to a mass audience and class audience. Advertising desire to cover this target audience for promoting sales. Advertising message intends to cover the potential user and non-user who may purchase the product in future. The messages are also directed to the user of the competitor's product so that they switch over the advertiser's products. ADVERTISING AGENCIES: An advertiser has two options viz. (I) to design, develop and produce and advertising message and get it placed in desired media directly through his own sales or advertising department, or (ii) to entrust the entire job of advertising to a team of highly professionalised, specialised, independent, advertising agency. An advertising agency is composed of creative people, who conceive design, develop and produce, advertising message with creative ideas and place it in the desired advertising media, for and on behalf of its client (the advertiser). The advertising agencies usually charge a commission of 15% on the media bills from the media owners. In addition, they charge out- of pocket expenses to their clients, i.e. the advertisers. They employ copywriters, artists, photographers, Typographers, layout designers, editors and such other creative people. ADVERTISING PRODUCTION PEOPLE (ARTISTS): The production of impressive and persuasive advertisements is possible only with the active help and creative spirit of the artists like copywriters, artists, photographers, typographers, layout designers, editors and
  26. 26. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 17 such other creative people. Such people are usually employed by the ad agencies or, their services may be hired by the ad agencies on job basis. TARGET AUDIENCE (READERS, LISTENERS, VIEWERS AND PRESENT AND FUTURE BUYERS): Advertising messages are given about products services and ideas to readers, listeners, viewers and actual and potential buyers, who are known as the audience. The target audience may be classified into the following three categories, viz., Existing or, current consumers, who are reminded and influenced to continue their patronage and to increase the volume of their buying, Consumers, who buy and use, a competitor’s brand; hence they are persuaded to buy the advertised brand, instead of the competitor’s brand; and Those consumers, who do not use any such product; and even then, are persuaded to buy the advertised product. MASS MEDIA: Advertising messages are communicated to the target audience through different mass media, such as, Print media: They consist of newspapers, magazines, journals, handbills, etc. Electronic Media: They consist of radio, television motion pictures, video, multi-media and the internet. Outdoor Media: They consist off posters, hoarding, and handbills, stickers’ air balloons, neon sing bill boards, local cinema houses, and transit media. Direct Mail: It consists of broachers, leaflets, pamphlets, letters and return cards addressed to consumers. The advertising agencies guide their clients (advertisers) in selection of the most appropriate advertising media, which is known as „media planning‟. Each medium has sits own merits and demerits. GOVERNMENT AUTHORITIES: The business of advertising is regulated by the government department. The government adopts law and regulation which have a direct or an indirect bearing on the advertising. Apart from this ASCI (Advertising standards council of India) and ABC (Audit Bureau of circulation) are also some of authorities regulating advertising. ADVERTISING PRODUCTION FIRMS: Advertising production firms are the support agencies which help in the production of advertisement. This includes copywriter, artist, photographers, typographers, producer, and editors. These are the people who transform
  27. 27. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 18 ideas into a finished forms Thus the success and failure of the advertisement depend on these people. TELEVISION ADVERTISEMENT Television advertising is the sending of promotional messages or media content to one or more potential program viewers. The viewers are influenced by the messages which results in actions that benefit the advertiser. Advertisers desire to provide messages to people who are interested in their products or services. Advertisers pay media companies (such as broadcasters) to send their promotional messages. Advertisers coordinate the selection of broadcasters and transmission of their promotional messages using advertising campaigns. Broadcasters operate systems that gather, organize, and provide people with content that they want to see. The broadcaster may purchase license rights for content they send through their systems or create new (original) programming. Viewers select programs they want to view and some of these programs contain promotional messages which motivate some of them to take actions that satisfy advertiser’s business objectives. THE HISTORYOF ADVERTISINGON TELEVISION When television first emerged in Britain advertising was soon to follow. The first TV advert was aired in September of 1955 and featured a brand of toothpaste. The early form of television advertising is slow and highly informative. Due to the lack of experience in the form of television advertising, television adverts were essentially moving newspaper advertisements. Producers conformed to a medium they were familiar with. As expected the lack of certainty present in these early advertisement was evident to the public, hence reflecting on the products. Soon after the popular method of using a presenter to advertise products was quickly utilised. As is today, the presenters were usually some form of celebrity, possibly from television, a famous sports player or a musician/performer. Even so, the adverts were technically poor (due to the lack of
  28. 28. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 19 inexperience) and continued to show ‘scientific’ content with to try and sway the viewer into buying their product Entertainment value had not yet been considered. As well as drawing from print media, television sought inspiration from radio. It was because of this that television adverts took on an ‘inform the audience’ feeling, where the presenter would quite literally TELL them why they should use the product. The subtleties of today’s age were not even considered. In addition to this, presenters would frequently shout, rather than simply talking in an early attempt to engage audience’s attention. Early advertisements showed white middle class people in white middle class situations. As you will see in this advertisement, there is carefully placed wedding ring on the woman’s hand, indicating the social stance that companies took when advertising their products. Early television was sponsored by certain brands, giving audiences the ‘Kraft’ hour, where segments of television were driven by the advertisers. As is with today, the popular the television shows within an hour, the more ‘hot property’ the advertising was for that segment. This occurred as