Internet of Things
• Gartner predicts 25 billion
‘connected’ devices by 2020
• Instigated by nexus of four
forces - social, mobile, cloud
• Business verticals -
general business, vertical
• Many independent break
throughs - Wearables,
Mobile health monitoring,
Big Data, Data sciences,
autonomous vehicles, etc.
Inspiring TED talk <> http://goo.gl/NrxGCl
Full Stack - IoT
Aggregators Mobile App/
Bluetooth low energy wireless technology is an open low energy, short-range radio technology.
Some Key Beneﬁts:
• Low power consumption
• Connectivity to mobile phones
• Small size and Low cost
• Multi-vendor interoperability
• Globally availability, license free
BLE is a connectionless, always OFF technology, with small silicon footprint and low cost having a robust through frequency
hopping compared to other wireless technologies. Security is through 128-bit AES encryption and can be for low power
consumption with no competitors.
Connections involve two separate roles:
• Central (master)
• Peripheral (slave)
Protocols: Building blocks used by all devices conform to the Bluetooth speciﬁcation, protocols are the layers that implement
the diﬀerent packet formats, routing, multiplexing, encoding,etc.
Proﬁles: “Vertical slices” of functionality covering either basic modes of operation required by all devices or speciﬁc use cases.
6lowPAN ==> Low-power RF + IPv6 = The Wireless Embedded Internet or IP on IEEE 802.15.4
The beneﬁts of 6LoWPAN include:
• Open, long-lived, reliable standards
• Easy learning-curve
• Transparent Internet integration
• Network maintainability
• Global scalability
• End-to-end data ﬂows
A 6loWPAN system contains one or more WPANs (Wireless Personal Area Networks) connected to the Internet via a
wired bus such as an Ethernet or wired IP bus .
The main components of a 6LoWPAN system:
• Wireless Cluster: A WPAN (which may be one of many in the system).
• Wired Bus: A bus (e.g. Ethernet) to which the wireless clusters are connected.
• Border-Router: A device used to connect a wireless cluster to the wired bus.
• Host: A device, such as a PC or workstation, with an IP connection to the system.
- A Remote Access Terminal used to access the 6LoWPAN system remotely via the Internet.
- A Data Management Centre on the wired bus, used to conﬁgure and interrogate the 6LoWPAN system.
Thread is a special protocol for home automation. In addition to bringing mesh to 6LoWPAN, adds a layer of security,
enables point-to-point communications, and provides schemes for optimizing battery life. Thread borrows from the
proprietary Nest protocol called Weave, which also is based on 6LoWPAN and also adds “special sauce”.
3GPP LTE Rel.13 release has many goals:
• Wide service spectrum
• Support of device volumes
• Low cost connected devices
• Long battery life
• Enhanced coverage
• Congestion and overload control for M2M
• M2M device triggering for provisioning
• Addressing and Identiﬁers - IPv4/IPv6 addresses
• Charging requirements and data collection
• Security requirements
• Remote M2M device management,
management of M2M devices using Open
Mobile Alliance Device Management (OMA-DM)
or over-the-air (OTA)
LTE MTC explained…
In 2014, the number of mobile connected devices exceeded the world’s population. Device
growth will continue; according to Ericsson, by 2020, 90 percent of the world’s population
over six years old will own a mobile phone.
• LTE Category-0 introduced for M2M/IoT - with a peak speed of 1Mbps.
• Cat-0 deﬁnes narrower bandwidths and reductions in complexity reducing cost and
• Provide extended coverage for MTC devices in challenging locations
• Serve very large numbers of devices per cell by optimizing signaling of small data
• UEPCOP: Power saving (or dormant) state and extended DRX cycle (Idle and
• SDDTE: Data over Non Access Stratum (NAS) signaling over control plane,
connectionless approaches over user plane and keeping handsets in connected mode
for small data transmission
• A new UE Power Saving Mode has been introduced (mostly a NAS feature) with some
description added in the Access Stratum spec for Idle mode (TS 36.304).
• For Signaling Overhead Reduction, new CN assistance information for eNB parameters
tuning has been introduced, as captured in the Stage 2 and Stage 3 speciﬁcations (TS
36.300, 36.413, 36.423).
• ZigBee 3.0 is based on IEEE 802.15.4,
which operates at 2.4 GHz
• ZigBee is reliable and robust using
multi-hop mesh networking to
eliminate points of failure
• ZigBee is low-power allowing battery-
• ZigBee is scalable and supports
networks of thousands of nodes and
• ZigBee is secure and uses a variety of
security mechanisms such as
AES-128 encryption, etc.
• ZigBee is global and is built on 2.4
GHz which is available for unlicensed
ZigBee is a suite of high-level communication protocols used to create personal area networks built
from small, low-power digital radios.
