SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Harry Charles Devasagayam
Dissertation Defense
Dissertation Committee
Dr. N M Agrawal (IIMB)
Dr. V Nagdevara (IIMB)
Dr. K S Gupta
Calorx Teacher’s University
Ahmedabad
Organizational Citizenship Behaviour of Globally
Distributed Teams: A Study on the Mediating Effect of
Organizational Justice in Software Organizations
January 5, 2016
Introduction -Overview
USD Bn- 2012 2013
IT Spend was nearly USD 2.3 trillion in
2014, a growth of 4.6 per cent over 2013.
Indian IT Revenue-
A nearly
USD 150 billion industry
Source: NASSCOM Strategic Review 2015
2
India’s GDP (Contribution)
Grew > 6X in the last 15 years
IT Exports Grew 12.3% to reach
Direct Employment
One of largest organized private sector
employers in India
Share in global sourcing market
Offshore delivery centers
9.5%
580
98B
3.5
Million
55%
Source: NASSCOM Strategic Review 2015
2015
Share in total service
exports >38%
Up by 11B 2014
>34% women Employees &
1,70,000 foreign nationals
New Global delivery
centers recorded a growth
of 49% with 27% additions
in India
•60-70% of fortune 500 companies use GSD and 60% have
remote centers
•70% of GSC outsource some or all of their projects
•Indian professionals work in more than 70 countries
…..Overview
3
India-based resources are estimated to account for about 60-
70 percent of the offshore delivery capacities across the
leading multinational IT-BPO players.
Studies suggest that 50 -70% of Fortune 500 companies
have outsourced work to India and Indian outsourcing
Industry is growing 25-30% on an average annually. Thus,
India evidently has a competitive edge and clear-cut
advantages over other contending players in the world
…..Overview
4
Industry Segmentation
Source: NASSCOM Strategic Review 2015
5
Delivery Method
6
Global Delivery System
7Expatriates & In-patriates
Follow-the-sun is a
global workflow in
which tasks are
passed around daily
between work sites
that are many time
zones apart. Such a
workflow is set up
in order to reduce
project duration
and increase
responsiveness.
Organizational Practices
8
Critical Parameters Organizational Practices
Business vision, Compulsions and
Competitive environment
Basis for Management Practices
Competency, Capability &
Marketability
Determines Demand in the market
Business, Revenues and Profits Influencers of Employee Policies and
Processes
Rarity of Skills, Dependability, Ability
to Multiply Given Opportunities
Commends Respect and Dignity
Project, Cost, Skills, Period and
Location
Allocation of Resources Depends
Role Classification
General Classification
Coders / Engineers / Programmers
/ Developers
Designers & Testers (QA)
Backend Engineers (Dbase)
System Administrators / Desktop
Support Engineers
Architects
Managers & Coordinators
Functional Specialists /Support
Ninjas
Role based
Technical Or Project
CTO - Project Delivery Head
Product Architect - Program
Manager
Technical Manager – Project
Manager
Technical Lead – Project Lead
Team Lead
Systems Analyst – Software
Engineer
9
…..Overview
10
Individual based work structure could no longer meet the
demands for smarter, faster and innovative solutions
Carmel et al., 2007 further developed on this and said that
distributed teams were becoming increasingly a common strategic
response. A large percentage of almost 80 % of software projects
are global.
Groups of people collaborating closely though physically separated
Team members can be down the hall from each other, across the
street, across the country or across the world
Distributed Team (DT)
11
…..Continued
An expatriate is transferred from the corporation
headquarters to a country where the corporation has a
subsidiary, while an in-patriate is transferred from the
foreign subsidiary to the country where the corporation has
its headquarters.
Distributed Teams can be within/outside the Country /
City, One or many locations / Centers of delivery, part of
parent / client / outsourced organization and can be a
single member or a group of people
12
…..DT Explained
13
•Will only be part of the team as long as their specialist skills are
required (grouping and regrouping is common)
•Come from same or different organisational backgrounds and
cultures (virtual, open source or out sourced teams)
•Characterised by asynchronous, cross culture, time-zone, distance,
exchange, mutually complementing tasks, collaboration and
coordination, short duration, fear of unknown, power distance,
changing roles, interdependence, cost , time and location constraints,
limitations on technical knowhow, organizational support and
knowledge transfer (Geographically distributed but placed as an
expatriate, in-patriate (Onsite, offsite, offshore and combination
teams (Hybrid)
A distributed Member
14
Sample of Distributed MNC’s
Organizations Number of
employees
Countries
Operating in
Revenues
Generated
(USD Bn)
Microsoft 117000 121 93.6
IBM 430000 170 78
Oracle 135000 145 103
Accenture 358000 120 110.90
SAP SE 75600 130 31.06
CTS 219000 42 12.33
Capgemini 180000 40 11.73
VMware 18000 19 10
15
Sample of Distributed & Indian Cos
Organizations Number of
employees
Countries
Operating in
Revenues
Generated (USD
Bn)
TCS 324000 46 15.5
Infosys 187000 50 9.2
Wipro 160000 40 7.6
HCL 106000 31 6.0
Tech Mahindra 98000 51 855M
Mphasis 48000 19 250M
Mindtree 15582 14 147M
16
Need for study
Physical dispersion also impacted overall
project efficiency. Cramton and Hinds
(2005)
Sarker and Sahay (2003) identified
mismatch in time zones and the lack of
physical proximity.
Eisenberger (2002) suggest that employees
develop POS through assessing their
working conditions, organizational
rewards, support received from
supervisors, and procedural justice.
Role perception (Pestonjee & Aniruddh
Pandey, 1996 ). if a member gives a
positive meaning to the way he is used in
the project, he will perceive it positively
Perceived justice of organizational decision-
making processes affect employee reactions
to pay raise decisions (Folger & Konovsky,
1989; Greenberg, 1987b, 1990).
Interaction styles (Potter & Balthazard,
2002)
Team processes and team-member relations
(Lurey & Raisinghani, 2001).
Cross cultural attributes were also found to
impact performance in organizations as
studied by Swigger, Alpaslan, Brazile, &
Monticino, 2004)
Principled organizational dissent is when
employees protest against the organization
when experiencing injustice.(Graham, 1986,
as cited in Organ et al., 2006).
17
Three analytical Levels of the software organizational context providing
the basis for shared meaning in distributed teams
Shared perception
Shared Meaning
19
Team’s cognition of fair treatment as defined by Kissoon
(2007) states that individual workplace concerns lead to
interaction between team members creating a shared
meaning.
Shared meaning among team members creates a perception
of organizational fairness (Endres, 2007)
Statement of problem /Research Questions
• How does perception of Organizational Justice differ from
co-located to distributed members?
• How does perceived justice lead to OCB?
• How does POS and RE influence a team to perceiving
organizational justice?
.
20
Purpose
To investigate if there exists a relationship
between OCB, OJ, POS & RE in globally
distributed teams and to find out how is it
different from collocated (co-located) teams
21
A Mixed Method Adopted
Quantitative-SupportiveQualitative – Primary
Quantitative research method was
adopted to ensure objectivity,
generalizability and reliability.
The research participants were
selected randomly in an unbiased
manner, provided standardized
questionnaire and obtained their
experiences.
These methods produced
quantifiable, reliable data that
were used to generalize the
context to a large population
distributed across continents.
Qualitative research method was
used to provide the researcher with
the perspective of target audience
members through immersion in a
culture or situation and direct
interaction with the people under
study. The method included
observations, in-depth interviews
and focus groups.
These methods gave rich, detailed
participants' perspectives and
provided a context for a particular
organizational behavior.
22
Clusters of experiences of fairness perception reported
• Selection and deployment for onsite
• Compensation and benefits
• Assigned roles / Role efficacy
• Deployed location
• Learning and development opportunities
• Respect and dignity
• Employee trust
• Perceived support
• Information sharing and
• Post onsite rehabilitation
Findings of Pilot study
23
Mediating Effect
The moderator-mediator variable
distinction in social psychological
research: Conceptual, strategic, and
statistical considerations. Baron, R. M., &
Kenny, D. A. (1986),Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 51,
1173-1182.
A moderator variable is one that
influences the strength of a
relationship between two other
variables, and a mediator variable is
one that explains the relationship
between the two other variables.
Our objective to study the
relationship between
variables and so
mediating effect
24
An integrated model leading to
current investigations
25
Literature Survey
Literature* Dissertations
1365 164
3520 497
11140 1303
7131 2001
127784 26419
Globally Distributed Teams
Organization Citizenship
Behaviour
Organizational Justice
Perceived Organizational Support
Role Efficacy
A review on GDT, DT, VT, OST found 109 articles and white papers (Meta analysis.
Martins et al., 2004) A further review found 99 articles and white papers.
http://smartsearch.uiowa.edu/primo_library/libweb/action/search 26
Software development teams are increasingly spread across
multiple countries (Carmel 1999)
Increasing number of organizations are relying on
technology-enabled geographically distributed teams
(McDonough et al. 2001)
Literature Survey
27
Perceived Organizational Support
(POS): Stated that POS is the degree to
which employee believes that their
organization values their contributions
and cares about their well being (Rhodes
& Eisenberger, 2002).
Role efficacy (IC): (Katz & Kahn,
1978).The role allocated and its nature
imparts a sense of importance to an
employee.
Greenberg 1987, defined
organizational justice as an
individual’s perception of and
reactions to fairness in an
organization
Organization Citizenship Behavior
(OCB) According to Organ (1988), is
defined as the discretionary behavior of
an individual. The omissions or
commissions of these behaviors are not
considered as deviance.
Variables Defined
28
Variables Explained
Organizational Justice, Thibaut & Walker, (1975)
 Procedural
 Distributive