advertisers were beginning to realise the true power of television, many advertisers moved from radio (the previous most popular medium) over to television. Advertising remained relatively stable up until the 1960’s, where it then began to be used for political campaigns. Prior to that, the brands advertised were habitually conformist, unsensational and conventional. Here is a blatantly political advertisement aired in 1960, promoting JFK. It is a typical talk to the camera, informative and dry approach to advertising. Here follows another campaign for the same politician; however the approach is considerably different. A common tool in advertising emerged in the form of the ‘catchy jingle’. It demonstrates the power of entertainment, even in political campaigns. Television advertising reached an all-time high in the 1990s with infomercials, huge mergers and ambush marketing which takes us almost to the present day. Commercial television advertising was introduced in India on January 1, 1976 on the pattern of All India Radio. Thus, as an advertising media, television is of recent origin in India. It is also known by the name of “Doordarshan” in India. Television makes full use of sight, sound
  29. 29. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 20 and motion and thereby maximises impact on audience. On colour TVs, now colour may also be used to add to the impact. The coverage of television is increasing at a rapid pace in India. This media is particularly advantageous for those advertisers whose products require demonstration. Sponsored programmes have also been started on television in India. WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF ADVERTISINGON TV? Advertising on TV offers a number of benefits to businesses by incorporating sound, images and movement to make the whole package interesting for consumers. Ads that capture the attention of the audience can start consumers talking, effectively reaffirming the advertising message. REACH One of the benefits of TV advertising is its ability to communicate with a very large audience. Considered a form of mass media, TV ads work well to attract attention, generate awareness and establish preference for products and services, says Lin Grensing-Pophal, author of "Marketing with the End in Mind." Because of the broad audience they target-- particularly through major TV networks--TV ads tend to provide general, rather than very specific, messages. GROWING ABILITY TODIFFERENTIATE Despite the large audience reach of television, it's important to note that the ability to target market segments has grown significantly over the years, says Grensing-Pophal. Even network TV offers a wide range of programming options where ads are most likely to be viewed by specific target audience segments. With cable television advertising, advertisers can narrowly target specific market segments not only by placing their ads in specific programs but also choose specific zip-code areas for broadcasting the ads. MULTI-SENSORY APPEAL TV has always been able to appeal to multiple senses through its combination of text, images, sound and motion. While the development of effective TV spots require significant planning and the use of experienced and often expensive, production experts, the value can
  30. 30. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 21 be significant as well. It is its multi-sensory appeal that allows TV advertising to remain a viable option for many advertisers. CREATIVITY AND IMPACT The greatest advantage of TV is the opportunity it provides for presenting the advertising message. The interaction of sight and sound offers tremendous creative flexibility and makes possible dramatic, life like representations of products and services. TV commercials can be used to convey a mood or image for a brand as well as to develop emotional or entertaining appeals that help make a dull product appear interesting. SELECTIVITY AND FLEXIBILITY Television has often been criticized for being a nonselective medium, since it is difficult to reach a precisely defined market segment through the use of TV advertising. But some selectivity is possible due to variations in the composition of audiences as a result of program content, broadcast time, and geographic coverage. For example, Saturday morning TV caters to children; Saturday and Sunday afternoon programs are geared to the sports- oriented male; and weekday daytime shows appeal heavily to homemakers. TOP 10 MOSTVIEWEDTV ADS ON YOUTUBE The TV ads that Nielsen tracks are usually 30 or 60 seconds long, YouTube's top 10 ads of 2014 averaged three minutes in length. That's 47% more time per ad that last year's top 10. Despite the length, the ads were able to keep people's attentions. People spent 54% more time watching this year's top 10 ad compared to last year's crop. And this year's top 10 ads combined for 425 million views, 112% more views than 2012's top 10 spots totalled. YouTube ranked the ads primarily based on how many paid and non-paid views they garnered and how much of a video people typically watched. It also considers other factors such as likes, shares and total watch time. YouTube's 10 most popular ads of 2014 below: 1. Nike "Winner Stays" 2. Nike "The Last Game"
  31. 31. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 22 3. 3.Budweiser "Puppy Love" 4. Always "#LikeAGirl" 5. Devil's Due "Baby Attack" 6. Duracell "Trust Your Power" 7. Samsung Galaxy Note 4 "Then and Now" 8. Procter & Gamble "Thank You, Mom" 9. Budweiser "Friends Are Waiting" 10. Heineken "The Payphone" TOP 10 ADVERTISINGCOMPANIESOFINDIA: Ogilvy (www.ogilvy.com) With its presence in over 100 countries, Ogilvy is a premier advertising agency in the world. Its Indian operations are headed by award winning advertising personality, Piyush Pandey. This WPP subsidiary has created memorable ads like those for Fevikwik, Vodafone, and Cadbury Dairy Milk. JWT (www.jwt.com) JWT, another WPP subsidiary, is among the largest ad agencies in the world. It has six offices in India, in Delhi, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Bangalore and Chennai. This company has won several awards in the Cannes India event. Its famous ad campaigns include Listerine, Good night, and Teach for India. Lowe Lintas (www.lowelintas.in) Lowe Lintas is among the most trusted brands in the country. Headquartered in Mumbai, it has offices in several locations in India, including Pune, Ahmedabad, Kolkata, Gurgaon and Chennai. R. Balki, the famous advertising personality is its Chairman. Lowe Lintas is responsible for ad campaigns like Idea, ICICI Prudential and Tata Tea. McCann Erickson India (www.mccann.com) With offices in about 120 countries, McCann Erickson is an award winning global advertising company. It is headed by Prasoon Joshi, a revered ad personality in India. This ad agency has Indian offices in Chennai, Bangalore, New Delhi and Mumbai. MasterCard, Coca Cola, and Greenlam Laminates are some of the popular ads created by McCann Erickson India.
