The term ‘Research’ consists of two words
Re + Search
‘Re’ means again and again
‘Search’ means to find out something.
It is a careful ,
It is not merely a
search for truth,
but a prolonged,
Francis G. Cornell: “To be sure the best research is that which is
reliable verifiable and exhaustive, so that it provides information
in which we have confidence. The main point here is that research
is, literally speaking, a kind of human behavior, an activity in
which people engage. By this definition all intelligent human
behavior involves some research.”
Rusk: “Research is a point of view, an attitude of inquiry or a frame of
mind. It asks questions which have hitherto not been asked, and
it seeks to answer them by following a fairly definite procedure.”
V. Redman and A.V.H. Mory: “Research is a systematized effort to gain
•Research has moved during this century from the periphery to the centre of our
social and economic life.
•Research simply seeks the answer of certain questions which have not been
answered so far and the answers depend upon human efforts. For e.g. Moon
•Research is oriented towards the discovery of relationship that exists among
phenomena of the world in which we live.
•The fundamental assumption is that invariant relationship exists between
certain antecedents and certain consequents so that under a specific set of
conditions a certain consequents can be expected to follow the introduction of a
PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH
•A key motive for research is to develop better understandings and to
investigate approaches to measuring the value of educational
•To undertake an international meta-analysis of the findings.
•The purpose of research is to discover answers through the
application of scientific procedures.
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF
1. It gathers new knowledge or data from primary or first-hand
sources or using existing data for a new purpose.
1. It places emphasis upon the discovery of general principles.
2. Research requires expertise i.e., skill necessary to carryout investigation, search
the related literature and to understand
and analyze the data gathered.
1. It is an exact systematic and accurate investigation.
2. It uses certain valid data gathering devices.
3. It is logical and objective.
4. The researcher resists the temptation to seek only the data that support his
5. The researcher eliminates personal feelings and preferences.
6. Research is carefully recorded and reported.
SOURCES OF RESEARCH
IN 21ST CENTURY
The routine jobs of yesterday are being replaced by
technology. The modern workplace requires managers/
students /teachers and researchers to have broad
cognitive and affective skills. Often referred to as 21st
century skills, these skills include being able to solve
complex problems, to think critically about tasks, to
effectively communicate with people from a variety of
different cultures and using a variety of different
techniques, to work in collaboration with others, to
adapt to rapidly changing environments and conditions
Through the modern technological devices young
people are able to compete effectively in the
21st Century global economy.
SCOPE / SIGNIFICANCE OF
It throws light on risks and uncertainty and identify alternative courses of action
It helps in economic use of resources and also helps in project identification
For students, research means a careerism or a way to attain a high position in the social
For professionals in research, it may mean a source of livelihood.
For philosophers and thinkers, research means the outlet for new ideas and insights.
For literary men and women, research means development of new styles and creative
For analysts and intellectuals, research means generalizations of new theories.
TYPES OF RESEARCH
Descriptive vs Analytical Research
Descriptive Research is a fact finding investigation
which is aimed at describing the characteristics of
individual, situation or a group (or) describing the
state of affairs as it exists at present.
Analytical Research is primarily concerned with
testing hypothesis and specifying and interpreting
relationships, by analyzing the facts or information
Applied vs Fundamental Research
Applied Research or Action Research is carried out to
find solution to a real life problem requiring an action
or policy decision.
Fundamental Research which is also known as basic or
pure research is undertaken for the sake of knowledge
without any intention to apply it in practice.
It is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity
and is not necessarily problem-oriented.
Conceptual vs Empirical Research
Conceptual Research is generally used by philosophers
and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret
Empirical Research is a data based research which
depends on experience or observation alone. It is aimed at
coming up with conclusions without due regard for system
SOME OTHER TYPES OF RESEARCH
One-time Research – Research confined to a single time
Longitudinal Research – Research carried on over several
Diagnostic Research – It is also called clinical research
which aims at identifying the causes of a problem,
frequency with which it occurs and the possible solutions
Exploratory Research – It is the preliminary study of an
unfamiliar problem, about which the researcher has little or
no knowledge. It is aimed to gain familiarity with the
problem, to generate new ideas or to make a precise
formulation of the problem. Hence it is also known as
Experimental Research – It is designed to assess the
effect of one particular variable on a phenomenon by
keeping the other variables constant or controlled.
Historical Research – It is the study of past records
and other information sources, with a view to find
the origin and development of a phenomenon and to
discover the trends in the past, in order to
understand the present and to anticipate the future.