 Interactional and Informational
Organizational Citizenship Behaviour, Organ (1988)
 Original Forms (Altruism and Conscientiousness)
 Complementary Forms (Sportsmanship and Civic Virtue /
General Compliance/ (Courtesy)
29
Variables Explained
Two important experiences leading to perception of
Organizational Justice (OJ- Mediating Variable) in distributed
software developments are-
Perceived organizational support (POS) Eisenberger et al.,
(1986) is defined as the extent to which employees believe that
the organization values their contribution and cares about
their well-being.
Role efficacy, Srivastav (2008) is the perception of the
effectiveness of the role of an employee in a distributed
location. The individual perceives himself to be a role-making,
role-centering or role-linking authority.
30
• Lina Kogan 2004- Studied relationship between POS,
procedural justice and OCB and found significant
positive relationship between variables.
• Ganesh (2008) –Studied extra role performance in the
light of OJ among SW development teams and found
negative impact of overall virtualness on OCB. He
further established moderating effect of procedural
justice perception on virtualness and OCB.
• Mehrdad (2009)-Studied relationship between OJ and
OCB and found positively correlated
• Ali Nirozy (2011) found OJ significantly influenced
POS and OCB
Conceptualizing a model
31
Perceived
organizational
Support
Role Efficacy
Organizational
Citizenship
Behavior
Perceived
Organizational
Justice
H3
H6
H1
H7
H5
H4
Onsite
and
Offshore
Indian
and
Overseas
CNS and
Product
H2
Conceptual Framework
32
Hypotheses
H1
OCB is positively influenced by organizational Justice (OJ)
OCB=Const +β1 (OJ) + β2 (Controlled Variables)
If β1 is positive => H1 is supported
H2
OCB is positively influenced by POS
OCB=Const +β1 (POS) + β2 (Controlled Variables)
If β1 is positive => H2 is supported
H3
Organizational Justice is positively influenced by POS
OJ=Const +β1 (POS) + β2 (Controlled Variables)
If β1 is positive => H3 is supported
H4: The relationship between POS and OCB is positively mediated by OJ;
greater the level of OJ, the stronger the relationship between POS and OCB
OCB= Const + β1 (POS) + β2(OJ) +β3 (OJ*POS)+ Controlled variables
i.e.: if β3 is positive => H4 is supported 33
H5
OCB is positively influenced by Role Efficacy (RE)
OCB=Const +β1 (RE) + β2 (Controlled Variables)
If β1 is positive => H5 is supported
H6
Organizational Justice is positively influenced by RE
OJ=Const +β1 (RE) + β2 (Controlled Variables)
If β1 is positive => H6 is supported
H7: The relationship between RE and OCB is positively mediated by OJ;
greater the level of OJ, the stronger the relationship between RE and
OCB
OCB= Const + β1 (RE) + β2(OJ) +β3 (OJ*RE)+ Controlled variables i.e.: if β3 is
positive => H7 is supported
…..Continued
34
Measurements
The following modified scales were used in this study.
•The OCB scale (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Moorman, & Fetter, 1990) with
sub scale of Altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy and
civic virtue with reliabilities 0.763.
•The Organizational justice (Thibaut & Walker, 1975) with sub scales of
Procedural, Distributive, Interpersonal and Informational justice with
reliabilities of 0.71.
•POS scale (Eisenberger et al., 1986) with reliabilities of 0.93
•RE scale (Srivastav 2008) with reliabilities of 0.70
35
Company Issued Received Rejected Accepted Location
Open source 100 20 0 20 Chennai
HTC Global 50 33 7 26 Worldwide
TCS 50 56 0 56 Chennai
Symphony
Services 50 0 0 0 Bangalore
Aricent
Technologies 50 16 0 16 Bangalore
Ness Technologies 50 12 3 9 Bangalore
3D 30 0 0 0 Bangalore
IIM 225 27 4 23 Bangalore
Wipro 50 0 0 0 Bangalore
Open source 125 47 0 47 Worldwide
Isoft 50 23 3 20 Chennai
CCT, LI and NC 40 28 0 28 Bangalore
Infosys 50 34 3 31 Worldwide
IBM 50 0 0 0 Bangalore
Total 970 296 20 276
Sample
36
Gender Male Female Others
70.29% 29.71% 0%
Education Graduation Post Graduation Doctoral
68.48% 30.80% 0.72%
Location Onsite Offshore Shuttling
49.64% 47.46% 2.90%
Dist Location India Others
56.88% 43.12%
Designation Executives Managers Leaders
194 74 8
Business Consulting and
Services
Product
development
BPO
203 67 6
Employment
status
Permanent Contract &
Consultant
Others
270 6 0
Demographic profile
37
Statistical Methods
• Factor analysis
• ANOVA tests
• Post-hoc analysis
• Correlation coefficients and
• Hierarchical regression
38
Variables N Mean
Std.
Deviation
Statistic Statistic Std. Error Statistic
Gender 276 1.30 .028 .458
Location 276 1.55 .033 .553
Geographical Location 276 1.43 .030 .496
Organizational Citizenship
Behavior
276 3.71 .027 .442
Altruism 276 3.75 .039 .653
Conscientious 276 3.98 .043 .715
Sportsmanship 276 3.23 .048 .796
General Compliance 276 3.73 .039 .654
Civic Virtue 276 3.75 .039 .647
Organizational Justice 276 3.37 .025 .418
Procedural Justice 276 3.38 .041 .679
Distributive Justice 276 3.05 .050 .826
Interpersonal Justice 276 3.58 .039 .653
Informational Justice 276 3.43 .041 .675
Perceived Organizational
Support
276 3.30 .046 .759
Role Efficacy 276 3.36 .030 .495
Satisfaction with outcomes 276 3.38 .028 .461
Valid N (listwise) 276
Note:Parametersindicatedinboldrepresentmeasuresused
totestthehypothesis
Descriptive Statistics
39
Histogram
40
41
Scatter Plot - Summary
42
Correlations
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1 Altruism 1.000
2 Conscientious 0.519** 1.000
3 Sportsmanship 0.114 0.023 1.000
4 General
Compliance
0.339** 0.405** 0.020 1.000
5 Civic Virtue 0.394** 0.452** -0.027 0.536** 1.000
6 Procedural
Justice
0.219** 0.230** 0.021 0.403** 0.418** 1.000
7 Distributive
Justice
0.096 0.060 0.416** -0.112 0-.179** 0-.175** 1.000
8 Interpersonal
Justice
0.134* 0.095 -0.059 0.208** 0.313** 0.476** 0-.284** 1.000
9 Informational
Justice
0.172** 0.188** 0.132* 0.299** 0.141* 0.456** 0.113 0.340*
*
1.000
10 Perceived
Organizational
Support
0.182** 0.302** 0.192** 0.331** 0.255** 0.536** 0.117 0.349*
*
0.510** 1.000
11 Role Efficacy 0.206** 0.358** 0.136* 0.381** 0.304** 0.469** 0.013 0.321*
*
0.437** 0.580** 1.000
12 Satisfaction with
outcomes
0.245** 0.312** 0.017 0.320** 0.239** 0.541** 0.057 0.422*
*
0.444** 0.541** 0.483** 1.000
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level
Correlation Coefficients
43
Variables
R Square
Adjusted R
Square
Std. Error of
the Estimate
R Square
Change
Sig. F
Change Beta t
Step 1
Independent
Variables
0.216 0.213 0.392 0.216 0.000
0.429 8.694
Step 2
Independent
Variables
0.000
0.318 4.707
organization
al justice 0.232 0.227 0.389 0.016 0.018
0.185 2.385
The above results indicate that antecedents of this study have a
significant effect on OCB behavior of distributed members.
Summary of
Hierarchical Regression
44
Findings of the study
• Organizational justice was positively and significantly (p<0.05) correlated to
OCB
• Procedural justice is found to predict OCB where as Distributive justice has not
been found to predict OCB dimensions
• Distributive justice has less correlation with Altruism (r=0.096),
Conscientiousness (r=0.060), is negatively correlated with general compliance
(r=-0.112) and civic virtue (r=-0.179).
• Interpersonal justice was positively and significantly correlated to Altruism
(r=0.134), General compliance(r=0.208) and Civic Virtue (r=0.313), has no
correlation with Conscientiousness (r=0.095), and negatively correlated with
Sportsmanship (r=-0.059).
• Informational justice was positively and significantly correlated with all
dimensions.
Past research has supported a relationship between procedural justice and
OCB, but not distributive justice (Organ & Moorman, 1993) .
45
• Perceived Organizational support has low degree positive (p<0.01)
correlation with OCB(r= 0.392).
• POS is moderately correlated with procedural justice (r=0.536),
interpersonal justice (r=0.349) and informational justice (r=510) has a
low correlation with distributive justice (r=0.117) significant at 0.01.
• OJ has positively and significantly mediated the relationship between
POS and OCB
…..Continued
46
• Role efficacy has a low degree positive correlation with altruism
(r=0.206), conscientiousness (r=0.358), general compliance (r=0.381) and
civic virtue (r=0.304) significant at 0.01 and to sportsmanship (r=0.136)
significant at 0.05.
• Role efficacy is positively correlated with procedural justice (r=0.469),
interpersonal justice (r=0.321) and informational justice (r=0.437)
significant at 0.01 and seems to have no correlation with distributive
justice (r=0.013).
• OJ has positively and significantly mediated the relationship between POS
and OCB
…..Continued
47
Contribution of this study
Practitioners are constantly challenged in finding ways and means to create
and manage GDT and concurrently promote organizational commitment and
OCB.
The research suggests that distributed employees are willing to practice OCB
and improve business provided the organization is willing to stretch their
support and make them experience OS and RE thereby perceive organizational
justice.
This study inspires researchers to further look into as to how other factors
contribute to perception of organizational fairness in distributed software
development.
This study brings out the need for developing a global management practice
which will bring uniformity among distributed software organizations and
reduce attrition due to unfair management practices.
48
Limitations
This study does not include unique experiences of people in
functional departments, in-patriates, outsourced teams of all
verticals, domains and technologies, BPO employees
Country based study And organization specific study
And so the results can be only be generalized if this study is
extended covering the above areas.
49
Areas for future study
Justice perceptions are tentative, limited to the circumstances and
keep changing with the change in the working atmosphere, a study
on how changing perceptions impact OCB in distributed teams can
be done.
A comparative research could be done on how POJ influences OCB
in different verticals of software development organizations versus
BPO type of organizations. How independent contributors versus
teams in software organizations perceive organizational justice could
also be covered in a study.
The future study could include cultural differences affecting
perception of organizational justice.
50
A big thanks to
Calorx Teacher’s University
Academy of HRD, IIM-Bangalore
Dr. N M Agrawal, Dr. K S Gupta
Dr. V Nagdevara and Dr. Shailender Gupta
And the revered professors and professionals present
in this presentation