  32. 32. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 23 DDB Mudra (www.mudra.com) DDB Mudra is a popular advertising firm in India, formed after global advertising holding major Omnicom Group acquired Mudra India in 2011. It is much known for campaigns like McDonalds, Tourism Australia, Colgate and PolicyBazaar.com. The company has its headquarters in Mumbai and has operations in Delhi as well. Leo Burnett (leoburnett.co.in) Among the highest ranked advertising companies in Asia Pacific in 2012, Leo Burnett India is part of the US advertising giant Leo Burnett Worldwide. Its Indian operations are headed by Arvind Sharma and the company has offices in Gurgaon, New Delhi, Bangalore and Mumbai. Its clients include Samsung, P&G and Balaji. Draftfcb+Ulka Advertising Pvt. Ltd. (www.draftfcb.com) A subsidiary of the Interpublic Group of Companies, Draftfcb+Ulka is much known for its Falling Hoarding outdoor campaign in Mumbai. The company has its headquarters in Mumbai and other offices in Delhi and Bangalore. Its clients include ITC Foods, Tata Docomo, Wipro and Snapdeal. Dentsu India (www.dentsu.in) Dentsu is Tokyo based advertising major. It has a number of wholly owned subsidiaries in India, including Dentsu Marcom, Dentsu Creative Impact, Dentsu Media and Dentsu Communications. It has offices in Gurgaon, Bangalore, Chennai, Mumbai and New Delhi. Taproot (www.taprootindia.co.in) Taproot India, before becoming a subsidiary of Dentsu in August 2012, was a budding independent advertising agency. Based in Mumbai, it made memorable ad campaigns like Airtel “Har Friend Zaroori Hai”, Pepsi/ ICC World Cup’s batting and bowing techniques, and The Times of India’s Aman Ki Asha. Contract (www.contractindia.co.in) Contract is a well-known ad agency in India with offices in Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore and Mumbai. It offers services like business and marketing consulting, CRM solutions and design solutions, apart from core advertising. It was established in 1986 and since then has won several awards for its creative advertising.
  33. 33. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 24 BUYINGTELEVSION TIME A number of options are available to advertisers that choose to use TV as part of their media mix. They can purchase time in a variety of program formats that appeal to various types and sizes of audiences. They can purchase time on a national, regional, or local basis. Or they can sponsor an entire program, participate in the sponsorship, or use spot announcements during or between programs. NETWORK ADVERTISEMENT A common way advertisers disseminate their messages is by purchasing airtime from a television network. Network assembles a series of affiliated local TV stations, or affiliates, to which it supplies programming and services. These affiliates, most of which are independently owned, contractually agree to pre-empt time during specified hours for programming provided by the networks and to carry the national advertising within the program. Channels such as Zee TV, Zee Cinema, Zee Action, Ten Cricket, and Zing- collectively owned by one of the India’s leading television media and entertainment company, Zee Entertainment Enterprise Limited are becoming increasingly popular throughout the world and provide advertisers a way to reach the fast growing expatriate Indian market, which the network advertises. Through its strong presence worldwide, Zee entertains over 500 million viewers across 167 countries. Traditionally, most prime-time commercial spots, particularly on the popular shows, are sold during the up-front market, a buying period that occurs before the TV season begins. SPOT AND LOCAL ADVERTISEMENT Spot advertising refers to commercials shown on local TV stations, with time negotiated and purchased directly from the individual stations. All nonnetwork advertising done by a national advertiser is known as national spot advertising; airtime sold to local firms such as retailers, restaurants, banks, and auto dealers is known as local advertising. Local advertisers want media whose coverage is limited to the geographic markets in which they do business. This may be difficult to accomplish with TV, but many local businesses are large enough to make efficient use of TV advertising.
