Mm consumer mkt & org mkt

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ini semua slide marketing strategik kelas sabtu ukm semester 1 2010/2011

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Mm consumer mkt & org mkt

  1. 1. 16-1 What is Consumer Behavior? • The processes involved when consumers selectselect, purchasepurchase, useuse, and/or disposedispose of products to satisfy needs and desires
  2. 2. 16-2
  3. 3. 16-3 What Influences Consumer Behavior? 3 Factors Influence Consumer Behavior • CulturalCultural • SocialSocial • PersonalPersonal
  4. 4. 16-4 What Influences Consumer Behavior? Cultural Factors Cultural Factors
  5. 5. CULTURAL FACTORSCULTURAL FACTORS • The accumulation of shared meanings, rituals, norms, and traditions among members - Culture is mainly about “life values” • US values: i. achievement & success ii. activities iii. individualistic iv. fitness & health
  6. 6. Culture is dynamic
  7. 7. Subcultures Provide more specific identification and socialization for their members - religions subculture, ethnic subculture, geographic subculture,
  8. 8. 16-8 Disneyland Hotel Hong Kong • Does not have a 4th floor • WHY? • “4” sounds like “death” in Cantonese
  9. 9. SubculturesSubcultures Why subcultures important to marketers? AmongAmong others:others: RitualsRituals MythsMyths
  10. 10. RitualRitual A type of symbolic activity consisting of a series of steps occurring in a fixed sequence and repeated over time - wedding - religion celebrations - death - birthday - Valentine’s day, mother’s day - graduation Why rituals are important to marketing? Rituals tend to be replete with ritual artifacts (products and services)
  11. 11. 16-11 Myths • A story containing symbolic elements that represent the shared emotions/ideals of a culture – Outcome serves as moral guide for people
  12. 12. MythsMyths How myths being applied in marketing? - Through advertisements – relating the product with the intended value where the relationship between the two is already understood. - Perodua Kancil…. ”a smart choice – just like you are” Garuda Airlines The Goldern Arch of McDonald’s
  13. 13. 16-13 What Influences Consumer Behavior? Social Factors Social Factors
  14. 14. 16-14 Social Class A person’s social class impacts what he/she does with money and on how consumption choices reflect one’s place in society – Products as status symbols
  15. 15. 16-15 Upper uppers Lower uppers Upper middles Middle class Working class Upper lowers Lower lowers Social ClassesSocial Classes
  16. 16. 16-16 Social ClassSocial Class • “Haves” vs. “have-nots” • Where we occupy in the social structure determines how much we spend and how we spend it • Social class is determined by: income, family background,income, family background, and occupationand occupation
  17. 17. 16-17 Conspicuous Consumption • People’s desire to provide prominent visible evidence of their : ability to affordability to afford luxury goodsluxury goods
  18. 18. 16-18 The Trophy Wife • Beautiful and young lady married to a very rich man who is very much older than she is • Wives of wealthy husbands as “walking billboards”
  19. 19. 16-19 What Influences Consumer Behavior? Personal Factors Personal Factors
  20. 20. Personal Factors • Personality • Lifestyle
  21. 21. 16-21 Personality • A person’s unique psychological makeup and how it consistently influences the way a person responds to his/her environment
  22. 22. 16-22 Brand Personality • Set of traits people attribute to a product as if it were a person • Brand equity Marketers create “brand personality” to be matched with their target market. Levi’s: ruggedness Ladylike: feminine Polo: politeness
  23. 23. 16-23 Brand Personality
  24. 24. 16-24 Brand Personality
  25. 25. 16-25 Brand Personality
  26. 26. 16-26 Brand Personality
  27. 27. 16-27 Brand Personality
  28. 28. LIFESTYLE A lifestyle is a person’s pattern of living in the world as expressed in activities, interests, and opinions. - achievement-oriented - materialistic - familyman - outgoing Marketers search for relationships between their products and lifestyle groups.
  29. 29. The handling and performance of a sport car, with the comfort and space of a sedan
  30. 30. For Urban adventures, the sporty and agile RAV4 will be Able to take you anywhere your wanderlust leads you.
  31. 31. Innova: Spacious and luxurious appointed, the Innova offers unparalleled comfort for the entire family. Avanza: Versatile, stylish and specious, the Avanza is also surprisingly affordable
  32. 32. The rockers enjoyed Rock and Roll, and their style consisted of jeans, boots and leather jackets. They wore black leather and studs, had anti-authority beliefs, and projected an easy rider nomadic romanticism. The Rockers lived for the present, with a scruffy, masculine, ‘bad boy’ image. The rockers were essentially from the working class and despised any fashion. They each had the same hairstyle, shaggy with a bit of slick to it. Highway cafes are the hangout of the Rockers for the greasy foods and jukeboxes. Riding motorcycles was of the upmost importance, so they kept away from drugs and alcohol. The motorcycles were also modified or "souped up" in order to be in top racing form. Every Rocker had a ‘Triumph’ or a ‘Norton’, a brand of motorcycle.
  33. 33. 16-35 What Influences Consumer Behavior?
