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IoT Standards & Ecosystem


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Internet of Things - Wireless sensors, Big Data and Machine Learning

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IoT Standards & Ecosystem

  2. 2. Summary • Introduction - IoT <> ecosystem, developments • Complete Stack • Sensors & Wireless Technologies • Machine-to-machine BLE, 6lowPAN, LTE MTC • Wearables - ANT+, Zigbee, EnOcean • Device Management • OMA Lightweight M2M, TR069 • Authentication Technology • CoAP, OATH 2.0, MQTT • Big Data, Streaming Technologies • Streaming Analytics & Actionable Intelligence • Standards bodies • Thread, Alseen Alliance, OneM2M, Industrial Internet Consortium, Open Interconnect Consortium, Internet Protocol for Smart Objects (IPSO) Alliance
  3. 3. Internet of Things • Gartner predicts 25 billion ‘connected’ devices by 2020 • Instigated by nexus of four forces - social, mobile, cloud and information • Business verticals - Automotive, consumer, general business, vertical business • Many independent break throughs - Wearables, Mobile health monitoring, Big Data, Data sciences, autonomous vehicles, etc. Source: Gartner Inspiring TED talk <>
  4. 4. Full Stack - IoT Aggregators Mobile App/ Visualization 6lowpan Wifi/BLE 4G LTE Machine Learning & CRM Integration
  6. 6. Bluetooth & BLE
  7. 7. BLE explained… Bluetooth low energy wireless technology is an open low energy, short-range radio technology. Some Key Benefits: • Low power consumption • Connectivity to mobile phones • Small size and Low cost • Multi-vendor interoperability • Globally availability, license free BLE is a connectionless, always OFF technology, with small silicon footprint and low cost having a robust through frequency hopping compared to other wireless technologies. Security is through 128-bit AES encryption and can be for low power consumption with no competitors. Connections involve two separate roles: • Central (master) • Peripheral (slave) Protocols: Building blocks used by all devices conform to the Bluetooth specification, protocols are the layers that implement the different packet formats, routing, multiplexing, encoding,etc. Profiles: “Vertical slices” of functionality covering either basic modes of operation required by all devices or specific use cases.
  8. 8. 6lowPAN
  9. 9. 6lowPAN explained… 6lowPAN ==> Low-power RF + IPv6 = The Wireless Embedded Internet or IP on IEEE 802.15.4 The benefits of 6LoWPAN include: • Open, long-lived, reliable standards • Easy learning-curve • Transparent Internet integration • Network maintainability • Global scalability • End-to-end data flows A 6loWPAN system contains one or more WPANs (Wireless Personal Area Networks) connected to the Internet via a wired bus such as an Ethernet or wired IP bus . The main components of a 6LoWPAN system: • Wireless Cluster: A WPAN (which may be one of many in the system). • Wired Bus: A bus (e.g. Ethernet) to which the wireless clusters are connected. • Border-Router: A device used to connect a wireless cluster to the wired bus. • Host: A device, such as a PC or workstation, with an IP connection to the system. - A Remote Access Terminal used to access the 6LoWPAN system remotely via the Internet. - A Data Management Centre on the wired bus, used to configure and interrogate the 6LoWPAN system. Thread is a special protocol for home automation. In addition to bringing mesh to 6LoWPAN, adds a layer of security, enables point-to-point communications, and provides schemes for optimizing battery life. Thread borrows from the proprietary Nest protocol called Weave, which also is based on 6LoWPAN and also adds “special sauce”.