  34. 34. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 25 SYNDICATION Advertisers may also reach TV viewers by advertising on syndicated programs, shows that are sold or distributed on a station-by-station, market-by market basis. A syndicator seeks to sell its program to one station in every market. Off-network syndication shows are very important to local stations because they provide quality programming with an established audience. The syndication market is also very important to the studios that produce programs and sell them to the networks. METHODS OF BUYING TIME In addition to deciding whether to use network versus spot advertising, advertisers must decide whether to sponsor an entire program, participate in a program, or use spot announcements between programs. SPONSORSHIP Under a sponsorship arrangement, an advertiser assumes responsibility for the production and usually the content of the program as well as the advertising that appears within it. In the early days of TV, most programs were produced and sponsored by corporations and were identified by their name but today most shows are produced by either the networks or independent production companies that sell them to a network. PARTICIPATION Most advertisers either cannot afford the costs of sponsorship or want greater flexibility than sole sponsorship permits. Nearly 90 percent of network advertising time is sold as participations, with several advertisers buying commercial time or spots on a particular program. An advertiser can participate in a certain program once or several times on a regular or irregular basis. Participating advertisers have no financial responsibility for production of the program; this is assumed by the network or individual station that sells and controls the commercial time. SPOT ANNOUNCEMENT Spot announcements are bought from the local stations and generally appear during time periods adjacent to network programs (hence the term adjacencies), rather than within
  35. 35. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 26 them. Spot announcements are most often used by purely local advertisers but are also bought by companies with no network schedule (because of spotty or limited distribution) and by large advertisers that use both network and spot advertising. SELECTINGTIME PERIODS ANDPROGRAMS Another consideration in buying TV time is selecting the right period and program for the advertiser’s commercial messages. The cost of TV advertising time varies depending on the time of day and the particular program, since audience size varies as a function of these two factors. TV time periods are divided into dayparts, which are specific segments of a broadcast day. The time segments that make up the programming day vary from station to station. The various daypart segments attract different audiences in both size and nature, so advertising rates vary accordingly. Prime time draws the largest audiences, with 8:30 to 9 P.M. being the most watched half-hour time period and Sunday the most popular night for television. Since firms that advertise during prime time must pay premium rates, this daypart is dominated by the large national advertisers. The various dayparts are important to advertisers since they attract different demographic groups. For example, daytime TV generally attracts women; early morning attracts women and children. The late-fringe (late- night) daypart period has become popular among advertisers trying to reach young adults who tune in to The Late Show and demographic composition also varies depending on the type of program. Situation comedies attract the largest prime-time audiences, with women 18 to 34 comprising the greatest segment of the audience. Feature films rank second, followed by general drama shows. Women 55 and older are the largest audience segment for these programs. RATES OF PUNJAB REGIONALTV FOR COMMERCIALS IN ₹ 9X TASHAN TV BAND RATE PER SEC 12PM-7PM 323 9AM-12PM 519 7AM-9AM 323 7PM-8PM 323 10PM-10:30PM 128 8PM-10PM 323
  36. 36. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 27 CHARDIKALA TV BAND RATE PER SEC 12PM-1659PM 128 6AM-1159AM 128 5PM-2259PM 128 DAY AND NIGHT TV BAND RATE PER SEC 12PM-1659PM 128 5PM-2259PM 128 6AM-1159AM 128 GET PUNJABI TV BAND RATE PER SEC 7AM-9AM 128 7PM-8PM 128 9AM-12PM 128 12PM-7PM 128 10PM-10:30PM 128 8PM-10PM 128 MH ONE TV BAND RATE PER SEC 10PM-11PM 323 7AM-9AM 519 8PM-10PM 323 7PM-8PM 323 12NOON-7PM 323 9AM-12NOON 323 PTC CHAK DE TV BAND RATE PER SEC 9AM-12PM 323 10PM-10:30PM 128 7AM-9AM 128 7PM-8PM 323 8PM-10PM 323 12PM-7PM 128 PTC NEWS TV BAND RATE PER SEC 5PM-2259PM 323 6AM-1159AM 323 12PM-1659PM 128 PTC PUNJABI TV BAND RATE PER SEC 7PM-8PM 1496 12PM-7PM 519
  37. 37. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 28 7AM-9AM 2083 8PM-10PM 519 9AM-12PM 519 10PM-10:30PM 323 ZEE PUNJABI TV BAND RATE PER SEC 9AM-12PM 128 10PM-10:30PM 128 12PM-7PM 128 7PM-8PM 128 8PM-10PM 128 7AM-9AM 128 Source: Directorateofadvertisement& visual publicity
  38. 38. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 29 MEASURINGTHE TV AUDIENCE One of the most important considerations in TV advertising is the size and composition of the viewing audience. Audience measurement is critical to advertisers as well as to the networks and stations. Advertisers want to know the size and characteristics of the audience they are reaching when they purchase time on a particular program. And since the rates they pay are a function of audience size, advertisers want to be sure audience measurements are accurate. TELEVISION HOUSEHOLD The number of households in the market that own a TV is sometimes referred to as the universe estimate (UE). Television households generally correspond to the number of households in a given market. PROGRAM RATING The percentage of TV households in an area that are tuned to a specific program during a specific time period. The program rating is calculated by dividing the number of households tuned to a particular show by the total number of households in the area. Rating = 𝐻𝐻 𝑡𝑢𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑤 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑎 𝐻𝐻 HOUSEHOLDS USING TELEVISION The percentage of homes in a given area where TV is being watched during a specific time period is called households using television (HUT). This figure, sometimes referred to as sets in use, is always expressed as a percentage. SHARE OF AUDIENCE Another important audience measurement figure is the share of audience, which is the percentage of households using TV in a specified time period that are tuned to a specific program. This figure considers variations in the number of sets in use and the total size of the potential audience, since it is based only on those households that have their sets turned on. Audience share is calculated by dividing the number of households (HH) tuned to a show by the number of households using television (HUT).