ZigBee devices are of three types:
ZigBee Coordinator (ZC): The most capable device, the Coordinator forms the root of the network
tree and might bridge to other networks. There is exactly one ZigBee Coordinator in each network
since it is the device that started the network originally. It stores information about the network,
including acting as the Trust Center & repository for security keys.
ZigBee Router (ZR): As well as running an application function, a Router can act as an intermediate
router, passing on data from other devices.
ZigBee End Device (ZED): Contains just enough functionality to talk to the parent node (either the
Coordinator or a Router); it cannot relay data from other devices. This relationship allows the node
to be asleep a signiﬁcant amount of the time thereby giving long battery life. A ZED requires the
least amount of memory, and therefore can be less expensive to manufacture than a ZR or ZC.
ZigBee protocols support beacon and non-beacon enabled networks. In non-beacon-enabled
networks, an unslotted CSMA/CA channel access mechanism is used. ZigBee Routers typically
have their receivers continuously active, requiring a more robust power supply. However, this allows
for heterogeneous networks in which some devices receive continuously, while others only transmit
when an external stimulus is detected.
ANT+ (pronounced ant plus) is a sub-system of the base ANT protocol (a proprietary wireless technology)
designed and marketed by the ANT+ Alliance, a division of Dynastream Innovations Inc. ANT+ is designed for
the interoperable collection and transfer of sensor data as well as the integration of remote control systems
such as indoor lighting, phone control, etc.
ANT+ mainly focuses on operations that include sport, wellness, home care and remote control.
It is used for data-transfer for a number of devices:
• heart rate monitors
• cadence sensors
• cycling power meters
• activity monitors
• body mass index measuring devices
• blood pressure monitors
• blood glucose meters
• position tracking
• weight measuring devices
• temperature sensors
• ﬁtness equipment
ANT™ is a practical wireless sensor network protocol
running in the 2.4 GHz ISM band. Designed for ultra-low
power, ease of use, eﬃciency and scalability.
• ANT easily handles peer-to-peer, star, connected star,
tree and ﬁxed mesh topologies.
• ANT provides reliable data communications, ﬂexible
and adaptive network operation and cross-talk
• ANT protocol stack is extremely compact, requiring
minimal microcontroller resources and considerably
reduces system costs.
• ANT provides carefree handling of the Physical,
Network and Transport OSI layers.
• It incorporates key low-level security features that
form the foundation for user-deﬁned sophisticated
network security implementations.
• ANT ensures adequate user control while considerably
lightening computational burden in providing a simple
yet eﬀective wireless networking solution.
EnOcean is based on the energetically eﬃcient exploitation of slight mechanical
motion and other potentials from the environment, such as indoor light and
temperature diﬀerences, using the principles of energy harvesting.
• Maintenance-free sensor solutions
• Bidirectional communication even with self-powered sensors
• Easy Programming of customer-speciﬁc software
• Interoperability of end-products
Energy harvesting wireless standard from EnOcean
Use of regulated frequency ranges with highest air time availability (approved for
pulsed signals only) - 868 MHz according to R&TTE regulation EN 300220 and 315
MHz according to FCC regulation CFR-47 Part 15
Multiple telegram transmission with checksum
Short telegrams (approx. 1 ms) for little probability of collision
Long range: up to 30 meters in buildings and 300 meters in free field
Repeater available for range extension
One-way and bidirectional communication
Low energy need High data transmission rate for sensor information of 125 kbit/s
Small data overhead
Interoperability Wireless protocol defined and integrated in modules
Sensor profiles specified and implemented by users
Unique transmission ID (32 bits)
Coexistence with other wireless systems No interference with DECT, WLAN, PMR systems, etc
System design verified in industrial environment
Mobile device management (MDM) is an industry term for the administration of
mobile devices, such as smartphones, tablet computers, laptops, etc. MDM is
usually implemented with the use of a third party product that has management
features for particular vendors of mobile devices.
There are two major types of MDM implementations:
• On-premises Solution
• Cloud-based Solution
Device Management Speciﬁcations:
• The Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) speciﬁed a platform-independent device
management protocol called OMA Device Management. The speciﬁcation meets
the common deﬁnitions of an open standard, meaning the speciﬁcation is freely
available and implementable and most widely used.
• Smart message is text SMS-based provisioning protocol (ringtones, calendar
entries but service settings also supported like: ftp, telnet, SMSC number, email
• OMA Client Provisioning is a binary SMS-based service settings provisioning
• Nokia-Ericsson OTA is binary SMS-based service settings provisioning protocol,
designed mainly for older Nokia and Ericsson mobile phones.
