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# Large scale graph processing

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### Large scale graph processing

1. 1. Large Scale Graph Processing Deepankar Patra IIT Madras
2. 2. Goal Running graph algorithms(e.g. Shortest path, connected components, finding diameter etc) on huge graphs(Terabyte or more Sized)
3. 3. Graph Node/Vertex Edge
4. 4. Example Graph Algorithm ● Shortest Path Algorithm Source Vertex Destination Vertex
5. 5. Why? Lot of machine learning algorithms require graph computations and in the real world the input for these are huge, which cannot fit in one machine.
6. 6. Real World?  Big Graphs: ● Social Networks ● Biological Networks ● Mobile Call Networks ● Citation Networks ● World Wide Web ● Geographic Pathways ● Customer merchant graphs(Amazon, Ebay)
8. 8. Machine Learning  Algorithms? ● Recommendation ● PageRank ● Web search ● Cyber security ● Fraud detection ● Clustering ● Shortest Path Calculation
9. 9. Graph Algorithms Typically Involve ● Performing computations at each node based on node features, edge features, and local link structure. ● Propagating computations: “traversing” the graph
10. 10. Example Src: http://www.slideshare.net/WeiruDai
11. 11. Why not MapReduce? ● Represent graphs as adjacency lists ● Perform local computations in mapper ● Pass along partial results via outlinks, keyed by destination node ● Perform aggregation in reducer on inlinks to a node ● Iterate until convergence: controlled by external “driver” ● Don’t forget to pass the graph structure between iterations
12. 12. Why not Spark? ● Spark provides GraphX library for graph & machine learning algorithms. ● But still it is not designed specifically for graph algorithms. ● So, no optimization will be available which are applicable for graphs only.
13. 13. PREGEL, Google, 2010 ● Basic idea: “think like a vertex” ● Based on Bulk Synchronous Parallel(BSP) Model ● Provides scalability ● Provides fault tolerance ● Provides flexibility to express arbitrary graph algorithms
14. 14. How does it work? ● Master/Worker architecture ● Each worker is assigned a subset of a directed graph’s vertices ● Vertex-centric model. Each vertex has: ● An arbitrary “value” that can be get/set. ● List of messages sent to it ● List of outgoing edges (edges have a value too) ● A binary state (active/inactive)
15. 15. Graph Parititioning Worker 1 Worker 3 Worker 2
16. 16. Pregel execution model Master initiates synchronous iterations (called a “superstep”), where at every superstep: ● Workers asynchronously execute a user function on all of its vertices ● Vertices can receive messages sent to it in the last superstep ● Vertices can modify their value, modify values of edges, change the topology of the graph (add/remove vertices or edges) ● Vertices can send messages to other vertices to be received in the next superstep ● Vertices can “vote to halt” ● Execution stops when all vertices have voted to halt and no vertices have messages. ● Vote to halt trumped by non-empty message queue
17. 17. Pregel Graph Processing
18. 18. Page Rank PageRank is a link analysis algorithm that is used to determine the importance of a documentbased on the number of references to it and the importance of the source documents themselves.
19. 19. Page Rank A = A given page T1 .... Tn = Pages that point to page A (citations) d = Damping factor between 0 and 1 (usually kept as 0.85) C(T) = number of links going out of T PR(A) = the PageRank of page A
20. 20. Page Rank Class PageRankVertex : public Vertex<double, void, double> { public: virtual void Compute(MessageIterator* msgs) { if (superstep() >= 1) { double sum = 0; for (; !msgs->done(); msgs->Next()) sum += msgs->Value(); *MutableValue() = 0.15 + 0.85 * sum; } if (supersteps() < 30) { const int64 n = GetOutEdgeIterator().size(); SendMessageToAllNeighbors(GetValue() / n); } else { VoteToHalt(); }}};
21. 21. Open Source PREGEL was a research paper, Google didn't expose any open source implementation. As a result lots of open source implementations came up and they keep on improving the basic Pregel model. Most notable two are: a) Apache Giraph, started, maintained and used mainly by facebook b) CMU's GraphLab(now it is a company by itself)
22. 22. One Example: GraphLab ● GraphLab is currently is the best one ● GraphLab modified the partitioning strategy to reduce network overhead message transfer among workers ● GraphLab has a rich library of machine learning algorithms and its growing
23. 23. Reference ● Pregel: A System for Large-Scale Graph Processing ● PowerGraph: Distributed Graph-Parallel Computation on Natural Graphs ● GraphX: A Resilient Distributed Graph System on Spark ● giraph.apache.org ● graphlab.org