  39. 39. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 30 Share = 𝐻𝐻 𝑡𝑢𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑤 𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑎 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑠𝑒ℎ𝑜𝑙𝑑𝑠 𝑢𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑇𝑉 TELEVISION RATING POINT Television Rating Point (TRP) is a tool provided to judge which programmes are viewed the most. This gives us an index of the choice of the people and also the popularity of a particular channel. For calculation purpose, a device is attached to the TV set in a few thousand viewers' houses for judging purpose. These numbers are treated as sample from the overall TV owners in different geographical and demographic sectors. The device is called as People's Meter. It records the time and the programme that a viewer watches on a particular day. Then, the average is taken for a 30-day period which gives the viewership status for a particular channel. BROADCASTAUDIANCE RESEARCH COUNCILINDIA I. Audio Watermarking embeds audio watermarks in video content prior to upl oad and broadcast II. These watermarks are not audible to the human ear, but can easily be detected and decoded using dedicated hardware or software. The watermark is broadcast along with the content. III. As viewing details are recorded by the BAR-O-meters, so are the watermarks. IV. The raw data is cleaned, merged with the channel, program, language and broadcast schedule details. Universe Estimates are applied to get viewership data. This gives content owners unprecedented visibility into when and where their content is broadcast, who has viewed it, etc. As the watermark is part of the content, any attempt to destroy or remove it will also ruin the quality of the material in which it is embedded. This increases the integrity of the data generated by BARC’s ratings.
  40. 40. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 31 WEEKLY DATA OF BARC (Week 17: Saturday, 25th April 2015 to Friday, 1st May 2015) Rank Brands Insertions Week 17 1 Sony MAX 234932.55 2 STAR Plus 196803.66 3 Sun TV 161856.75 4 Colors 155003.62 5 Life Ok 135336.45 6 Zee TV 127971.44 7 Zee Cinema 86177.64 8 SAB TV 85005.03 9 Sony Entertainment Television 81787.43 10 STAR Gold 79331.42 TOP 10 Channels *Across Genre : All India Table 1WEEKLY DATA OF BARC Source- Barc.com *Ad insertion is the process of inserting(splicing) an advertisingmessageinto a media stream such as a television program. Rank Brands Insertions Week 17 1 Cadbury 23925 2 Fair & Lovely 19387 3 Pond's 15286 4 Dove 12883 5 Lifebuoy 12723 6 Surf 9442 7 TVS 9411 8 Axe 9232 9 Colgate 9027 10 Godrej 8944 TOP 10 BRANDS*Across Genres : All India
  41. 41. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 32 DISADVANTAGES OF TV ADVERTISEMENT COSTS Despite the efficiency of TV in reaching large audiences, it is an expensive medium in which to advertise. The high cost of TV stems not only from the expense of buying airtime but also from the costs of producing a quality commercial. LACK OF SELECTIVITY Some selectivity is available in television through variations in programs and cable TV. But advertisers who are seeking a very specific, often small, target audience find the coverage of TV often extends beyond their market, reducing its cost effectiveness. FLEETING MESSAGE TV commercials usually last only 30 seconds or less and leave nothing tangible for the viewer to examine or consider. Commercials have become shorter and shorter as the demand for a limited amount of broadcast time has intensified and advertisers try to get more impressions from their media budgets. CLUTTER The problems of fleeting messages and shorter commercials are compounded by the fact that the advertiser’s message is only one of many spots and other no programming material seen during a commercial break, so it may have trouble being noticed. One of advertisers ‘greatest concerns with TV advertising are the potential decline in effectiveness because of such clutter. LIMITED VIEWER ATTENTION When advertisers buy time on a TV program, they are not purchasing guaranteed exposure but rather the opportunity to communicate a message to large numbers of consumers. But there is increasing evidence that the size of the viewing audience shrinks during a commercial break. People leave the room to go to the bathroom or to get something to eat or drink, or they are distracted in some other way during commercials. The increased presence of VCRs and remote controls has led to the problems of zipping and zapping.
  42. 42. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 33 DISTRUST AND NEGATIVE EVALUATION To many critics of advertising, TV commercials personify everything that is wrong with the industry. Critics often single out TV commercials because of their pervasiveness and the intrusive nature of the medium.
  43. 43. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 34 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A study can be initiated with a proper design and methodology to bring out the suitable findings which are reliable and applicable to solve the problems and useful to carry out further research of interest. It needs a careful analysis of the consumer through which the results for the present study can be crystallized for framing suitable solutions. In this tittle, a brief description of the research methodology adopted in selection of the area, sampling of customers, method of data collection and the tools used for data analysis are presented. IMPORTANCE OFTHE STUDY TV ads impact viewers due to various factors which have multiple dimensions. The influence of these commercials may be due to the innovations in presentation, the theme of the ads, the charisma of the model, the music, the slogans and the power of the brand and so on. It can be said with conviction that the likeability factor of advertisements greatly influences the purchase decision of the viewers and can transform even casual viewers in to a potential buyer. One of the biggest challenges of the advertisers is to retain the effectiveness of advertisements by tailoring it with the attention of the viewers. It is believed by the advertisers that the major objective of the advertising is to influence a positive brand attitude formation. Competition from other advertiser is unavoidable. To keep their ad visible they adopt a few strategies which can give them fruitful results. To elicit an impact in audience, they combine the images, music, humour, drama and much more in their strategies. Popularization of electronic media with multiple channels created a situation of rising culture of ads. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To analyse the effectiveness of TV Advertisement on the buying behaviour of consumer. 2. To identify the factors effecting the buying behaviour of consumer through TV advertisement. 3. To identify the factors effecting consumer preference through TV advertisement.