More Related Content

What's hot

Organizational diagnosis ppt
Organizational diagnosis pptOrganizational diagnosis ppt
Organizational diagnosis ppt
Nandu Warrier
 
Future of Organizational Development
 Future of Organizational Development Future of Organizational Development
Future of Organizational Development
AMU
 
Time for Change
Time for ChangeTime for Change
Time for Change
Dr. Kiran Kumar Thoti
 
Comprehensive interventions
Comprehensive interventionsComprehensive interventions
Comprehensive interventions
gaurav jain
 
Open System Models
Open System ModelsOpen System Models
Open System Models
vissie101
 
Structural intervention
Structural interventionStructural intervention
Structural intervention
Sunit Kapoor
 
GI Net 7 - Global mind, local act: The art of change leadership
GI Net 7 - Global mind, local act: The art of change leadershipGI Net 7 - Global mind, local act: The art of change leadership
GI Net 7 - Global mind, local act: The art of change leadership
Hora Tjitra
 
Client Consult Reltshp
Client Consult ReltshpClient Consult Reltshp
Client Consult Reltshp
abhayjain
 
Presentation on diagnosis
Presentation on diagnosisPresentation on diagnosis
Presentation on diagnosis
Rose Nanna
 
TLS Continuum How to Guide - Is HR a System?
TLS Continuum How to Guide - Is HR a System?TLS Continuum How to Guide - Is HR a System?
TLS Continuum How to Guide - Is HR a System?
Daniel Bloom
 
The od journey of TCS - Case study - Organizational Change and Development - ...
The od journey of TCS - Case study - Organizational Change and Development - ...The od journey of TCS - Case study - Organizational Change and Development - ...
The od journey of TCS - Case study - Organizational Change and Development - ...
manumelwin
 
Organization Development
Organization DevelopmentOrganization Development
Organization Development
Dr. Kiran Kumar Thoti
 
Organizational diagnosis
Organizational diagnosisOrganizational diagnosis
Organizational diagnosis
hidayahperlis
 
Organizational Effectiveness
Organizational Effectiveness Organizational Effectiveness
Organizational Effectiveness
parags06
 
Ptc5g
Ptc5gPtc5g
Human Resource Policies and Practices, Chapter 18, Organizational Behavior
Human Resource Policies and Practices, Chapter 18, Organizational BehaviorHuman Resource Policies and Practices, Chapter 18, Organizational Behavior
Human Resource Policies and Practices, Chapter 18, Organizational Behavior
Dr.Amrinder Singh
 
3 the organization development practitioner
3   the organization development practitioner3   the organization development practitioner
3 the organization development practitioner
Camille Boitizon
 
Organizational Change and Stress Management, Chapter 19-Organizational Behavior
Organizational Change and Stress Management, Chapter 19-Organizational Behavior Organizational Change and Stress Management, Chapter 19-Organizational Behavior
Organizational Change and Stress Management, Chapter 19-Organizational Behavior
Dr.Amrinder Singh
 
BES 2100 - CIOC
BES 2100 - CIOCBES 2100 - CIOC
BES 2100 - CIOC
Kayla Brown
 
Healthy and Innovative Organizations - DeGuerre
Healthy and Innovative Organizations - DeGuerreHealthy and Innovative Organizations - DeGuerre
Healthy and Innovative Organizations - DeGuerre
Sociotechnical Roundtable
 

What's hot (20)

Organizational diagnosis ppt
Organizational diagnosis pptOrganizational diagnosis ppt
Organizational diagnosis ppt
 
Future of Organizational Development
 Future of Organizational Development Future of Organizational Development
Future of Organizational Development
 
Time for Change
Time for ChangeTime for Change
Time for Change
 
Comprehensive interventions
Comprehensive interventionsComprehensive interventions
Comprehensive interventions
 
Open System Models
Open System ModelsOpen System Models
Open System Models
 
Structural intervention
Structural interventionStructural intervention
Structural intervention
 
GI Net 7 - Global mind, local act: The art of change leadership
GI Net 7 - Global mind, local act: The art of change leadershipGI Net 7 - Global mind, local act: The art of change leadership
GI Net 7 - Global mind, local act: The art of change leadership
 
Client Consult Reltshp
Client Consult ReltshpClient Consult Reltshp
Client Consult Reltshp
 
Presentation on diagnosis
Presentation on diagnosisPresentation on diagnosis
Presentation on diagnosis
 
TLS Continuum How to Guide - Is HR a System?
TLS Continuum How to Guide - Is HR a System?TLS Continuum How to Guide - Is HR a System?
TLS Continuum How to Guide - Is HR a System?
 
The od journey of TCS - Case study - Organizational Change and Development - ...
The od journey of TCS - Case study - Organizational Change and Development - ...The od journey of TCS - Case study - Organizational Change and Development - ...
The od journey of TCS - Case study - Organizational Change and Development - ...
 
