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  2. 2. Intellectual property  Intellectual property (IP) is a legal concept which refers to creations of the mind for which exclusive rights are recognized.  Under intellectual property law, owners are granted certain exclusive rights to a variety of intangible assets such as musical, literary, and artistic works, discoveries and inventions, and words, phrases, symbols, and designs.  Common types of intellectual property rights include copyright, trademarks, patents, industrial design rights and in some jurisdictions trade secrets.
  3. 3. CONT…………  Although many of the legal principles governing intellectual property rights have evolved over centuries, it was not until the 19th century that the term intellectual property began to be used, and not until the late 20th century that it became commonplace in the majority of the world.  The British Statute of Anne (1710) and the Statute of Monopolies (1623) are now seen as the origins of copyright and patent law respectively.
  4. 4. History of Intellectual property  Modern usage of the term intellectual property goes back at least as far as 1867 with the founding of the North German Confederation whose constitution granted legislative power over the protection of intellectual property (Schutz des geistigen Eigentums) to the confederation.  Paris Convention (1883)  Berne Convention (1886) merged in 1893  International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property.
  5. 5. Types of intellectual property  Patents  Copyright  Industrial design rights  Trademarks  Trade dress  Trade secrets
  6. 6. Patents  A patent grants an inventor exclusive rights to make, use, sell, and import an invention for a limited period of time, in exchange for the public disclosure of the invention.  An invention is a solution to a specific technological problem, which may be a product or a process.
  7. 7. Copyright  A copyright gives the creator of an original work exclusive rights to it, usually for a limited time.  Copyright may apply to a wide range of creative, intellectual, or artistic forms, or "works".  Copyright does not cover ideas and information themselves, only the form or manner in which they are expressed.
  8. 8. Industrial design rights  An industrial design right protects the visual design of objects that are not purely utilitarian.  An industrial design consists of the creation of a shape, configuration or composition of pattern or color, or combination of pattern and color in three dimensional form containing aesthetic value.  An industrial design can be a two- or three-dimensional pattern used to produce a product, industrial commodity or handicraft.
  9. 9. Trademarks • A trademark is a recognizable sign, design or expression which identifies products or services of a particular source from those of others.
  10. 10. Trade secrets  A formula, practice, process, design ,instrument ,pattern or compilation of information which is not generally known or reasonably ascertainable, by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers.  In the US, trade secret law is primarily handled at the state level under the Uniform Trade Secrets Act, which most states have adopted, and a federal law, the Economic Espionage Act of 1996 which makes the theft or misappropriation of a trade secret a federal crime.
  11. 11. Cont………….  This law contains two provisions criminalizing two sorts of activity. The first, criminalizes the theft of trade secrets to benefit foreign powers.  The second, criminalizes their theft for commercial or economic purposes. The statutory penalties are different for the two offenses.  Trade secret law varies from country to country
  12. 12. Objectives • Financial incentive • Economic growth • Morality
  13. 13. Financial incentive • These exclusive rights allow owners of intellectual property to benefit from the property they have created, providing a financial incentive for the creation of an investment in intellectual property, and, in case of patents, pay associated research and development costs. • Some commentators, such as David Levine and Michele Boldrin, dispute this justification
  14. 14. Cont………. • In 2013 the United States Patent & Trademark Office claimed that the worth of intellectual property to the U.S. economy is more than US$5 trillion and creates employment for an estimated 18 million American people. • The value of intellectual property is considered similarly high in other developed nations, such as those in the European Union.
  15. 15. Economic growth • The WIPO treaty and several related international agreements are premised on the notion that the protection of intellectual property rights are essential to maintaining economic growth. • The WIPO Intellectual Property Handbook gives two reasons for intellectual property laws: • One is to give statutory expression to the moral and economic rights of creators in their creations and the rights of the public in access to those creations.
  16. 16. Cont………  The second is to promote, as a deliberate act of Government policy, creativity and the dissemination and application of its results and to encourage fair trading which would contribute to economic and social development.  The Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) states that “effective enforcement of intellectual property rights is critical to sustaining economic growth across all industries and globally.”