  10. 10. LTE MTC 3GPP LTE Rel.13 release has many goals: • Wide service spectrum • Support of device volumes • Low cost connected devices • Long battery life • Enhanced coverage Architectural changes: • Congestion and overload control for M2M devices • M2M device triggering for provisioning • Addressing and Identifiers - IPv4/IPv6 addresses • Charging requirements and data collection • Security requirements • Remote M2M device management, management of M2M devices using Open Mobile Alliance Device Management (OMA-DM) or over-the-air (OTA)
  11. 11. LTE MTC explained… In 2014, the number of mobile connected devices exceeded the world’s population. Device growth will continue; according to Ericsson, by 2020, 90 percent of the world’s population over six years old will own a mobile phone. • LTE Category-0 introduced for M2M/IoT - with a peak speed of 1Mbps. • Cat-0 defines narrower bandwidths and reductions in complexity reducing cost and power consumption • Provide extended coverage for MTC devices in challenging locations • Serve very large numbers of devices per cell by optimizing signaling of small data transmission • UEPCOP: Power saving (or dormant) state and extended DRX cycle (Idle and connected) • SDDTE: Data over Non Access Stratum (NAS) signaling over control plane, connectionless approaches over user plane and keeping handsets in connected mode for small data transmission • A new UE Power Saving Mode has been introduced (mostly a NAS feature) with some description added in the Access Stratum spec for Idle mode (TS 36.304). • For Signaling Overhead Reduction, new CN assistance information for eNB parameters tuning has been introduced, as captured in the Stage 2 and Stage 3 specifications (TS 36.300, 36.413, 36.423).
  12. 12. Zigbee • ZigBee 3.0 is based on IEEE 802.15.4, which operates at 2.4 GHz • ZigBee is reliable and robust using multi-hop mesh networking to eliminate points of failure • ZigBee is low-power allowing battery- operated devices • ZigBee is scalable and supports networks of thousands of nodes and mesh networks • ZigBee is secure and uses a variety of security mechanisms such as AES-128 encryption, etc. • ZigBee is global and is built on 2.4 GHz which is available for unlicensed worldwide.
  13. 13. Zigbee explained… ZigBee is a suite of high-level communication protocols used to create personal area networks built from small, low-power digital radios. ZigBee devices are of three types: ZigBee Coordinator (ZC): The most capable device, the Coordinator forms the root of the network tree and might bridge to other networks. There is exactly one ZigBee Coordinator in each network since it is the device that started the network originally. It stores information about the network, including acting as the Trust Center & repository for security keys. ZigBee Router (ZR): As well as running an application function, a Router can act as an intermediate router, passing on data from other devices. ZigBee End Device (ZED): Contains just enough functionality to talk to the parent node (either the Coordinator or a Router); it cannot relay data from other devices. This relationship allows the node to be asleep a significant amount of the time thereby giving long battery life. A ZED requires the least amount of memory, and therefore can be less expensive to manufacture than a ZR or ZC. ZigBee protocols support beacon and non-beacon enabled networks. In non-beacon-enabled networks, an unslotted CSMA/CA channel access mechanism is used. ZigBee Routers typically have their receivers continuously active, requiring a more robust power supply. However, this allows for heterogeneous networks in which some devices receive continuously, while others only transmit when an external stimulus is detected.
  14. 14. ANT+ ANT+ (pronounced ant plus) is a sub-system of the base ANT protocol (a proprietary wireless technology) designed and marketed by the ANT+ Alliance, a division of Dynastream Innovations Inc. ANT+ is designed for the interoperable collection and transfer of sensor data as well as the integration of remote control systems such as indoor lighting, phone control, etc. ANT+ mainly focuses on operations that include sport, wellness, home care and remote control. It is used for data-transfer for a number of devices: • heart rate monitors • cadence sensors • cycling power meters • activity monitors • calorimeters • body mass index measuring devices • blood pressure monitors • blood glucose meters • position tracking • weight measuring devices • temperature sensors • fitness equipment
  15. 15. ANT+ explained… ANT™ is a practical wireless sensor network protocol running in the 2.4 GHz ISM band. Designed for ultra-low power, ease of use, efficiency and scalability. • ANT easily handles peer-to-peer, star, connected star, tree and fixed mesh topologies. • ANT provides reliable data communications, flexible and adaptive network operation and cross-talk immunity. • ANT protocol stack is extremely compact, requiring minimal microcontroller resources and considerably reduces system costs. • ANT provides carefree handling of the Physical, Network and Transport OSI layers. • It incorporates key low-level security features that form the foundation for user-defined sophisticated network security implementations. • ANT ensures adequate user control while considerably lightening computational burden in providing a simple yet effective wireless networking solution.