Organization Development
Organization DevelopmentOrganization Development
Organization Development
 
Organizational diagnosis
Organizational diagnosisOrganizational diagnosis
Organizational diagnosis
 
Organizational Effectiveness
Organizational Effectiveness Organizational Effectiveness
Organizational Effectiveness
 
Ptc5g
Ptc5gPtc5g
Ptc5g
 
Human Resource Policies and Practices, Chapter 18, Organizational Behavior
Human Resource Policies and Practices, Chapter 18, Organizational BehaviorHuman Resource Policies and Practices, Chapter 18, Organizational Behavior
Human Resource Policies and Practices, Chapter 18, Organizational Behavior
 
3 the organization development practitioner
3   the organization development practitioner3   the organization development practitioner
3 the organization development practitioner
 
Organizational Change and Stress Management, Chapter 19-Organizational Behavior
Organizational Change and Stress Management, Chapter 19-Organizational Behavior Organizational Change and Stress Management, Chapter 19-Organizational Behavior
Organizational Change and Stress Management, Chapter 19-Organizational Behavior
 
BES 2100 - CIOC
BES 2100 - CIOCBES 2100 - CIOC
BES 2100 - CIOC
 
Healthy and Innovative Organizations - DeGuerre
Healthy and Innovative Organizations - DeGuerreHealthy and Innovative Organizations - DeGuerre
Healthy and Innovative Organizations - DeGuerre
 

Similar to Organizational Citizenship Behaviour of Globally Distributed Teams

Assessment of Neural Network and Goal Programming on Cross Cultural Management
Assessment of Neural Network and Goal Programming on Cross Cultural ManagementAssessment of Neural Network and Goal Programming on Cross Cultural Management
Assessment of Neural Network and Goal Programming on Cross Cultural Management
YogeshIJTSRD
 
Part1 Over View
Part1 Over ViewPart1 Over View
Part1 Over View
purwowidiarto
 
Quantitive approach and organizational behavior approach
Quantitive approach and organizational behavior approachQuantitive approach and organizational behavior approach
Quantitive approach and organizational behavior approach
AB Amit
 
Why is od important
Why is od importantWhy is od important
Why is od important
Sandeep Ingole
 
Dissertation on appraise organizational structural contexts to lead &amp; wor...
Dissertation on appraise organizational structural contexts to lead &amp; wor...Dissertation on appraise organizational structural contexts to lead &amp; wor...
Dissertation on appraise organizational structural contexts to lead &amp; wor...
Tutors India
 
Effective virtual teams
Effective virtual teamsEffective virtual teams
Effective virtual teams
Nader Ale Ebrahim
 
After reading the case study prepare Assignment One - Collecting I.docx
After reading the case study prepare Assignment One - Collecting I.docxAfter reading the case study prepare Assignment One - Collecting I.docx
After reading the case study prepare Assignment One - Collecting I.docx
coubroughcosta
 
BUSI 600Group Discussion Board Forums Grading RubricCriteria.docx
BUSI 600Group Discussion Board Forums Grading RubricCriteria.docxBUSI 600Group Discussion Board Forums Grading RubricCriteria.docx
BUSI 600Group Discussion Board Forums Grading RubricCriteria.docx
RAHUL126667
 
WHERE IS THE RUNNING HEAD .docx
WHERE IS THE RUNNING HEAD                                         .docxWHERE IS THE RUNNING HEAD                                         .docx
WHERE IS THE RUNNING HEAD .docx
troutmanboris
 
Shared objective versus collaboration
Shared objective versus collaboration Shared objective versus collaboration
Shared objective versus collaboration
Leon Dohmen
 
A Research Proposal On Electrical Vehicles
A Research Proposal On Electrical VehiclesA Research Proposal On Electrical Vehicles
A Research Proposal On Electrical Vehicles
Who Will Write My Paper For Me Florissant
 
The Effect of Information Technology and Total Quality Management on Organiza...
The Effect of Information Technology and Total Quality Management on Organiza...The Effect of Information Technology and Total Quality Management on Organiza...
The Effect of Information Technology and Total Quality Management on Organiza...
Sigit Sanjaya
 
Systems Thinking in Public Health for Continuous Quality Improvement
Systems Thinking in Public Health for Continuous Quality ImprovementSystems Thinking in Public Health for Continuous Quality Improvement
Systems Thinking in Public Health for Continuous Quality Improvement
Cameron Norman
 
Organizational Intelligence Surveys: Models, Methods &amp; Madness by Dr. Sal...
Organizational Intelligence Surveys: Models, Methods &amp; Madness by Dr. Sal...Organizational Intelligence Surveys: Models, Methods &amp; Madness by Dr. Sal...
Organizational Intelligence Surveys: Models, Methods &amp; Madness by Dr. Sal...
South Bay Organization Development Network
 
Change Management And Offshore Outsourcing Aom Conference
Change Management And Offshore Outsourcing   Aom ConferenceChange Management And Offshore Outsourcing   Aom Conference
Change Management And Offshore Outsourcing Aom Conference
TR_Ramanathan
 
Exploring the Strategic Impact of Online Communities: A Dynamic Capabilities ...
Exploring the Strategic Impact of Online Communities: A Dynamic Capabilities ...Exploring the Strategic Impact of Online Communities: A Dynamic Capabilities ...
Exploring the Strategic Impact of Online Communities: A Dynamic Capabilities ...
Dr. David Wagner
 
Chap 6 IMplementation of Information System
Chap 6 IMplementation of Information SystemChap 6 IMplementation of Information System
Chap 6 IMplementation of Information System
Sanat Maharjan
 
IJIR paper.docx
IJIR paper.docxIJIR paper.docx
IJIR paper.docx
Raghu Jaihind
 
RESEARCH PROPOSAL MBA-HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT1. Project (re.docx
RESEARCH PROPOSAL MBA-HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT1. Project (re.docxRESEARCH PROPOSAL MBA-HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT1. Project (re.docx
RESEARCH PROPOSAL MBA-HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT1. Project (re.docx
ronak56
 
Shared mission and organizational effectiveness
Shared mission and organizational effectivenessShared mission and organizational effectiveness
Shared mission and organizational effectiveness
Alexander Decker
 

Similar to Organizational Citizenship Behaviour of Globally Distributed Teams (20)

Assessment of Neural Network and Goal Programming on Cross Cultural Management
Assessment of Neural Network and Goal Programming on Cross Cultural ManagementAssessment of Neural Network and Goal Programming on Cross Cultural Management
Assessment of Neural Network and Goal Programming on Cross Cultural Management
 
Part1 Over View
Part1 Over ViewPart1 Over View
Part1 Over View
 
Quantitive approach and organizational behavior approach
Quantitive approach and organizational behavior approachQuantitive approach and organizational behavior approach
Quantitive approach and organizational behavior approach
 
Why is od important
Why is od importantWhy is od important
Why is od important
 
Dissertation on appraise organizational structural contexts to lead &amp; wor...
Dissertation on appraise organizational structural contexts to lead &amp; wor...Dissertation on appraise organizational structural contexts to lead &amp; wor...
Dissertation on appraise organizational structural contexts to lead &amp; wor...
 
Effective virtual teams
Effective virtual teamsEffective virtual teams
Effective virtual teams
 
After reading the case study prepare Assignment One - Collecting I.docx
After reading the case study prepare Assignment One - Collecting I.docxAfter reading the case study prepare Assignment One - Collecting I.docx
After reading the case study prepare Assignment One - Collecting I.docx
 
BUSI 600Group Discussion Board Forums Grading RubricCriteria.docx
BUSI 600Group Discussion Board Forums Grading RubricCriteria.docxBUSI 600Group Discussion Board Forums Grading RubricCriteria.docx
BUSI 600Group Discussion Board Forums Grading RubricCriteria.docx
 
WHERE IS THE RUNNING HEAD .docx
WHERE IS THE RUNNING HEAD                                         .docxWHERE IS THE RUNNING HEAD                                         .docx
WHERE IS THE RUNNING HEAD .docx
 
Shared objective versus collaboration
Shared objective versus collaboration Shared objective versus collaboration
Shared objective versus collaboration
 
A Research Proposal On Electrical Vehicles
A Research Proposal On Electrical VehiclesA Research Proposal On Electrical Vehicles
A Research Proposal On Electrical Vehicles
 
The Effect of Information Technology and Total Quality Management on Organiza...
The Effect of Information Technology and Total Quality Management on Organiza...The Effect of Information Technology and Total Quality Management on Organiza...
The Effect of Information Technology and Total Quality Management on Organiza...
 