  44. 44. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 35 SELECTION OF THE STUDY AREA The study was conducted in the Talwara and suburb area. Talwara is hub point of education and have 90.89% of the literacy rate. In the Talwara families are migrated from whole country. So this is rational place for the study. SAMPLINGDESIGN The sample population was the consumers, in the age of 19- 30. The sampling was adopted to cover a sample size of 102 in each segment (56 male and 46 female). The survey was done through social networking sites/online link to respondents working in different fields to have stability of response. The sample was heterogeneous to some extent as it includes male, female, and people from different distances, educational status, and occupation and income group of regular and occasional buyers. In the research non-probability methods of sample, self-selection, and volunteer panels of Internet users is used. TYPE OF DATA COLLECTED The type of data is Primary data which is collected through the online questionnaire. METHODOF DATA COLLECTION Well-structured questionnaire was framed and used for collection of data (Appendix). The Respondents were contacted through e-mail and SNSs. They were given a brief introduction about the purpose and importance of the study. Enough time was given to them to think over the answers for the questions to have reliability of response. Details regarding demographic, economic, social, physiographic and behavioural characteristics of the consumer, consumer‘s awareness, buying behaviour and preferences for TV ad were taken as part of the survey. LIMITATIONS OFTHE STUDY The present study was confined to study Impact of TV Advertisement on Consumer Buying Behavior; hence extrapolation of the results may not be possible since there is a wide difference in customer preference, behaviour, and the factors like socioeconomic, demographic and psychographic across regions. The study is limited to Talwara Township only; it is suggested to carry out research in a larger scale to find out results across regions.
  45. 45. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 36 The study was completely consumer oriented and data collection was done by e-survey (google forums) method. However, serious attempts have been made to minimize the error at every facet of the study. The study is limited to the people who are 19 to 30 in age and respondents in middles class and upper middle class group.
  46. 46. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 37 DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION 1. How old are you? Figure 1 How old are you INTERPRETATION- As earlier described in the research methodology that sample is youth segment. In the sample 2 %( 2) respondent are below 19; 24.50 %( 25) respondents are in between 19-22; 42.20 % in 22-25 and 31.40% are above 25. This means data contains all segment of age. 2. Gender Figure 2 Gender INTERPRETATION- out of 102 respondents 54.90% are male and 45.10% female. This means respondent data is in about equal proportion. Below 19 2 2% 19-22 25 24.50% 22-25 43 42.20% above 25 32 31.40% Male 56 54.90% Female 46 45.10%
  47. 47. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 38 3. What is your Family Annual Income? Figure 3 Family annual income INTERPRETATION- 31.40 % of respondent’s family income is up to ₹ 2Lac. 39.20 % of the respondents have ₹ 2-5 Lacs, and 21.60% have ₹ 5-8 Lacs and 7.80 % of the respondents have above ₹ 8 Lac family incomes. This means all of the respondents have TV sets in their home. 4. According to you which is most effective means of advertisement? Figure 4 Most effective means of ad INTERPRETATION- Majority (75.50 %) of the respondents agreed that TV is the most effective means of the advertisement in Talwara region. After TV ad Internet ad 7.8 % of the respondents agreed that this is effective. So this means in the era of the internet people of the Talwara loves TV ad. The advantage of television over the other mediums is that it is perceived as a combination of audio and video features. up to 2lac 32 31.40% 2-5 Lac 40 39.20% 5-8 lac 22 21.60% above 8 lac 8 7.80% TV Ad 77 75.50% Radio Ad 4 3.90% Print Ad 3 2.90% InternetAd 8 7.80% Signage & Billboard Ad 1 1% Mobile Ad 6 5.90% Sponsorship Ad 1 1% Direct Mail 2 2%
  48. 48. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 39 5. How much time do you spend on watching TV (daily)? Figure 5 Time spend on watching TV DATA OF FEMALE 1hour or less 12 1 to 2 hour 12 2 to 3 hour 11 3 or more hour 11 INTERPRETATION- People of the Talwara have TV watching habit. About 69 % of the people spend more than 1 hour of the day in watching TV. So marketer can get gain by TV advertisement in this area. TV watching habit of female is more than male. 6. It is easy for the TV commercials to convenience you to buy certain products Figure 6 convenience power of TV ad Please note, here 1 -strongly disagree 2 -disagree 3- neutral 4- agree 5- strongly agree INTERPRETATION- This question is about consumer behaviour of the respondents. About 48 % of the respondents are convinced by the TV commercial for what to buy, 1hour or less 31 30.40% 1 to 2 hour 35 34.30% 2 to 3 hour 22 21.60% 3 or more hour 14 13.70% DATA OF MALE 1hour or less 19 1 to 2 hour 22 2 to 3 hour 10 3 or more hour 5 1 6 5.90% 2 8 7.80% 3 39 38.20% 4 39 38.20% 5 10 9.80%