  16. 16. EnOcean EnOcean is based on the energetically efficient exploitation of slight mechanical motion and other potentials from the environment, such as indoor light and temperature differences, using the principles of energy harvesting. • Maintenance-free sensor solutions • Bidirectional communication even with self-powered sensors • Easy Programming of customer-specific software • Easy-to-integrate • Interoperability of end-products
  17. 17. Energy harvesting wireless standard from EnOcean High reliability Use of regulated frequency ranges with highest air time availability (approved for pulsed signals only) - 868 MHz according to R&TTE regulation EN 300220 and 315 MHz according to FCC regulation CFR-47 Part 15 Multiple telegram transmission with checksum Short telegrams (approx. 1 ms) for little probability of collision Long range: up to 30 meters in buildings and 300 meters in free field Repeater available for range extension One-way and bidirectional communication Low energy need High data transmission rate for sensor information of 125 kbit/s Small data overhead ASK modulation Interoperability Wireless protocol defined and integrated in modules Sensor profiles specified and implemented by users Unique transmission ID (32 bits) Coexistence with other wireless systems No interference with DECT, WLAN, PMR systems, etc System design verified in industrial environment
  19. 19. Mobile device management (MDM) is an industry term for the administration of mobile devices, such as smartphones, tablet computers, laptops, etc. MDM is usually implemented with the use of a third party product that has management features for particular vendors of mobile devices. There are two major types of MDM implementations: • On-premises Solution • Cloud-based Solution Device Management Specifications: • The Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) specified a platform-independent device management protocol called OMA Device Management. The specification meets the common definitions of an open standard, meaning the specification is freely available and implementable and most widely used. • Smart message is text SMS-based provisioning protocol (ringtones, calendar entries but service settings also supported like: ftp, telnet, SMSC number, email settings, etc...) • OMA Client Provisioning is a binary SMS-based service settings provisioning protocol. • Nokia-Ericsson OTA is binary SMS-based service settings provisioning protocol, designed mainly for older Nokia and Ericsson mobile phones.
  20. 20. OMA-DM Lightweight M2M OMA Device Management is a device management protocol specified by the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) Device Management (DM) Working Group and the Data Synchronization (DS) Working Group. OMA DM was originally developed by The SyncML Initiative Ltd, an industry consortium formed by many mobile device manufacturers. Device management is intended to support the following uses: • Provisioning – Configuration of the device (including first time use), enabling and disabling features • Device Configuration – Allow changes to settings and parameters of the device • Software Upgrades – Provide for new software and/or bug fixes to be loaded on the device, including applications and system software • Fault Management – Report errors from the device, query about status of device
  21. 21. LWM2M standard solves a set of technological challenges that have appeared as the M2M market has matured and the Internet of Things makes constrained devices more accessible to device management and end-to-end service enablement. In this section we summarize the benefits of LWM2M: • Greater market growth and cost efficiency for the whole industry through a decoupling of devices, device management and services technologies. • Service providers, OEMs and end users benefit from the uniform management of constrained devices. • LWM2M can often provide a 10x increase in efficiency over OMA-DM. • Better time to market for M2M services as well as devices and infrastructures through standard components available from an ecosystem of vendors. • LWM2M is complementary to existing device management solutions like OMA DM and Broadband Forum TR-69, and greatly extends the range of devices that can be securely managed. • The LWM2M data model and the open OMA naming authority registry for Objects provide easily accessible and reusable semantics for both device management and application data for the whole Internet of Things industry. • By providing a single solution for device management and application data, LWM2M both simplifies systems and allows for new and innovative M2M services. • Complete security and security lifecycle management appropriate for constrained devices solves one of the most pressing problems in the M2M industry. • The scope of LWM2M defines only the device to service network interface, allowing easy integration into existing device management and M2M services, as well as larger backend system standards such as oneM2M.