OMA-DM Lightweight M2M
OMA Device Management is a device management
protocol speciﬁed by the Open Mobile Alliance
(OMA) Device Management (DM) Working Group
and the Data Synchronization (DS) Working Group.
OMA DM was originally developed by The SyncML
Initiative Ltd, an industry consortium formed by
many mobile device manufacturers.
Device management is intended to support the
• Provisioning – Conﬁguration of the device
(including ﬁrst time use), enabling and disabling
• Device Conﬁguration – Allow changes to settings
and parameters of the device
• Software Upgrades – Provide for new software
and/or bug ﬁxes to be loaded on the device,
including applications and system software
• Fault Management – Report errors from the
device, query about status of device
LWM2M standard solves a set of technological challenges that have appeared as the M2M market has matured and the Internet of Things
makes constrained devices more accessible to device management and end-to-end service enablement. In this section we summarize the
beneﬁts of LWM2M:
• Greater market growth and cost eﬃciency for the whole industry through a decoupling of devices, device management and services
• Service providers, OEMs and end users beneﬁt from the uniform management of constrained devices.
• LWM2M can often provide a 10x increase in eﬃciency over OMA-DM.
• Better time to market for M2M services as well as devices and infrastructures through standard components available from an ecosystem
• LWM2M is complementary to existing device management solutions like OMA DM and Broadband Forum TR-69, and greatly extends the
range of devices that can be securely managed.
• The LWM2M data model and the open OMA naming authority registry for Objects provide easily accessible and reusable semantics for
both device management and application data for the whole Internet of Things industry.
• By providing a single solution for device management and application data, LWM2M both simpliﬁes systems and allows for new and
innovative M2M services.
• Complete security and security lifecycle management appropriate for constrained devices solves one of the most pressing problems in
the M2M industry.
• The scope of LWM2M deﬁnes only the device to service network interface, allowing easy integration into existing device management
and M2M services, as well as larger backend system standards such as oneM2M.
TR-069 is the document number of the
technical report, deﬁned by the Broadband
Forum, that speciﬁes the “CPE WAN
Management Protocol”. It assumes that the all
CPE can obtain an IP address in order to
communicate with an ACS and can interact
with a single ACS at a time.
• Auto-Conﬁguration and Dynamic Service
Provisioning Device Agnostics
• Software/Firmware Image Management
• Software Module Management
• Status and Performance Monitoring
• Positioning in the End-to-End Architecture
• Security Goals
• Architectural Goals
The CPE WAN Management Protocol comprises several components that
are unique to this protocol, and makes use of several standard protocols.
The protocol stack deﬁned by the CPE WAN Management Protocol below.
IoT can only be realized if,
• Many and varied interactions between users, things, cloud
services and applications can be authenticated.
• User delegated consent will be necessary for any scenario
where potentially privacy sensitive data is collected and
analyzed (wearables, home automation, health, etc).
• APIs can help protect sensitive data going to and from
medical devices, smart grids and meters, cars, thermostats,
appliances and other connected devices
• Integrate and aggregate partner APIs, no matter what
interface protocols or authentication schemes they use
• Open up API access to big data resources to enable new
customer services, improve operational eﬃciency or create
new revenue opportunities
OAuth is an open standard for authorization that enables client applications to
access server resources on behalf of a speciﬁc Resource Owner. OAuth also
enables Resource Owners (users) to authorize limited third-party access to their
resources without sharing credentials. For e.g.. a Gmail user could allow LinkedIn/
Flickr to have access to their list of contacts without sharing her/his Gmail
username and password.
OAUTH 2.0 explained
OAuth 2.0 is an IETF standard authentication & authorization framework for
securing application access to RESTful APIs
• OAuth allows a Client (an application that desires information) to send an API
query to a Resource Server (RS), the application hosting the desired
information, such that the RS can authenticate that the message was indeed
sent by the Client.
• The Client authenticates to the RS through the inclusion of an access token on
its API call—a token previously provided to the Client by an Authorization Server
• In those scenarios that the API in question protects access to a User’s identity
attributes, it may be the case that the access token will only be issued by the AS
after the User has explicitly given consent to the Client accessing those
The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP/RFC
7252) is a specialized web transfer protocol for use
with constrained nodes and constrained networks in
the Internet of Things.
• CoAP transactions provide reliable UDP
• CoAP methods resemble HTTP method requests
• CoAP method calls may involve multiple CoAP
• Roles at the transaction layer may change during a
method request / response execution
CoAP is designed for machine-to-machine (M2M) applications such as smart
energy and building automation and consists of robust foundations for IoT.
