Management of dairy animals for clean & safe milk production


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Management of dairy animals for clean & safe milk production, Hari Om Pandey

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  • Management of dairy animals for clean & safe milk production

    1. 1. Free Powerpoint Templates Hari Om Pandey Livestock Production & management IVRI, Izatnagar [email_address] Management of Dairy Animals for Clean and Safe Milk Production
    2. 3. <ul><li>Potential threats to human health related to milk and milk products: </li></ul><ul><li>include contamination of milk before or during milking or post milking handling </li></ul><ul><li>consumption of raw milk, </li></ul><ul><li>errors in pasteurization, </li></ul><ul><li>emergence of antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic pathogens, </li></ul><ul><li>chemical adulteration of milk, </li></ul><ul><li>transmission of zoonotic pathogens to humans through animal contact, and </li></ul><ul><li>foodborne disease related to cull dairy cows. </li></ul>Growing global demand for milk and milk products (approximately 3% annually). Indian dairy industry the largest milk producer country in the world with 112.5 million tonnes in 2009-10. (BAHS, 2010) Consumers are increasingly concerned about the safety of their food.
    3. 4. Constraints----- Production of clean and safe milk in India is really a challenge! Indian dairying is characterized by very small - most producers own 1 to 3 milch animals and largely a rural-based activity. In India milk is produced by masses contrary to the mass milk production of some developed countries. India has a unique pattern of production, processing, consumption and marketing of milk, which is not comparable to any developed nation. Pricing policy of milk
    4. 6. Clean and safe milk? “ milk drawn from the udder of healthy animals, which is collected in clean, dry milking pail and free from extraneous material like, dirt, dust flies, hay , manure etc. clean milk has a normal milk flavor with low bacterial count and is safe for human consumption.” Raw milk quality encompasses criteria relating to composition (butterfat, protein, lactose, milk solids etc) and hygiene (total bacterial count, somatic cell count). Of these, somatic cell count (SCC): An udder quarter is considered healthy if it has an SCC < 100,000 cells/ml and is free of mastitis pathogens. (Hamann 2005) The European Union milk quality standard (SCC not exceeding 400,000 cells/ml) is generally accepted as the international export standard.
    5. 7. The importance of clean and safe milk The milk quality is important as it impacts on farm profitability, milk processing, human health, keeping quality etc. <ul><ul><li>Increased somatic cell counts are associated with reduced milk yield. Milk quality has a substantial, adverse impact on milk processing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mastitis is associated with an influx of somatic cells and increased activity of heat-stable proteases and lipases, leading to a breakdown of casein and milk fat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Barbano et al. 2006) </li></ul></ul>Onfarm profitability Milk processing
    6. 8. Heat-stable enterotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus in milk from infected cows have been implicated in cases of food poisoning. (National Mastitis Council 2005) Human health <ul><ul><li>Herds with mastitis problems are also at increasing risk of antibiotic residue violation, as a result of increased antibiotic usage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(van Schaik et al. 2002) </li></ul></ul>Mastitis also affects the quality of pasteurized liquid milk and reduces its shelf life. (Ma et al. 2000) Quality milk renders protection against diseases like typhoid, dysentery, etc. which are transmitted to the milk thorough human contact.
    7. 9. Milk secreted from the healthy udder is almost sterile. Milk needs to be protected from all possible sources of microbial contamination as it may act good media for pathogenic organism. Milk gets easily contaminated and that’s why considered as perishable commodity. <ul><li>The factors responsible for clean and safe milk can be classified into two categories: </li></ul><ul><li>internal factors </li></ul><ul><li>external factors. </li></ul>Factors affecting clean and safe milk production
    8. 10. Good Milking management Milking is an art requiring experience and skill. Milking should be conducted gently, quietly, quickly, cleanly and completely Cleanliness of animals The hind quarters and thighs of cows should be brushed, and washed if lot of filth-is accumulating on them. Managemental strategies for clean and safe milk production
    9. 11. Udder hygiene scoring chart (from Schriener and Ruegg, 2002)
    10. 12. <ul><li>Stripping and full-hand milking are the two commonly used methods of milking. </li></ul><ul><li>Many milkers tend to bend their thumb in, against the teat while milking, known as knuckling. </li></ul><ul><li>Stripping causes more irritation to teats due to repeated sliding of fingers on teats; and so discomfort to cows. </li></ul>Correct milking method
    11. 13. Full hand or fisting method of milking
    12. 14. Stripping method of hand milking
    13. 15. Knuckling method of hand milking
    14. 16. <ul><ul><li>The first few strips of milk from each teat should be let on to a strip cup to see clotes in milk for possible incidence of mastitis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Premilking teat stimulation of 10 to 20 s is generally considered adequate to achieve efficient milk letdown and removal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Reneau and Chastain, 1995) </li></ul><ul><li>Milking time and timely milking </li></ul><ul><li>Complete milking has to be done, lest the residual milk may act an inducer for mastitis causing organisms and the overall yield may also be less. </li></ul><ul><li>Milkers as well as the milking pails should be clean. </li></ul><ul><li>The milkers should wear clean dress. </li></ul><ul><li>Nails should be well trimmed and their hands clean and disinfected between each milking by washing in antiseptic solution. </li></ul>
    15. 17. <ul><li>Predipping </li></ul><ul><li>The procedure for predipping involves washing of teats with water and a sanitizer. </li></ul><ul><li>The teats are then dried with an individual paper towel and dipped or sprayed with the sanitizer. </li></ul><ul><li>A 30-second contact with sanitizer is needed to kill organisms. Then the sanitizer is wiped off of the teat with a paper towel. </li></ul><ul><li>Postdipping </li></ul><ul><li>Applying teat dip to every quarter of every cow after </li></ul><ul><li>every milking. </li></ul><ul><li> Used to remove milk residue left on the teat and kill organisms on the teat at the time of dipping. They also leave a residual film of sanitizer between milkings. </li></ul>(Reneau and Chastain, 1995)