Systems Thinking in Public Health for Continuous Quality Improvement
Systems Thinking in Public Health for Continuous Quality ImprovementSystems Thinking in Public Health for Continuous Quality Improvement
Systems Thinking in Public Health for Continuous Quality Improvement
 
Organizational Intelligence Surveys: Models, Methods &amp; Madness by Dr. Sal...
Organizational Intelligence Surveys: Models, Methods &amp; Madness by Dr. Sal...Organizational Intelligence Surveys: Models, Methods &amp; Madness by Dr. Sal...
Organizational Intelligence Surveys: Models, Methods &amp; Madness by Dr. Sal...
 
Change Management And Offshore Outsourcing Aom Conference
Change Management And Offshore Outsourcing   Aom ConferenceChange Management And Offshore Outsourcing   Aom Conference
Change Management And Offshore Outsourcing Aom Conference
 
Exploring the Strategic Impact of Online Communities: A Dynamic Capabilities ...
Exploring the Strategic Impact of Online Communities: A Dynamic Capabilities ...Exploring the Strategic Impact of Online Communities: A Dynamic Capabilities ...
Exploring the Strategic Impact of Online Communities: A Dynamic Capabilities ...
 
Chap 6 IMplementation of Information System
Chap 6 IMplementation of Information SystemChap 6 IMplementation of Information System
Chap 6 IMplementation of Information System
 
IJIR paper.docx
IJIR paper.docxIJIR paper.docx
IJIR paper.docx
 
RESEARCH PROPOSAL MBA-HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT1. Project (re.docx
RESEARCH PROPOSAL MBA-HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT1. Project (re.docxRESEARCH PROPOSAL MBA-HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT1. Project (re.docx
RESEARCH PROPOSAL MBA-HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT1. Project (re.docx
 
Shared mission and organizational effectiveness
Shared mission and organizational effectivenessShared mission and organizational effectiveness
Shared mission and organizational effectiveness
 

More from Dr. Harry Charles Devasagayam

Artificial Intelligence- HR Response
Artificial Intelligence- HR ResponseArtificial Intelligence- HR Response
Artificial Intelligence- HR Response
Dr. Harry Charles Devasagayam
 
Global mindset for global organizations - HR Response
Global mindset for global organizations - HR ResponseGlobal mindset for global organizations - HR Response
Global mindset for global organizations - HR Response
Dr. Harry Charles Devasagayam
 
Creating and Sustaining Ethical Performance Culture
Creating and Sustaining Ethical Performance CultureCreating and Sustaining Ethical Performance Culture
Creating and Sustaining Ethical Performance Culture
Dr. Harry Charles Devasagayam
 
Quality Objective, Policy and Core values of Ascend Telecom
Quality Objective, Policy and Core values of Ascend TelecomQuality Objective, Policy and Core values of Ascend Telecom
Quality Objective, Policy and Core values of Ascend Telecom
Dr. Harry Charles Devasagayam
 
Managerial Leadership - Dr. Harry CD
Managerial Leadership - Dr. Harry CDManagerial Leadership - Dr. Harry CD
Managerial Leadership - Dr. Harry CD
Dr. Harry Charles Devasagayam
 
Emerging trends in management [compatibility mode]
Emerging trends in management [compatibility mode]Emerging trends in management [compatibility mode]
Emerging trends in management [compatibility mode]
Dr. Harry Charles Devasagayam
 
Leader of emerging india
Leader of emerging indiaLeader of emerging india
Leader of emerging india
Dr. Harry Charles Devasagayam
 
Inventory for globally distributed software teams
Inventory for globally distributed software teamsInventory for globally distributed software teams
Inventory for globally distributed software teams
Dr. Harry Charles Devasagayam
 
Inventory for Globally Distributed Teams
Inventory for Globally Distributed TeamsInventory for Globally Distributed Teams
Inventory for Globally Distributed Teams
Dr. Harry Charles Devasagayam
 
A Perspective of Research in Contemporary HRM [compatibility mode]
A Perspective of Research in Contemporary HRM [compatibility mode]A Perspective of Research in Contemporary HRM [compatibility mode]
A Perspective of Research in Contemporary HRM [compatibility mode]
Dr. Harry Charles Devasagayam
 

More from Dr. Harry Charles Devasagayam (10)

Artificial Intelligence- HR Response
Artificial Intelligence- HR ResponseArtificial Intelligence- HR Response
Artificial Intelligence- HR Response
 
Global mindset for global organizations - HR Response
Global mindset for global organizations - HR ResponseGlobal mindset for global organizations - HR Response
Global mindset for global organizations - HR Response
 
Creating and Sustaining Ethical Performance Culture
Creating and Sustaining Ethical Performance CultureCreating and Sustaining Ethical Performance Culture
Creating and Sustaining Ethical Performance Culture
 
Quality Objective, Policy and Core values of Ascend Telecom
Quality Objective, Policy and Core values of Ascend TelecomQuality Objective, Policy and Core values of Ascend Telecom
Quality Objective, Policy and Core values of Ascend Telecom
 
Managerial Leadership - Dr. Harry CD
Managerial Leadership - Dr. Harry CDManagerial Leadership - Dr. Harry CD
Managerial Leadership - Dr. Harry CD
 
Emerging trends in management [compatibility mode]
Emerging trends in management [compatibility mode]Emerging trends in management [compatibility mode]
Emerging trends in management [compatibility mode]
 
Leader of emerging india
Leader of emerging indiaLeader of emerging india
Leader of emerging india
 
Inventory for globally distributed software teams
Inventory for globally distributed software teamsInventory for globally distributed software teams
Inventory for globally distributed software teams
 
Inventory for Globally Distributed Teams
Inventory for Globally Distributed TeamsInventory for Globally Distributed Teams
Inventory for Globally Distributed Teams
 
A Perspective of Research in Contemporary HRM [compatibility mode]
A Perspective of Research in Contemporary HRM [compatibility mode]A Perspective of Research in Contemporary HRM [compatibility mode]
A Perspective of Research in Contemporary HRM [compatibility mode]
 

Recently uploaded

VIP Chennai Girls Call Chennai 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service ...
VIP Chennai Girls Call Chennai 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service ...VIP Chennai Girls Call Chennai 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service ...
VIP Chennai Girls Call Chennai 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service ...
saroohilakhatariroy
 
The University of Buckingham diploma
The University of Buckingham diplomaThe University of Buckingham diploma
The University of Buckingham diploma
uoxhom
 
VIP Kochi Girls Call Kochi 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Call...
VIP Kochi Girls Call Kochi 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Call...VIP Kochi Girls Call Kochi 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Call...
VIP Kochi Girls Call Kochi 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Call...
satpalsheravatmumbai
 
Portfolio - Muhammad Ikmal Fahmi Bin Che Mohamood (Ikmal Fahmi)
Portfolio - Muhammad Ikmal Fahmi Bin Che Mohamood (Ikmal Fahmi)Portfolio - Muhammad Ikmal Fahmi Bin Che Mohamood (Ikmal Fahmi)
Portfolio - Muhammad Ikmal Fahmi Bin Che Mohamood (Ikmal Fahmi)
FahmiMohamood
 
ANIn Pune July 2024 | Mastering the Data Paradox by Ashish Agrawal
ANIn Pune July 2024 | Mastering the Data Paradox by Ashish AgrawalANIn Pune July 2024 | Mastering the Data Paradox by Ashish Agrawal
ANIn Pune July 2024 | Mastering the Data Paradox by Ashish Agrawal
AgileNetwork
 
Leadership development for Bachelor students FEPSAC 2024
Leadership development for Bachelor students FEPSAC 2024Leadership development for Bachelor students FEPSAC 2024
Leadership development for Bachelor students FEPSAC 2024
jdenoord
 
Pune Girls Call Pune 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Avail...
Pune Girls Call Pune 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Avail...Pune Girls Call Pune 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Avail...
Pune Girls Call Pune 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Avail...
sabanihahanshni
 
Embracing Diversity Unlocking the Potential of Individuality at Work.pptx
Embracing Diversity Unlocking the Potential of Individuality at Work.pptxEmbracing Diversity Unlocking the Potential of Individuality at Work.pptx
Embracing Diversity Unlocking the Potential of Individuality at Work.pptx
Kate Chen
 
The University of Nebraska degree Cert diploma offer
The University of Nebraska degree Cert diploma offerThe University of Nebraska degree Cert diploma offer
The University of Nebraska degree Cert diploma offer
bpezeqe
 
PPTS for Directing Fourth Managerial Function
PPTS for Directing  Fourth Managerial FunctionPPTS for Directing  Fourth Managerial Function
PPTS for Directing Fourth Managerial Function
Sarika Malhotra
 