  22. 22. TR-069 TR-069 is the document number of the technical report, defined by the Broadband Forum, that specifies the “CPE WAN Management Protocol”. It assumes that the all CPE can obtain an IP address in order to communicate with an ACS and can interact with a single ACS at a time. • Auto-Configuration and Dynamic Service Provisioning Device Agnostics • Software/Firmware Image Management • Software Module Management • Status and Performance Monitoring • Diagnostics • Positioning in the End-to-End Architecture • Security Goals • Architectural Goals
  23. 23. TR-069 explained The CPE WAN Management Protocol comprises several components that are unique to this protocol, and makes use of several standard protocols. The protocol stack defined by the CPE WAN Management Protocol below.
  25. 25. IoT can only be realized if, • Many and varied interactions between users, things, cloud services and applications can be authenticated. • User delegated consent will be necessary for any scenario where potentially privacy sensitive data is collected and analyzed (wearables, home automation, health, etc). • APIs can help protect sensitive data going to and from medical devices, smart grids and meters, cars, thermostats, appliances and other connected devices • Integrate and aggregate partner APIs, no matter what interface protocols or authentication schemes they use • Open up API access to big data resources to enable new customer services, improve operational efficiency or create new revenue opportunities
  26. 26. OAUTH 2.0 OAuth is an open standard for authorization that enables client applications to access server resources on behalf of a specific Resource Owner. OAuth also enables Resource Owners (users) to authorize limited third-party access to their resources without sharing credentials. For e.g.. a Gmail user could allow LinkedIn/ Flickr to have access to their list of contacts without sharing her/his Gmail username and password.
  27. 27. OAUTH 2.0 explained OAuth 2.0 is an IETF standard authentication & authorization framework for securing application access to RESTful APIs • OAuth allows a Client (an application that desires information) to send an API query to a Resource Server (RS), the application hosting the desired information, such that the RS can authenticate that the message was indeed sent by the Client. • The Client authenticates to the RS through the inclusion of an access token on its API call—a token previously provided to the Client by an Authorization Server (AS). • In those scenarios that the API in question protects access to a User’s identity attributes, it may be the case that the access token will only be issued by the AS after the User has explicitly given consent to the Client accessing those attributes.
  28. 28. CoAP 2.0 The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP/RFC 7252) is a specialized web transfer protocol for use with constrained nodes and constrained networks in the Internet of Things. • CoAP transactions provide reliable UDP messaging • CoAP methods resemble HTTP method requests and responses • CoAP method calls may involve multiple CoAP transactions • Roles at the transaction layer may change during a method request / response execution
  29. 29. CoAP explained CoAP is designed for machine-to-machine (M2M) applications such as smart energy and building automation and consists of robust foundations for IoT. • Constrained machine-to-machine web protocol • Representational State Transfer (REST) architecture • Simple proxy and caching capabilities • Asynchronous transaction support • Low header overhead and parsing complexity • URI and content-type support • UDP binding (may use IPSec or DTLS) • Reliable unicast and best-effort multicast support • Built-in resource discovery
  30. 30. MQTT MQTT is an "Internet of Things" connectivity protocol. Designed exclusively as a lightweight publish/subscribe messaging transport using small code footprint and came from IBM's MQ message queuing product line. • MQTT messages are delivered asynchronously (“push”) through publish subscribe architecture. • Ideal for constrained networks (low bandwidth, high latency, data limits, and fragile connections) • Quality of Service (QoS) for MQTT • MQTT client abnormal disconnect notification • MQTT clients are very simple to implement
  31. 31. MQTT explained … MQTT runs over TCP/IP, or over other network protocols that provide ordered, lossless, bi-directional connections. Its features include: • Use of the publish/subscribe message pattern which provides one-to-many message distribution and decoupling of applications. • A messaging transport that is agnostic to the content of the payload. • Three qualities of service for message delivery: • "At most once", where messages are delivered according to the best efforts of the operating environment. Message loss can occur. This level could be used, for example, with ambient sensor data where it does not matter if an individual reading is lost as the next one will be published soon after. • "At least once", where messages are assured to arrive but duplicates can occur. • "Exactly once", where message are assured to arrive exactly once. This level could be used, for example, with billing systems where duplicate or lost messages could lead to incorrect charges being applied. • A small transport overhead and protocol exchanges minimized to reduce network traffic. • A mechanism to notify interested parties when an abnormal disconnection occurs.
