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INTEROP 2012: High Availability Patterns in AWS

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INTEROP 2012: High Availability Patterns in AWS

  1. 1. High Availability Patterns in AWS Mumbai,2012 Harish Ganesan Co-Founder and CTO
  2. 2. WorkshopA fault tolerant environmenthas no service interruptionbut a significantly highercost, while a highly availableenvironment has a minimalservice interruption Across Clouds/DC Across Regions Inside Region 2
  3. 3. Availability Zone = Distinct Physical Locations, Low latency NWconnectivity, Independent Power, Cooling, Network and security 3
  4. 4. AWS Building Blocks AZ:1 AZ:2 AWS building blocksDNS Route 53 are inherently faultLoad Balancer ELB tolerant, HighlyCDN CloudFront Available , ScalableWeb Tier AMI+EC2 and Elastic.Application Tier AMI+EC2 / BeanStalkCache Tier ElastiCacheSearch Tier CloudSearch *Storage Tier S3NoSQL Tier DynamoDBDatabase Tier RDS + Multi-AZMonitoring Tier CloudWatch
  5. 5. Architecture 1:High Availability inside a Region 5
  6. 6. HA @ LB/Web/App Tier Pattern 1: DNS+LB +Web/App Pattern 2: DNS+ ELB + Web/App Amazon Amazon Route 53 DNS RR Route 53 Load Balancer Elastic Load Balancer Web/App Web/App Server Server• Traffic can be instantly shifted to healthy Web/App EC2’s by ELB or LB• ELB and Auto Scaling can work across multiple AZ inside a Region
  7. 7. HA and Web Session SynchronizationPattern 3: Sync using JGroups Pattern 4: Sync using Pattern 5: Sync using RDS / DB ElastiCache/MemCacheD / Amazon Dynamo DB Web/App Server Web/App Server Web/App Server Cluster Synchronization (Currently TCP ElastiCache / MemCacheD Database unicast supported) Session Synchronization is needed to make App Servers Stateless
  8. 8. HA based on Elastic IP 1. Amazon Elastic IP’s are public IP’s and are fixed 2. Elastic IP can be EIP: attached / detached from EC2 instances 3. Elastic IP can be detached-> remapped to healthy Web/App EC2 : A Web/App EC2 : B EC2 instance 4. Elastic IP remapping takes ~180 secondsWhen EC2 A is down we can remap the same Elastic IP to EC2 B and re route the traffic
  9. 9. HA and impact on Logs 1. Synch all the logs to S3 periodically ELB Amazon CloudFront 2. Synch all the user CDN uploaded data ( pdf, images, videos etc) to S3 Web / App Auto EC2 Scaling 3. S3 replicates data at multiple locations inside Region S3 4. Move older archives to Amazon glacier 5. Amazon S3 and Data base Glacier are very Glacier robust services for storage
  10. 10. HA @ Database TierPattern 8: Web/App + Pattern 9: Web/App + Database Pattern 10: Web/App +Database Replication Cluster/Mirroring/ M-M RDS Multi-AZ Web/App Server Web/App Server Web/App Server Master DB Asynchronous RDS Replication DB Node-1 DB Node-2 Synchronous Replication Slave DB Clustering / M-M
  11. 11. HA Pattern ->Inside Region Amazon Route 53 US East Region Elastic Load Balancer Amazon CloudFrontSmart Phone CDN Web / App EC2 Auto Scaling Web / App EC2Pad / Tab S3 Cache Nodes Cache Nodes Search Nodes Search Nodes CloudWatch PC RDS Hot RDS Read RDS Read RDS MySQL Standby Replica Replica Master Read: 10K AWS Write: 5KManagement Console Amazon DynamoDB Availability Zone 1 Availability Zone 2
  12. 12. Points to note• Latencies between AZ’s are varying • Frequently evaluate->adapt->automate• Bigger EC2 instance types have better IO performance ~ replication lag• Data Charges apply between AZ• EBS volumes are AZ specific -> Take 12 snapshots to use in other AZ’s
  13. 13. Points to note• RDS hot standby takes ~3 minutes for RDS Master Elevation in event of failure• Have RDS Read Replica’s in Multiple AZ for HA• Leverage RDS Read Replica Elevation• Deployment & Monitoring challenges 13 remain in auto scaled environment
  14. 14. Architecture 2:HA across regions same cloud provider 14
  15. 15. Work Load• Reserve your capacity – RI• Software licenses depending upon MAC address / ENI• Deployment practices 15
  16. 16. Deployment Challenges and Practices 1. AMI (S3 & EBS Backed) have EC2 regional scope. Need Amazon Route 53 to be created if not present in that region EC2 EC2 2. EBS has AZ scope Chef 3. Automated Deployment using Chef or Puppet (recommended)Cloud Formation (CF) Cloud Formation 4. RightScale Templates will ease the complexityAMI ( EBS & S3 Backed) AMI ( EBS & S3 Backed) USA Europe
  17. 17. Data• Regulatory impact when data is geographically distributed across continents• Data Synchronization patterns• Other Data Challenges 17
  18. 18. Data Synchronization Patterns Pattern 12: RDS Replication USA Europe 1. RDS provides Multi- AZ standby 2. RDS currently does not provide Sync across Amazon EC2 regions
