INDUSTRIAL HEALTHOccupational Health deals with work related disorders/diseases and all factors that affects the communityhealth within it.
WHY HYGIENE IS IMPORTANT? Hygiene is initially based on limiting personel exposures to chemicals and ahas evolved to address the control of other workplace hazards Ex: over-exposure to noise, heat etc. It allows to work in healthy environment and maintaining good health among the workers.
OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS Every occupation should take the proper and adequate precautions for its own hazards. They have the proper safety and precautionary measures against the occupational hazards is the fundamental rights of all workers.
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS • Physical hazards • Chemical hazards • Biological hazards • Mechanical hazards • Psychological hazards
1.PHYSICAL HAZARDS Heat and cold: It is more common in industry where as heat stagnation is the major problem in jute and cotton textile industries. In such environment are highly stressful. Light : adequate and proper lighting is essential for higher efficiency and good quality of work. Poor illumination or excessive brightness may cause the eyestrain, headache that may result to accidents.
Noise : Too much of noise inside and outside the workplace cause disturbance. Two types of effects:1. Auditory effects: temporary or permanent hear loss2. Non-Auditory effects: nervousness, fatigue, interference with communication by speech
Ultraviolet radiation: where in welding arcs, X-ray or radio active isotopes are used, exposure to radiation. It may cause the redness of eyes and pain, genetic disoders, cancer, leukemia, sterility and exterme, death.
2. CHEMICAL HAZARDS Carbon dioxide, sulphuric acid, alkalis causes injury when they absorbed through skin and inhaling. Workers may suffer from skin diseases, asthmas, heart diseases, neurological disorders and cancer. Their effect is slow but its cumulative.
4. MECHANICAL HAZARDS It may be due to protruding machinery and from moving parts of machinery, fire, explosion and electricity.
5. PSYCHOLOGICAL HAZARDS This may arise from lack of job satisfaction, emotional tension, frustration, insecurity and poor human relationships. These factors undermine both physical and mental health of workers. It may be due to ability in harmony with the environment at the place of work. Psychological hazards are more important than physical or chemical hazards.
OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES Occupational diseases is a health problem caused by exposure to a work place health hazard. It is defined as the illness caused by the substance or conditions that the worker was brought into the contact with at the workplace. Workplace should be healthy in case of physically and mentally to the workers.
SOME OF THE OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES Dust, fumes Noise Toxic substances(poisons) Vibration Radiation Infectious germs or viruses Extreme hot or cold temperature Extremely high or low air pressure.
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES Phosphorus poisoning: yellow phosphorus is poisonous it is used in the manufacture of certain types of explosives. it enters the body in the form of fumes and has destructive action in bones and jaw.Symptoms : toothache and pain in jaw.
BAGASSOIS: This occupational disease is causes by inhalation of bagasse or sugar cane dust. It mainly affects the lungs.Symptoms : breathlessness, cough, haemoptysis and slight fever.Preventive measures: dust control, personal protective equipment and periodic medical examination
CAISSON DISEASES: workers who working in the environment of harbor construction or in the building of tunnels may suffer from this diseases. BYSSIONOSIS: It affects the lungs of the textile workers due to inhalation of cotton fibre dust over along period. SKIN DISEASES: This is caused by such irritants like acids, solvents etc.
PROTECTION AGAINST THE HEALTH HAZARDS Preventive measures Curative measures
PREVENTIVE MEASURES Pre-employment and periodic medical examination. Removal of health hazards to the maximum possible extent. Training of first aid personnel and education of workers in health and hygiene. Emergency treatment for accidents
CURATIVE MEASURES This aspect will begin once a worker suffers from ill health or diseases. The some of the labour laws for safeguarding the health of workers are: Restriction on employment of women at certain hours and places. Protection for young persons. Provisions of first aid and ambulance services. Provisions relating to cleanliness, disposal of waste and effluents, ventilation and temperature, dust, lighting.