University of California, San Francisco degree Cert diploma offer
University of California, San Francisco degree Cert diploma offerUniversity of California, San Francisco degree Cert diploma offer
University of California, San Francisco degree Cert diploma offer
bpezeqe
 
University of Birmingham diploma
University of Birmingham diplomaUniversity of Birmingham diploma
University of Birmingham diploma
uoxhom
 
Comparison Between Kingfisher and Indigo Airlines
Comparison Between Kingfisher and Indigo AirlinesComparison Between Kingfisher and Indigo Airlines
Comparison Between Kingfisher and Indigo Airlines
ayushsahoo220044
 
VIP Dehradun Girls Call Dehradun 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Servic...
VIP Dehradun Girls Call Dehradun 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Servic...VIP Dehradun Girls Call Dehradun 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Servic...
VIP Dehradun Girls Call Dehradun 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Servic...
shalvikaprincessparv
 
Tool Kit For Ethical campaign celebration
Tool Kit For Ethical campaign celebrationTool Kit For Ethical campaign celebration
Tool Kit For Ethical campaign celebration
uttammishra37
 
Ludhiana Girls Call Ludhiana 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...
Ludhiana Girls Call Ludhiana 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...Ludhiana Girls Call Ludhiana 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...
Ludhiana Girls Call Ludhiana 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...
sabiyatanaparveenmum
 
Southern Illinois UniversityCarbondale degree Cert diploma offer
Southern Illinois UniversityCarbondale degree Cert diploma offerSouthern Illinois UniversityCarbondale degree Cert diploma offer
Southern Illinois UniversityCarbondale degree Cert diploma offer
bpezeqe
 
Agile Methodology In-Brief : Created byMohamed Shebl
Agile Methodology In-Brief : Created byMohamed SheblAgile Methodology In-Brief : Created byMohamed Shebl
Agile Methodology In-Brief : Created byMohamed Shebl
Mohamed Shebl, MBA,PRINCE2 ®,ITIL®,PMP
 

Recently uploaded (18)

VIP Chennai Girls Call Chennai 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service ...
VIP Chennai Girls Call Chennai 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service ...VIP Chennai Girls Call Chennai 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service ...
VIP Chennai Girls Call Chennai 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service ...
 
The University of Buckingham diploma
The University of Buckingham diplomaThe University of Buckingham diploma
The University of Buckingham diploma
 
VIP Kochi Girls Call Kochi 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Call...
VIP Kochi Girls Call Kochi 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Call...VIP Kochi Girls Call Kochi 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Call...
VIP Kochi Girls Call Kochi 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Service Call...
 
Portfolio - Muhammad Ikmal Fahmi Bin Che Mohamood (Ikmal Fahmi)
Portfolio - Muhammad Ikmal Fahmi Bin Che Mohamood (Ikmal Fahmi)Portfolio - Muhammad Ikmal Fahmi Bin Che Mohamood (Ikmal Fahmi)
Portfolio - Muhammad Ikmal Fahmi Bin Che Mohamood (Ikmal Fahmi)
 
ANIn Pune July 2024 | Mastering the Data Paradox by Ashish Agrawal
ANIn Pune July 2024 | Mastering the Data Paradox by Ashish AgrawalANIn Pune July 2024 | Mastering the Data Paradox by Ashish Agrawal
ANIn Pune July 2024 | Mastering the Data Paradox by Ashish Agrawal
 
Leadership development for Bachelor students FEPSAC 2024
Leadership development for Bachelor students FEPSAC 2024Leadership development for Bachelor students FEPSAC 2024
Leadership development for Bachelor students FEPSAC 2024
 
Pune Girls Call Pune 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Avail...
Pune Girls Call Pune 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Avail...Pune Girls Call Pune 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Avail...
Pune Girls Call Pune 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Avail...
 
Embracing Diversity Unlocking the Potential of Individuality at Work.pptx
Embracing Diversity Unlocking the Potential of Individuality at Work.pptxEmbracing Diversity Unlocking the Potential of Individuality at Work.pptx
Embracing Diversity Unlocking the Potential of Individuality at Work.pptx
 
The University of Nebraska degree Cert diploma offer
The University of Nebraska degree Cert diploma offerThe University of Nebraska degree Cert diploma offer
The University of Nebraska degree Cert diploma offer
 
PPTS for Directing Fourth Managerial Function
PPTS for Directing  Fourth Managerial FunctionPPTS for Directing  Fourth Managerial Function
PPTS for Directing Fourth Managerial Function
 
University of California, San Francisco degree Cert diploma offer
University of California, San Francisco degree Cert diploma offerUniversity of California, San Francisco degree Cert diploma offer
University of California, San Francisco degree Cert diploma offer
 
University of Birmingham diploma
University of Birmingham diplomaUniversity of Birmingham diploma
University of Birmingham diploma
 
Comparison Between Kingfisher and Indigo Airlines
Comparison Between Kingfisher and Indigo AirlinesComparison Between Kingfisher and Indigo Airlines
Comparison Between Kingfisher and Indigo Airlines
 
VIP Dehradun Girls Call Dehradun 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Servic...
VIP Dehradun Girls Call Dehradun 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Servic...VIP Dehradun Girls Call Dehradun 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Servic...
VIP Dehradun Girls Call Dehradun 0X0000000X Doorstep High-Profile Girl Servic...
 
Tool Kit For Ethical campaign celebration
Tool Kit For Ethical campaign celebrationTool Kit For Ethical campaign celebration
Tool Kit For Ethical campaign celebration
 
Ludhiana Girls Call Ludhiana 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...
Ludhiana Girls Call Ludhiana 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...Ludhiana Girls Call Ludhiana 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...
Ludhiana Girls Call Ludhiana 0X0000000X Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servi...
 
Southern Illinois UniversityCarbondale degree Cert diploma offer
Southern Illinois UniversityCarbondale degree Cert diploma offerSouthern Illinois UniversityCarbondale degree Cert diploma offer
Southern Illinois UniversityCarbondale degree Cert diploma offer
 
Agile Methodology In-Brief : Created byMohamed Shebl
Agile Methodology In-Brief : Created byMohamed SheblAgile Methodology In-Brief : Created byMohamed Shebl
Agile Methodology In-Brief : Created byMohamed Shebl
 