  34. 34. 16-37 PerceptionPerception • Adding meaning to raw sensations Figure 2.1
  35. 35. 16-38
  36. 36. 16-39 Sensory Thresholds ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD The minimum amount of stimulation that can be detected on a sensory channel DIFFERENTIAL THRESHOLD The ability of a sensory system to detect changes or differences between 2 stimuli.
  37. 37. 16-40
  38. 38. 16-41 Many ads use hidden messages. Can you find the hidden message in this company logo?
  39. 39. 16-42 Decision- Making Process Decision- Making Process
  40. 40. 16-43 Decision-making Process Problem Recognition Information Search Evaluation of Alternatives Product Choice Outcomes Richard realizes that he dislikes his B&W TV Richard surfs Web to learn about TVs Richard chooses a TV with an appealing feature Richard compares models on reputation and features Richard brings home and enjoys his TVFigure 9.1 (Abridged)
  41. 41. 16-44 Figure 6.5 Successive Sets Involved in Consumer Decision Making
  42. 42. 16-45 Decision Rules • Compensatory • Noncompensatory: shortcuts via basic standards – Lexicographic rule – Conjunctive rule
  43. 43. 16-46 COMPENSATORY RULE: Expectancy-Value Model • Consumer evaluates product • Combine brand beliefs - importance • Weights attached to each attribute • Allow “balance-out” Total perceived valueTotal perceived value = (weights x beliefs) of all attributes= (weights x beliefs) of all attributes
  44. 44. 16-47 ATTRIBUTE MEMORY CAPACITY GRAPHICS CAPABILITY SIZE & WEIGHT PRICE PEMBERAT 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 IBM 8 9 6 9 APPLE 7 7 7 7 DELL 10 4 3 2 TOSHIBA 5 3 8 5 Each attributes is rated from 0 to 10, where 10 represents the highest level on that attribute. Minimum acceptable cutoff level for each attribute = 7
  45. 45. 16-48 IBM = 0.4(8) + 0.3(9) + 0.2(6) + 0.1(9) = 8.0 APPLE = 0.4(7) + 0.3(7) + 0.2(8) + 0.1(7) = 7.2 DELL = 0.4(10) + 0.3(4) + 0.2(3) + 0.1(2) = 6.0 TOSHIBA = 0.4(5) + 0.3(3) + 0.2(8) + 0.1(5) = 5.0 Brand chosen =
  46. 46. 16-49 IBM = 0.4(8) + 0.3(9) + 0.2(6) + 0.1(9) = 8.0 APPLE = 0.4(7) + 0.3(7) + 0.2(8) + 0.1(7) = 7.2 DELL = 0.4(10) + 0.3(4) + 0.2(3) + 0.1(2) = 6.0 TOSHIBA = 0.4(5) + 0.3(3) + 0.2(8) + 0.1(5) = 5.0 Brand chosen = IBM - Highest score of 8.0
  47. 47. 16-50 NON-COMPENSATORY MODELS OF CONSUMER CHOICE • Positive & negative attributes may not net out • Attributes evaluated in isolation
  48. 48. 16-51 Lexicographic heuristic: Best brand on perceived most important attribute Brand Chosen = ?? ATTRIBUTE MEMORY CAPACITY GRAPHICS CAPABILITY SIZE & WEIGHT PRICE PEMBERAT 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 IBM 8 9 6 9 APPLE 7 7 7 7 DELL 10 4 3 2 TOSHIBA 5 3 8 5 Each attributes is rated from 0 to 10, where 10 represents the highest level on that attribute. Minimum acceptable cutoff level for each attribute = 7
  49. 49. 16-52 Lexicographic heuristic: Best brand on perceived most important attribute Brand Chosen = DellDell ATTRIBUTE MEMORY CAPACITY GRAPHICS CAPABILITY SIZE & WEIGHT PRICE PEMBERAT 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 IBM 8 9 6 9 APPLE 7 7 7 7 DELL 10 4 3 2 TOSHIBA 5 3 8 5 Each attributes is rated from 0 to 10, where 10 represents the highest level on that attribute. Minimum acceptable cutoff level for each attribute = 7
  50. 50. 16-53 Conjunctive heuristic: minimum for each attribute - choose brand meets minimum for all Brand Chosen = ?? ATTRIBUTE MEMORY CAPACITY GRAPHICS CAPABILITY SIZE & WEIGHT PRICE PEMBERAT 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 IBM 8 9 6 9 APPLE 7 7 7 8 DELL 10 4 3 2 TOSHIBA 5 3 8 5 Each attributes is rated from 0 to 10, where 10 represents the highest level on that attribute. Minimum acceptable cutoff level for each attribute = 7
  51. 51. 16-54 Conjunctive heuristic: minimum for each attribute - choose brand meets minimum for all Brand Chosen = AppleApple ATTRIBUTE MEMORY CAPACITY GRAPHICS CAPABILITY SIZE & WEIGHT PRICE PEMBERAT 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 IBM 8 9 6 9 APPLE 7 7 7 8 DELL 10 4 3 2 TOSHIBA 5 3 8 5 Each attributes is rated from 0 to 10, where 10 represents the highest level on that attribute. Minimum acceptable cutoff level for each attribute = 7
  52. 52. 16-55 Heuristics: Mental Shortcuts • Mental rules-of-thumb that lead to a speedy decision – Examples: higher price = higher quality, buying the same brand your mother bought • Can lead to bad decisions due to flawed assumptions (especially with unusually named brands)
  53. 53. 16-56 Inertia: The Lazy Customer • Many buy the same brand every time – We buy out of habit because it requires less effort – Little/no underlying commitment here • Brand switching frequently occurs (cheaper price, original brand out-of-stock, point-of-purchase displays)
  54. 54. 16-57 How Customers Use & Dispose of Products
  55. 55. 16-58 Business Market - Organizational Buying Behavior Business Market - Organizational Buying Behavior
  56. 56. 16-59 Organizational vs. Consumer Decision Making • Organizational buying is different… – Involves many people – Precise, technical specifications (require a lot of product knowledge) – Past experience and careful weighing of alternatives (impulse buying is rare) – Decisions are often risky (to one’s career) – Substantial dollar volume – More emphasis on personal selling

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