  49. 49. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 40 why to buy, when to buy and from where to buy. Only 13.7 % of the respondents said that they do not influenced by the TV commercial. 38.20 said they are neutral. So this means resident of the Talwara majority decides their buying on the basis of the TV ad. 7. TV Commercials influenced me into buying new product Figure 7 Buying Decision Please note, here 1 -strongly disagree 2 -disagree 3- neutral 4- agree 5- strongly agree INTERPRETATION- About 40 % of the respondents said that they are influenced by the TV ad in the buying of the new product. 41.20 % of the respondents said that they not agree or disagree with statement. This means resident of the Talwara influenced by the TV ad in their buying decisions. 8. Did a Product with good TV Commercial, but poor quality of the product/service ever disappoint you? Figure 8 Expectations from TV ad 1 5 4.90% 2 14 13.70% 3 42 41.20% 4 35 34.30% 5 6 5.90% Sometimes 61 59.80% Never 19 18.60% Always 22 21.60%
  50. 50. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 41 INTERPRETATION- From this question we can say that resident of the Talwara are much aware of the ad. They watch advertisement but never rely on the advertisement. About 79% said that they are rational in their purchasing decision and never or sometimes disappoint them in delivery gap. 9. What is your reaction when you see or hear ad on TV? Figure 9 Behaviour towards TV ad INTERPRETATION- This question is related to the Adjacencies. Majority (57.80 %) of the respondent said that they enjoyed the ad if the content of the ad and delivery of the ad is good, they never swap the channel. This means marketer should focus on the content and delivery of the ad. Covert advertisement should use. 10. Which kind of the programs do you usually watch? Figure 10 respondent Choice Check all that apply. Swap the Channel 29 28.40% Move to do household work 9 8.80% enjoythe ad if the content& deliveryis good 59 57.80% Other 5 4.90% Comedy 68 66.70% Cartoons 29 28.40% Drama 32 31.40% Suspense 39 38.20% Action 40 39.20% Crime 29 28.40% Horror 21 20.60% Science Fiction 31 30.40% Romance 33 32.40%
  51. 51. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 42 INTERPRETATION- 66.70 % of the respondents said that they like comedy programs and 39.20 % said that they like action programs. So we can say that advertisement in the comedy and action programs is profitable for the marketer. 11. Which Kind of TV commercials usually attracts you? Figure 11 Commercial attractiveness Check all that apply. INTERPRETATION-The people of the Talwara like TV commercial/ad with the celebrity and humour in the Ad. 55.90 % of the respondent said they liked the commercial with the celebrity. So marketer should focus upon the celebrity endorsement. 12. Which of the following components influence you most in the commercial ad? Figure 12 Character of influence TV ad Check all that apply. With jingle/tagline 31 30.40% with celebrity endorsement 57 55.90% Animated 41 40.20% Humour 48 47.10% Sexual content 14 13.70% Theme 55 53.90% Content 51 50% Background 25 24.50% Models 35 34.30% Punch Line 38 37.30%
  52. 52. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 43 INTERPRETATION- Majority of the respondents said that they like theme and content of the advertisement. More than 50% respondents like theme and content of the commercial ad in the influence their buying behaviour. 13. TV Commercial viewing: I watch TV Commercial Figure 13 ad Viewing habits INTERPRETATION- In the survey it is found that 37.30 % of the respondents said advertisement helps them to decide what things to buy. Some people said that they enjoyed the ad covering these days. 14. Which time you are likes to watch TV? Figure 14 Time 0 10 20 30 40 50 8-10AM 7-10PM 12-2PM 5-7PM To find out how good product is 2 3 22.50 % To enjoy Ad coveringthese days 2 6 25.50 % To help me decide what things to buy 3 8 37.30 % To find out where I can buy some product/servic e 1 5 14.70 % 8-10AM 25 25% 7-10PM 39 38% 12-2PM 14 14% 5-7PM 16 16%
  53. 53. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 44 INTERPRETATION- In the survey it is found that Majority of the respondents likes to watch TV in the 7-10PM. 38% of the respondents said that they likes to watch TV in the time interval of the 7-10PM and 25% of the respondents said they liked to watch TV on the 8- 10AM. 15. Do you prefer watching series Commercial on TV like TATA Sky daily recharge? Figure 15 Series of commercial INTERPRETATION- Majority (69.90 %) of the respondents said that they do not like series of the advertisement. This means advertiser should not use this method of the advertisement in this area. 16. How long do you think an average TV Commercial should be in order to give the best impact on audience? Figure 16 Average length of TV ad Yes 31 30.40% No 71 69.60% Less than 20 sec 20 19.60% 21-40 sec 48 47.10% 41-60 sec 17 16.70% 1-2 min 17 16.70%
  54. 54. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 45 INTERPRETATION- About half (47.10 %) of the respondents said they TV commercial with the duration of the 21-40 seconds. this means most effective duration of the TV advertisement is the 21-40 seconds.