Organizational Citizenship Behaviour of Globally Distributed Teams

  • 1. Harry Charles Devasagayam Dissertation Defense Dissertation Committee Dr. N M Agrawal (IIMB) Dr. V Nagdevara (IIMB) Dr. K S Gupta Calorx Teacher’s University Ahmedabad Organizational Citizenship Behaviour of Globally Distributed Teams: A Study on the Mediating Effect of Organizational Justice in Software Organizations January 5, 2016
  • 2. Introduction -Overview USD Bn- 2012 2013 IT Spend was nearly USD 2.3 trillion in 2014, a growth of 4.6 per cent over 2013. Indian IT Revenue- A nearly USD 150 billion industry Source: NASSCOM Strategic Review 2015 2
  • 3. India’s GDP (Contribution) Grew > 6X in the last 15 years IT Exports Grew 12.3% to reach Direct Employment One of largest organized private sector employers in India Share in global sourcing market Offshore delivery centers 9.5% 580 98B 3.5 Million 55% Source: NASSCOM Strategic Review 2015 2015 Share in total service exports >38% Up by 11B 2014 >34% women Employees & 1,70,000 foreign nationals New Global delivery centers recorded a growth of 49% with 27% additions in India •60-70% of fortune 500 companies use GSD and 60% have remote centers •70% of GSC outsource some or all of their projects •Indian professionals work in more than 70 countries …..Overview 3
  • 4. India-based resources are estimated to account for about 60- 70 percent of the offshore delivery capacities across the leading multinational IT-BPO players. Studies suggest that 50 -70% of Fortune 500 companies have outsourced work to India and Indian outsourcing Industry is growing 25-30% on an average annually. Thus, India evidently has a competitive edge and clear-cut advantages over other contending players in the world …..Overview 4
  • 5. Industry Segmentation Source: NASSCOM Strategic Review 2015 5
  • 7. Global Delivery System 7Expatriates & In-patriates Follow-the-sun is a global workflow in which tasks are passed around daily between work sites that are many time zones apart. Such a workflow is set up in order to reduce project duration and increase responsiveness.
  • 8. Organizational Practices 8 Critical Parameters Organizational Practices Business vision, Compulsions and Competitive environment Basis for Management Practices Competency, Capability & Marketability Determines Demand in the market Business, Revenues and Profits Influencers of Employee Policies and Processes Rarity of Skills, Dependability, Ability to Multiply Given Opportunities Commends Respect and Dignity Project, Cost, Skills, Period and Location Allocation of Resources Depends
  • 9. Role Classification General Classification Coders / Engineers / Programmers / Developers Designers & Testers (QA) Backend Engineers (Dbase) System Administrators / Desktop Support Engineers Architects Managers & Coordinators Functional Specialists /Support Ninjas Role based Technical Or Project CTO - Project Delivery Head Product Architect - Program Manager Technical Manager – Project Manager Technical Lead – Project Lead Team Lead Systems Analyst – Software Engineer 9
  • 11. Individual based work structure could no longer meet the demands for smarter, faster and innovative solutions Carmel et al., 2007 further developed on this and said that distributed teams were becoming increasingly a common strategic response. A large percentage of almost 80 % of software projects are global. Groups of people collaborating closely though physically separated Team members can be down the hall from each other, across the street, across the country or across the world Distributed Team (DT) 11
  • 12. …..Continued An expatriate is transferred from the corporation headquarters to a country where the corporation has a subsidiary, while an in-patriate is transferred from the foreign subsidiary to the country where the corporation has its headquarters. Distributed Teams can be within/outside the Country / City, One or many locations / Centers of delivery, part of parent / client / outsourced organization and can be a single member or a group of people 12
  • 14. •Will only be part of the team as long as their specialist skills are required (grouping and regrouping is common) •Come from same or different organisational backgrounds and cultures (virtual, open source or out sourced teams) •Characterised by asynchronous, cross culture, time-zone, distance, exchange, mutually complementing tasks, collaboration and coordination, short duration, fear of unknown, power distance, changing roles, interdependence, cost , time and location constraints, limitations on technical knowhow, organizational support and knowledge transfer (Geographically distributed but placed as an expatriate, in-patriate (Onsite, offsite, offshore and combination teams (Hybrid) A distributed Member 14
  • 15. Sample of Distributed MNC’s Organizations Number of employees Countries Operating in Revenues Generated (USD Bn) Microsoft 117000 121 93.6 IBM 430000 170 78 Oracle 135000 145 103 Accenture 358000 120 110.90 SAP SE 75600 130 31.06 CTS 219000 42 12.33 Capgemini 180000 40 11.73 VMware 18000 19 10 15
  • 16. Sample of Distributed & Indian Cos Organizations Number of employees Countries Operating in Revenues Generated (USD Bn) TCS 324000 46 15.5 Infosys 187000 50 9.2 Wipro 160000 40 7.6 HCL 106000 31 6.0 Tech Mahindra 98000 51 855M Mphasis 48000 19 250M Mindtree 15582 14 147M 16
  • 17. Need for study Physical dispersion also impacted overall project efficiency. Cramton and Hinds (2005) Sarker and Sahay (2003) identified mismatch in time zones and the lack of physical proximity. Eisenberger (2002) suggest that employees develop POS through assessing their working conditions, organizational rewards, support received from supervisors, and procedural justice. Role perception (Pestonjee & Aniruddh Pandey, 1996 ). if a member gives a positive meaning to the way he is used in the project, he will perceive it positively Perceived justice of organizational decision- making processes affect employee reactions to pay raise decisions (Folger & Konovsky, 1989; Greenberg, 1987b, 1990). Interaction styles (Potter & Balthazard, 2002) Team processes and team-member relations (Lurey & Raisinghani, 2001). Cross cultural attributes were also found to impact performance in organizations as studied by Swigger, Alpaslan, Brazile, & Monticino, 2004) Principled organizational dissent is when employees protest against the organization when experiencing injustice.(Graham, 1986, as cited in Organ et al., 2006). 17
  • 18. Three analytical Levels of the software organizational context providing the basis for shared meaning in distributed teams Shared perception
  • 19. Shared Meaning 19 Team’s cognition of fair treatment as defined by Kissoon (2007) states that individual workplace concerns lead to interaction between team members creating a shared meaning. Shared meaning among team members creates a perception of organizational fairness (Endres, 2007)
  • 20. Statement of problem /Research Questions • How does perception of Organizational Justice differ from co-located to distributed members? • How does perceived justice lead to OCB? • How does POS and RE influence a team to perceiving organizational justice? . 20
  • 21. Purpose To investigate if there exists a relationship between OCB, OJ, POS & RE in globally distributed teams and to find out how is it different from collocated (co-located) teams 21
  • 22. A Mixed Method Adopted Quantitative-SupportiveQualitative – Primary Quantitative research method was adopted to ensure objectivity, generalizability and reliability. The research participants were selected randomly in an unbiased manner, provided standardized questionnaire and obtained their experiences. These methods produced quantifiable, reliable data that were used to generalize the context to a large population distributed across continents. Qualitative research method was used to provide the researcher with the perspective of target audience members through immersion in a culture or situation and direct interaction with the people under study. The method included observations, in-depth interviews and focus groups. These methods gave rich, detailed participants' perspectives and provided a context for a particular organizational behavior. 22
  • 23. Clusters of experiences of fairness perception reported • Selection and deployment for onsite • Compensation and benefits • Assigned roles / Role efficacy • Deployed location • Learning and development opportunities • Respect and dignity • Employee trust • Perceived support • Information sharing and • Post onsite rehabilitation Findings of Pilot study 23
  • 24. Mediating Effect The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986),Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182. A moderator variable is one that influences the strength of a relationship between two other variables, and a mediator variable is one that explains the relationship between the two other variables. Our objective to study the relationship between variables and so mediating effect 24
  • 25. An integrated model leading to current investigations 25
  • 26. Literature Survey Literature* Dissertations 1365 164 3520 497 11140 1303 7131 2001 127784 26419 Globally Distributed Teams Organization Citizenship Behaviour Organizational Justice Perceived Organizational Support Role Efficacy A review on GDT, DT, VT, OST found 109 articles and white papers (Meta analysis. Martins et al., 2004) A further review found 99 articles and white papers. http://smartsearch.uiowa.edu/primo_library/libweb/action/search 26
  • 27. Software development teams are increasingly spread across multiple countries (Carmel 1999) Increasing number of organizations are relying on technology-enabled geographically distributed teams (McDonough et al. 2001) Literature Survey 27
  • 28. Perceived Organizational Support (POS): Stated that POS is the degree to which employee believes that their organization values their contributions and cares about their well being (Rhodes & Eisenberger, 2002). Role efficacy (IC): (Katz & Kahn, 1978).The role allocated and its nature imparts a sense of importance to an employee. Greenberg 1987, defined organizational justice as an individual’s perception of and reactions to fairness in an organization Organization Citizenship Behavior (OCB) According to Organ (1988), is defined as the discretionary behavior of an individual. The omissions or commissions of these behaviors are not considered as deviance. Variables Defined 28