  33. 33. BIG & FAST Data Map, Reduce & Shuffle “If Hadoop is an Ocean, Streams are the Firehose”
  34. 34. Streaming Data Stream processing in a big data paradigm, which is related to SIMD (single instruction, multiple data), that allows some applications to more easily exploit a limited form of parallel processing. • Handles data at high velocity • Processing in near real-time • Data has to be processed fast, so that a firm can react to changing business conditions in real time, think nano-second trading. • This is required for trading, fraud detection, system monitoring, Oil & Natural Gas industry and many other verticals.
  35. 35. Streaming Data … For some use cases ( e.g. stock markets, traffic, surveillance, patient monitoring) the value of insights degrade very quickly with time. e.g. stock markets and speed of light or Credit card fraud detection We need technology that can produce outputs fast • Static Queries, but need very fast output (Alerts, Realtime control) • Dynamic and Interactive Queries ( Data exploration)
  36. 36. Real-time Analytics Tools Stream Processing • Program a set of processors and wire them up, data flows though the graph. • A middleware framework handles data flow, distribution, and fault tolerance (e.g. Apache Storm, Samza) • Processors may be in the same machine or multiple machines Complex Event Processing • Event-pattern detection and abstraction • Event filtering, aggregation and transformation • Modeling event hierarchies • Detecting relationships (such as causality, membership or timing) between events • Abstracting event-driven processes Micro-Batch • Process data in small batches, and then combine results for final results (e.g. Spark) • Works for simple aggregates, but tricky to do this for complex operations • Can do it with MapReduce, not the same SLA OLAP Style in-memory processing • Supports interactive queries • Indexes data to make them them readily accessible to respond to queries fast. (e.g. Apache Drill) • Tools like Druid, VoltDB and SAP Hana can do this with all data in memory
  37. 37. Machine Learning & Insights Internet of Things applications involve massive data sets, far too big for any human to reasonably keep track of, analyze, and interpret. Machine learning and predictive modeling steps in at various levels- from cloud services down to individual devices, to solve the complexity of applications. Machine Learning algorithms hunt for interesting signals in the noise, run simulations, creates and verifies predictive models, and offers insights in the form of “prescriptive intelligence.”
  38. 38. Machine learning techniques that need exploration for IIoT, Connected Home and various IoT applications: • Supervised and unsupervised learning • Neural Networks • Machine Learning System Design • Clustering • Anomaly Detection • Recommendation Systems • Large-Scale Machine learning systems • Programming paradigms and Languages for machine learning • Computation at the edge or Computation at the core
  40. 40.
  41. 41. Add value to IoT Chain Enable' •  Enable (or Provision) devices to connect to the wireless Internet. integrate •  Integrate into mobile operator networks, everywhere in the world. Define' •  Define use cases and map out business and operational requirements for every stage of the product lifecycle. integrate •  Integrate new Internet of Things business with existing infrastructure. configure •  Configure application programming interfaces (APIs) to meet unique business need and requirement of each and every mobile operator Deliver' •  Deliver the new applications and services to the market
  42. 42. Periodic table of the IoT industry by CB Insights
  43. 43. Q & A —>