  19. 19. Data Synchronization Patterns Pattern 13: MySQL M-S Replication 1. MySQL M-SSS Uni- USA Europe directional Public Subnet replication between Public Subnet regions (secured S thru SSL) S S 2. EIP is mandatory SSL 3. Easy and widely used pattern Pattern 14: MySQL M-S Replication USA-VPC Europe-VPC 1. IPSEC VPN tunnel Private Subnet Private Subnet between Amazon VPC EC2 regions S 2. Highly secured S S VPNVPC = Amazon Virtual Private Cloud is a private, isolated section of the AWS Cloudwhere you can launch resources in a virtual network
  20. 20. Data Synchronization Patterns Pattern 15: MySQL M-M Replication USA Europe 1. MySQL M-M bi- Public Subnet Public Subnet directional replication between regions (secured thru SSL) S S S S 2. EIP is mandatory SSL Pattern 16: MySQL M-M Replication 1. IPSEC VPN tunnel between Amazon EC2 USA-VPC Europe-VPC regions VPC Private Subnet Private Subnet 2. Elevation is already taken care 3. RTO/RPO will be S S S S better compared to VPN other patternsVPC = Amazon Virtual Private Cloud is a private, isolated section of the AWS Cloudwhere you can launch resources in a virtual network
  21. 21. Data Challenges• S3 is accessible from another region , but • Latency ? • Data charges ?• S3 programmatic replication across regions (recommended)• Distribution media & static contents through Cloudfront CDN• Cache replication across regions – Not recommended 21• Cache Warming inside regions suggested
  22. 22. Network• NTP sync the regions involved• Monitoring – use multiple levels • CloudWatch, Nagios, Ganglia, Pingdom • NewRelic• LBR vs DDR• Uniform ElastiCache Cluster Names• Replication through NAT / IPSEC• HA of IPSEC /NAT Layers• Avoid EIP/ENI hardcoding in 3rd party services 22
  23. 23. Latency Based Routing vs Directional DNS Routing Pattern 17: Latency based Routing (LBR) 1. ELB is regional Scope 2. LBR is suitable for Active-Active setup Amazon Route 53 Active Active 3. LBR might need bi ELB ELB directional data sync depending upon useEC2 EC2 case USA Europe Pattern 18: Directional DNS Routing 1. For Active – Passive Akamai / setup Directional UltraDNS DNS is preferred Active Passive 2. Akamai, UltraDNS ELB ELB can do the jobEC2 EC2 USA Europe
  24. 24. Replication & HA of NAT/ IPSEC Layers Pattern 19: Replication through NAT USA-VPC Europe-VPC 1. Currently VPC- VPN Private Subnet Private Subnet NAT EC2 instance can be SPOF 2. NAT cannot takeS S S S heavy data load VPC = Amazon Virtual Private Cloud Pattern 20: IPSEC VPN tunnel with HA USA-VPC Europe-VPC 1. HA @ IPSEC VPN Private Subnet Private Subnet tunnel layer 2. Active-Active or A-P depending uponS S S S RTO,RPO and Data
  25. 25. Avoid EIP/ENI are hardcoding Amazon Route 53 USA Europe 1. EIP and ENI are Amazon EC2 regional scopeEC2 EC2 2. FTP and CustomEIP: EIP: Hardware in Customers Corporate datacenters pointing to EIP needs to be Hardware FTP client Others remapped
  26. 26. Internet USA Europe/MEA LBR / Directional DNS Amazon Route 53 USA / DNS Europe Elastic Load Elastic Load Balancer Balancer Auto scaling Group Auto scaling Group Apache EC2 Apache EC2 CloudFront CDNMemCacheD MemCacheD Data Sync between MemCacheD MemCacheD AWS Regions Solr Other CommonMySQL-S MySQL-M Services (Rest , MySQL-M MySQL-S Availability Availability SOAP) Availability Availability Zone 1A Zone 1B Zone 1A Zone 1B
  27. 27. Architecture 3:HA across Corporate Data centers / Public Clouds 27
  28. 28. Point to note• Most of the points / challenges / patterns mentioned in previous architectures applies to this Architecture as well 28
  29. 29. AWS and Corporate DatacenterPattern 22 DNS Amazon 1. CloudStack or Active Route 53 Passive Eucalyptus in DC. Better integration, EC2 Direct Connect Private cloud Compatible and interoperable. VPN USA USA 2. AWS Direct connect Corporate Data center Amazon Web Services 1Gbps – 10Gbps connectivity 3. Direct connectPattern 23 DNS Amazon provides improved Route 53 Active RTO/RPO thru private Passive NW EC2 Direct Connect Private cloud 4. (or) VPN connectivity VPN USA between AWS and DC USA over internet Corporate Data center Amazon Web Services
  30. 30. 1. Not very mature Across Public Clouds / DC pattern (Currently)Pattern 24 DNS Amazon Route 53 2. Not all providers are capable to provide EC2 Fixed IP etc VM VM 3. Compatibility USA USA Challenges exists–Amazon Web Services Terremark / Rackspace / VM, NW, CPU , Data Azure / Others 4. No Standards – Automation Scripts, API are different 5. Multi Cloud Provisioning, unified Management, API – RightScale, EnStratus will ease your effort
  31. 31. If you need help in architecting Highly Availablesolutions on AWS?
  32. 32. Leave it to the experts , we willhandle thisCloud Architecture ConsultingCloud Application DevelopmentCloud Migration & ImplementationCloud Adoption Strategy “Lets get the job done”
  33. 33. Web 33
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