• Constrained machine-to-machine web protocol
• Representational State Transfer (REST) architecture
• Simple proxy and caching capabilities
• Asynchronous transaction support
• Low header overhead and parsing complexity
• URI and content-type support
• UDP binding (may use IPSec or DTLS)
• Reliable unicast and best-eﬀort multicast support
• Built-in resource discovery
MQTT is an "Internet of Things" connectivity
protocol. Designed exclusively as a lightweight
publish/subscribe messaging transport using small
code footprint and came from IBM's MQ message
queuing product line.
• MQTT messages are delivered asynchronously
(“push”) through publish subscribe architecture.
• Ideal for constrained networks (low bandwidth,
high latency, data limits, and fragile connections)
• Quality of Service (QoS) for MQTT
• MQTT client abnormal disconnect notiﬁcation
• MQTT clients are very simple to implement http://mqtt.org/
MQTT explained …
MQTT runs over TCP/IP, or over other network protocols that provide ordered, lossless, bi-directional
connections. Its features include:
• Use of the publish/subscribe message pattern which provides one-to-many message distribution and
decoupling of applications.
• A messaging transport that is agnostic to the content of the payload.
• Three qualities of service for message delivery:
• "At most once", where messages are delivered according to the best eﬀorts of the operating environment.
Message loss can occur. This level could be used, for example, with ambient sensor data where it does not
matter if an individual reading is lost as the next one will be published soon after.
• "At least once", where messages are assured to arrive but duplicates can occur.
• "Exactly once", where message are assured to arrive exactly once. This level could be used, for example,
with billing systems where duplicate or lost messages could lead to incorrect charges being applied.
• A small transport overhead and protocol exchanges minimized to reduce network traﬃc.
• A mechanism to notify interested parties when an abnormal disconnection occurs.
BIG & FAST Data
Map, Reduce & Shufﬂe
“If Hadoop is an Ocean, Streams are the Firehose”
Stream processing in a big data paradigm, which is related to SIMD (single
instruction, multiple data), that allows some applications to more easily exploit a
limited form of parallel processing.
• Handles data at high velocity
• Processing in near real-time
• Data has to be processed fast, so that a ﬁrm can react to changing business
conditions in real time, think nano-second trading.
• This is required for trading, fraud detection, system monitoring, Oil & Natural
Gas industry and many other verticals.
Streaming Data …
For some use cases ( e.g. stock
markets, traﬃc, surveillance, patient
monitoring) the value of insights
degrade very quickly with time.
e.g. stock markets and speed of light
or Credit card fraud detection
We need technology that can
produce outputs fast
• Static Queries, but need very fast
output (Alerts, Realtime control)
• Dynamic and Interactive Queries
( Data exploration)
Real-time Analytics Tools
• Program a set of processors and wire them up, data ﬂows though the graph.
• A middleware framework handles data ﬂow, distribution, and fault tolerance (e.g. Apache Storm,
• Processors may be in the same machine or multiple machines
Complex Event Processing
• Event-pattern detection and abstraction
• Event ﬁltering, aggregation and transformation
• Modeling event hierarchies
• Detecting relationships (such as causality, membership or timing) between events
• Abstracting event-driven processes
• Process data in small batches, and then combine results for ﬁnal results (e.g. Spark)
• Works for simple aggregates, but tricky to do this for complex operations
• Can do it with MapReduce, not the same SLA
OLAP Style in-memory processing
• Supports interactive queries
• Indexes data to make them them readily accessible to respond to queries fast. (e.g. Apache Drill)
• Tools like Druid, VoltDB and SAP Hana can do this with all data in memory
Machine Learning & Insights
Internet of Things applications involve massive data sets, far too big for any human
to reasonably keep track of, analyze, and interpret. Machine learning and predictive
modeling steps in at various levels- from cloud services down to individual devices,
to solve the complexity of applications.
Machine Learning algorithms hunt for interesting signals in the noise, run
simulations, creates and veriﬁes predictive models, and oﬀers insights in the form
of “prescriptive intelligence.”
Machine learning techniques that need exploration for IIoT,
Connected Home and various IoT applications:
• Supervised and unsupervised learning
• Neural Networks
• Machine Learning System Design
• Anomaly Detection
• Recommendation Systems
• Large-Scale Machine learning systems
• Programming paradigms and Languages for machine learning
• Computation at the edge or Computation at the core
Add value to IoT Chain
• Enable (or Provision) devices to connect to the wireless Internet.
integrate • Integrate into mobile operator networks, everywhere in the world.
• Define use cases and map out business and operational requirements for every stage of the product lifecycle.
• Integrate new Internet of Things business with existing infrastructure.
• Configure application programming interfaces (APIs) to meet unique business need and requirement of each and every mobile
• Deliver the new applications and services to the market
Periodic table of the IoT industry by CB Insights