    16. 18. <ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping cows standing after milking seemed to be associated with lower SCC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(livaart et al. 2007) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dairy producers attitudes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clipping of udder hairs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regular CMT </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 19. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good nutrition of dairy cow reflects in the term of quantity and quality of milk </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dusty or very fine concentrate during milking of animals should be avoided for clean milk production. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feeding of milch animals should be done an hour before milking. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silage and wet crop residues should not be fed at milking place as it may impart foul odour to the milk. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animal feed and fodder should also be free from anti- nutritional factors and toxins. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Feeding management for clean and safe milk
    18. 20. <ul><ul><ul><li>The presence of unsuitable substances such as industrial and environmental contaminants, pesticides, pathogenic agents, and toxins in feed should be critically assessed for safety aspects before using </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feed and fodder used for milch animals should be free from fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, pesticides, fumigants, heavy metals etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feeding a specific type of feed, mineral, or supplement is absolutely determined by the presence or absence of other components of a diet. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin E & Selenium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> (Bouwstra et al., 2010) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 21. <ul><li>Housing of dairy animals should be designed to provide good drainage, well ventilation and sufficient lights. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This requires attention to stall design, bedding , and cleanliness and hygiene of stalls. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The dirty floor of milch animal may acts as good source of ascending type of infection in udder. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free stall housing system with sand-bedding (not a minor correction). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria of environmental origin are most likely to pass directly through the duct when it is not completely closed. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Lacy-Hulbert and Hillerton, 1995) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Housing management for clean and safe milk
    20. 22. <ul><ul><ul><li>Overcrowding results in excessive deposition of manure in housing areas that are designed for fewer animals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manure handling, type of bedding and maintenance of cow beds all have major influences on hygiene. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loose consistency of manure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infection is more common when animal arrives and lies down on the paddock just after the milking. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immediately after the milking the opening of teat canal is loose and more prone for infection. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>(Lacy-Hulbert and Hillerton, 1995)
    21. 23. <ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, the stalls of animal should be clean and dry with adequate bedding to minimize infection. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The gutter and passage way should be regularly cleaned and scrapped to remove manure from the animal shed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In very wet areas sprinkling slaked lime over the surface helps to dry it out quickly. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The floor of the milk shed should be swept with the clean water and disinfected with one percent bleaching powder solution. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sufficient supply of safe and potable water for drinking, washing udders and flanks of the animals, utensils etc. should be ensured. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control of flies and other insects is important as they act as potential source for disease transmission. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 24. <ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccination of animals against FMD, HS, brucellosis etc. should be done regularly. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Routine examination of animals should be against diseases like; TB and brucellosis. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The animals suffering from contagious disease must be kept separate from healthy herd. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate dry cow therapy should be promoted at dairy farm. </li></ul></ul></ul>Heath management for clean and safe milk
    23. 25. <ul><ul><ul><li>Dual objectives of dry-cow antibiotic treatment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. prevention of new IMI during the dry period </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. cure of existing of IMI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Dingwell et al. 2003) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The inappropriate or prophylactic use of antimicrobial agents must be minimized </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The diagnosis of salmonellosis or listeriosis on a dairy farm should be regarded as an indication that other potentially infected animals may be present in the herd. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coliform counts on bulk tank milk should be routinely performed as an indicator of fecal contamination. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Well-defined culling strategies based on udder conformation, teat lesions. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Rodrigues et al., 2005) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 26. <ul><li>Programme should built around the establishment of goals for udder health and periodic review of mastitis control programme. </li></ul><ul><li>A broad range of resources should be developed to support these steps, including farmer short courses, farm guidelines, mastitis action plans, mastitis focus reports and milk quality awards. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective translation of knowledge to practice, rather than incomplete knowledge per se. </li></ul>Conclusion
    25. 27. Thank you