  55. 55. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 46 SUMMARYOF FINDINGS In the sample of 102, 42.20% respondents are between 22-25 age and this sample shows about equal contribution of the female and males. TV advertisement is the most effective means of the advertisement in this area followed by internet advertisement. In this region Television watching habit of the female is more than males and average numbers of the people like to watch TV between 1 to2 hours. 38.20% of the respondents feel convenient to buy new products influenced through TV advertisement. 34.30% respondents also revealed that they get influenced by TV ad for the buying new products. People get disappointed if the delivery gap occurs. About 57% of the respondents enjoy the ad if the content & delivery is good but if it is boring then, they zipping the channel. People like the ads based on comedy more than other genre. Endorsement of the product by a celebrity increases the attraction of the respondents. Majority of the respondents are like theme and content of the ad. Respondents watch the TV advertisement because it will help them decide what things to buy. Majority people like to watch TV in 7-10PM. This is shocking for me that series ad (Tata sky daily recharge) is not like by the respondents. Ad with the time duration of the 21-40 sec gives best impact on audience.
  56. 56. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 47 RECOMMENDATIONS  It is proved in the survey that people of Talwara likes TV Ad more than other means of ad so marketer should focus upon TV ad to tap this area.  Marketer should make TV commercial theme and content oriented because it influences buying behaviour of the customer.  Many of the customer were agreed on that they buy the goods by watching commercials so TV commercial should be missionary in nature.  Time Duration of the TV commercial should be 20-40 sec.  Presence of the celebrity increase the attention of the audience so if the advertisement budget allows then endorse from celebrity.
  57. 57. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 48 CONCULSION TV advertisement is effective because -Reach, Growing ability to differentiate, Multi-sensory appeal, Creativity and impact, Selectivity and flexibility. This study will help in understand change in consumer behaviour due to TV advertisement. This study may be helpful for the marketer for the customization of the TV advertisement in context of Talwara region. The results may not be possible since there is a wide difference in customer preference, behavior, and the factors like socioeconomic, demographic and psychographic across regions. It is suggested to carry out research in a larger scale to find out results across regions.
  58. 58. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 49 BIBLIOGRAPHY BARC. (n.d.).WeeklyData. http://www.barcindia.co.in. Batra, R., & Myers,J. G. (n.d.). AdverisementManagement. PearsonPublications. Belch.(2010). Advertisementand promotion integrated marketingcommunications. The McGraw- Hill. Bestindiansites.com.(n.d.).Top10 AdvertisingCompaniesof India:. D.Wells,W.(n.d.). Advertisementprinciplesand practice. PearsonPublications. DifferentTypesof Advertising.(n.d.). Buzzle.com. Discoverthe powerof the TV advertisement.(n.d.). Thinkbox. Doyle,C.(2011). Oxford Dictionary of Marketing. OxfordUniversityPress. GOI. (2015). Directorate of advertisement& visualpublicity. GOI. Kotler,P.,& Kevin,L.K.(2012). Marketing Management. Prentice Hall. Kunzarkar,R. S. (n.d.).WhatisTRP and how itis calculated? Timesof India. Majumdar,R. (n.d.). ConsumerBehaviour:InsightsfromIndian Market. PHIlearningprivate limited. N.Sheth,J.(1974). Measurementof advertisementeffective sometheorctical consideration. Journal of advertisement,6-15. Nidhi Kotwal,N.G.(2008). Impact of TV advertisementsonbuyingpatternof adolescentgirls. Journalof social science, 51-55. Richards,L. (n.d.).WhatAre the Advantagesof AdvertisingonTV? http://www.chron.com/. Ron Shachar,B. N. (1998). The EffectivenessandTargetingof Television Advertising. Journalof Economics& ManagementStrategy,363-396. VonodKumarBishnoi,R.S.(2009). The Impactof TV AdvertisingonBuyingBehaviour:A Comparative Studyof Urban andRural Teenagers. JKJournalof Management&Technology , 65-76. Walkenbach,J.(2010). John Walkenbach'sFavoriteExcel2010 Tips & Tricks.
  59. 59. PROJECTREPORT | Impact ofTV Advertisementon ConsumerBuying Behaviour 50 APPENDIX QUESTIONNAIRE Impact of TV Advertisement on Consumer Buying Behaviour I am the student of Central University of Himachal Pradesh, School of Business & Management Studies, Dharmshala and presently doing a project on “Impact of TV Advertisement on Consumer Buying Behaviour”. I request you to kindly fill the questionnaire below and assure you that the data generated shall be kept confidential. * Required What is your name? -------------------------------------------------------- How old are you? * Mark only one oval. o Below 19 o 19-22 o 22-25 o above 25 According to you which is most effective means of advertisement * Mark only one oval. o TV Ad o Radio Ad o Print Ad o Internet Ad o Signage & Billboard Ad o Mobile Ad o Sponsorship Ad o Direct Mail

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