  • 29. Variables Explained Organizational Justice, Thibaut & Walker, (1975)  Procedural  Distributive  Interactional and Informational Organizational Citizenship Behaviour, Organ (1988)  Original Forms (Altruism and Conscientiousness)  Complementary Forms (Sportsmanship and Civic Virtue / General Compliance/ (Courtesy) 29
  • 30. Variables Explained Two important experiences leading to perception of Organizational Justice (OJ- Mediating Variable) in distributed software developments are- Perceived organizational support (POS) Eisenberger et al., (1986) is defined as the extent to which employees believe that the organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being. Role efficacy, Srivastav (2008) is the perception of the effectiveness of the role of an employee in a distributed location. The individual perceives himself to be a role-making, role-centering or role-linking authority. 30
  • 31. • Lina Kogan 2004- Studied relationship between POS, procedural justice and OCB and found significant positive relationship between variables. • Ganesh (2008) –Studied extra role performance in the light of OJ among SW development teams and found negative impact of overall virtualness on OCB. He further established moderating effect of procedural justice perception on virtualness and OCB. • Mehrdad (2009)-Studied relationship between OJ and OCB and found positively correlated • Ali Nirozy (2011) found OJ significantly influenced POS and OCB Conceptualizing a model 31
  • 33. Hypotheses H1 OCB is positively influenced by organizational Justice (OJ) OCB=Const +β1 (OJ) + β2 (Controlled Variables) If β1 is positive => H1 is supported H2 OCB is positively influenced by POS OCB=Const +β1 (POS) + β2 (Controlled Variables) If β1 is positive => H2 is supported H3 Organizational Justice is positively influenced by POS OJ=Const +β1 (POS) + β2 (Controlled Variables) If β1 is positive => H3 is supported H4: The relationship between POS and OCB is positively mediated by OJ; greater the level of OJ, the stronger the relationship between POS and OCB OCB= Const + β1 (POS) + β2(OJ) +β3 (OJ*POS)+ Controlled variables i.e.: if β3 is positive => H4 is supported 33
  • 34. H5 OCB is positively influenced by Role Efficacy (RE) OCB=Const +β1 (RE) + β2 (Controlled Variables) If β1 is positive => H5 is supported H6 Organizational Justice is positively influenced by RE OJ=Const +β1 (RE) + β2 (Controlled Variables) If β1 is positive => H6 is supported H7: The relationship between RE and OCB is positively mediated by OJ; greater the level of OJ, the stronger the relationship between RE and OCB OCB= Const + β1 (RE) + β2(OJ) +β3 (OJ*RE)+ Controlled variables i.e.: if β3 is positive => H7 is supported …..Continued 34
  • 35. Measurements The following modified scales were used in this study. •The OCB scale (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Moorman, & Fetter, 1990) with sub scale of Altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy and civic virtue with reliabilities 0.763. •The Organizational justice (Thibaut & Walker, 1975) with sub scales of Procedural, Distributive, Interpersonal and Informational justice with reliabilities of 0.71. •POS scale (Eisenberger et al., 1986) with reliabilities of 0.93 •RE scale (Srivastav 2008) with reliabilities of 0.70 35
  • 36. Company Issued Received Rejected Accepted Location Open source 100 20 0 20 Chennai HTC Global 50 33 7 26 Worldwide TCS 50 56 0 56 Chennai Symphony Services 50 0 0 0 Bangalore Aricent Technologies 50 16 0 16 Bangalore Ness Technologies 50 12 3 9 Bangalore 3D 30 0 0 0 Bangalore IIM 225 27 4 23 Bangalore Wipro 50 0 0 0 Bangalore Open source 125 47 0 47 Worldwide Isoft 50 23 3 20 Chennai CCT, LI and NC 40 28 0 28 Bangalore Infosys 50 34 3 31 Worldwide IBM 50 0 0 0 Bangalore Total 970 296 20 276 Sample 36
  • 37. Gender Male Female Others 70.29% 29.71% 0% Education Graduation Post Graduation Doctoral 68.48% 30.80% 0.72% Location Onsite Offshore Shuttling 49.64% 47.46% 2.90% Dist Location India Others 56.88% 43.12% Designation Executives Managers Leaders 194 74 8 Business Consulting and Services Product development BPO 203 67 6 Employment status Permanent Contract & Consultant Others 270 6 0 Demographic profile 37
  • 38. Statistical Methods • Factor analysis • ANOVA tests • Post-hoc analysis • Correlation coefficients and • Hierarchical regression 38
  • 39. Variables N Mean Std. Deviation Statistic Statistic Std. Error Statistic Gender 276 1.30 .028 .458 Location 276 1.55 .033 .553 Geographical Location 276 1.43 .030 .496 Organizational Citizenship Behavior 276 3.71 .027 .442 Altruism 276 3.75 .039 .653 Conscientious 276 3.98 .043 .715 Sportsmanship 276 3.23 .048 .796 General Compliance 276 3.73 .039 .654 Civic Virtue 276 3.75 .039 .647 Organizational Justice 276 3.37 .025 .418 Procedural Justice 276 3.38 .041 .679 Distributive Justice 276 3.05 .050 .826 Interpersonal Justice 276 3.58 .039 .653 Informational Justice 276 3.43 .041 .675 Perceived Organizational Support 276 3.30 .046 .759 Role Efficacy 276 3.36 .030 .495 Satisfaction with outcomes 276 3.38 .028 .461 Valid N (listwise) 276 Note:Parametersindicatedinboldrepresentmeasuresused totestthehypothesis Descriptive Statistics 39
  • 41. 41
  • 42. Scatter Plot - Summary 42
  • 43. Correlations 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 Altruism 1.000 2 Conscientious 0.519** 1.000 3 Sportsmanship 0.114 0.023 1.000 4 General Compliance 0.339** 0.405** 0.020 1.000 5 Civic Virtue 0.394** 0.452** -0.027 0.536** 1.000 6 Procedural Justice 0.219** 0.230** 0.021 0.403** 0.418** 1.000 7 Distributive Justice 0.096 0.060 0.416** -0.112 0-.179** 0-.175** 1.000 8 Interpersonal Justice 0.134* 0.095 -0.059 0.208** 0.313** 0.476** 0-.284** 1.000 9 Informational Justice 0.172** 0.188** 0.132* 0.299** 0.141* 0.456** 0.113 0.340* * 1.000 10 Perceived Organizational Support 0.182** 0.302** 0.192** 0.331** 0.255** 0.536** 0.117 0.349* * 0.510** 1.000 11 Role Efficacy 0.206** 0.358** 0.136* 0.381** 0.304** 0.469** 0.013 0.321* * 0.437** 0.580** 1.000 12 Satisfaction with outcomes 0.245** 0.312** 0.017 0.320** 0.239** 0.541** 0.057 0.422* * 0.444** 0.541** 0.483** 1.000 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level Correlation Coefficients 43
  • 44. Variables R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate R Square Change Sig. F Change Beta t Step 1 Independent Variables 0.216 0.213 0.392 0.216 0.000 0.429 8.694 Step 2 Independent Variables 0.000 0.318 4.707 organization al justice 0.232 0.227 0.389 0.016 0.018 0.185 2.385 The above results indicate that antecedents of this study have a significant effect on OCB behavior of distributed members. Summary of Hierarchical Regression 44
  • 45. Findings of the study • Organizational justice was positively and significantly (p<0.05) correlated to OCB • Procedural justice is found to predict OCB where as Distributive justice has not been found to predict OCB dimensions • Distributive justice has less correlation with Altruism (r=0.096), Conscientiousness (r=0.060), is negatively correlated with general compliance (r=-0.112) and civic virtue (r=-0.179). • Interpersonal justice was positively and significantly correlated to Altruism (r=0.134), General compliance(r=0.208) and Civic Virtue (r=0.313), has no correlation with Conscientiousness (r=0.095), and negatively correlated with Sportsmanship (r=-0.059). • Informational justice was positively and significantly correlated with all dimensions. Past research has supported a relationship between procedural justice and OCB, but not distributive justice (Organ & Moorman, 1993) . 45
  • 46. • Perceived Organizational support has low degree positive (p<0.01) correlation with OCB(r= 0.392). • POS is moderately correlated with procedural justice (r=0.536), interpersonal justice (r=0.349) and informational justice (r=510) has a low correlation with distributive justice (r=0.117) significant at 0.01. • OJ has positively and significantly mediated the relationship between POS and OCB …..Continued 46
  • 47. • Role efficacy has a low degree positive correlation with altruism (r=0.206), conscientiousness (r=0.358), general compliance (r=0.381) and civic virtue (r=0.304) significant at 0.01 and to sportsmanship (r=0.136) significant at 0.05. • Role efficacy is positively correlated with procedural justice (r=0.469), interpersonal justice (r=0.321) and informational justice (r=0.437) significant at 0.01 and seems to have no correlation with distributive justice (r=0.013). • OJ has positively and significantly mediated the relationship between POS and OCB …..Continued 47
  • 48. Contribution of this study Practitioners are constantly challenged in finding ways and means to create and manage GDT and concurrently promote organizational commitment and OCB. The research suggests that distributed employees are willing to practice OCB and improve business provided the organization is willing to stretch their support and make them experience OS and RE thereby perceive organizational justice. This study inspires researchers to further look into as to how other factors contribute to perception of organizational fairness in distributed software development. This study brings out the need for developing a global management practice which will bring uniformity among distributed software organizations and reduce attrition due to unfair management practices. 48
  • 49. Limitations This study does not include unique experiences of people in functional departments, in-patriates, outsourced teams of all verticals, domains and technologies, BPO employees Country based study And organization specific study And so the results can be only be generalized if this study is extended covering the above areas. 49
  • 50. Areas for future study Justice perceptions are tentative, limited to the circumstances and keep changing with the change in the working atmosphere, a study on how changing perceptions impact OCB in distributed teams can be done. A comparative research could be done on how POJ influences OCB in different verticals of software development organizations versus BPO type of organizations. How independent contributors versus teams in software organizations perceive organizational justice could also be covered in a study. The future study could include cultural differences affecting perception of organizational justice. 50
  • 51. A big thanks to Calorx Teacher’s University Academy of HRD, IIM-Bangalore Dr. N M Agrawal, Dr. K S Gupta Dr. V Nagdevara and Dr. Shailender Gupta And the revered professors and professionals present in this presentation