The objective of this document is to provide a preliminary understanding of different communication systems and devices used in effective operation of the Mine/Pit along with the other connected units like Power Plant, Washery, Coal handling plant, township etc. It also includes the information about Truck Dispatch System (TDS) for productive utilization of the equipment to achieve the targets. This also includes data management and MIS for managing the business in cost effective manner.
3. Information and Communication Technology (ICT):
Communication is the flow of information from one entity to another.
Basically mining is a hazardous job involving lot of risks and series of challenges along with the huge investments for equipment and skilled manpower. So a reliable communication platform can reduce the gaps between the effective utilization of the equipment with zero accident potential and also helps in proper management of emergency situations.
DGMS also included in their action plan and road map regarding the interconnectivity between different systems present in the mine using the latest Information and Communication Technology (ICT) like GPS, GPRS, Micro-seismic systems to monitor the workings and other associated alarm systems.
The basic models of communication systems are classified into
Machine to Machine</li></ul>4. Centralised Control room:<br />The control room performs the centralized functions of monitoring, operating and controlling the mine, Coal handling plant, Washery and all other equipment. This involves data recording, controlling the complex belt conveyor-system, truck-loading, truck-unloading systems and other required functions and needed systems. The control room analyzes several thousands of in and outgoing processing variables, which are often relayed locally and up to several miles away. Fiber optic communication are uniquely suited to connect real time data from environmental and equipment sensors to ensure peak production while maintaining the highest safety standards.<br />The information can now be visually displayed and streamlined – helping operators to make faster, safer, and more effective decisions. This data can also be sent to Human Machine Interface (HMI)/ Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) applications. In addition to the controlling, monitoring and recording of data, numerous other data related options are now available to help quality system management.<br />The coal industry maintains a positive attitude towards automation on the basis of enhanced safety. Many production mining equipment items are controlled remotely via fiber optic connection systems to solve some of the problems encountered in communications and machine control at the face.<br />These include video camera networks. Cameras are positioned at all transfer points and along the belt lines, load-outs, silos, bins, stockpiles, and inside of plant. Security cameras are at the gates for incoming and outgoing and on the scales for incoming trucks and outgoing trucks. These video camera signals are sent through the fiber optic backbone to the central control room where the control room operators can visually monitor operations.<br />5. Communication – Person to Person:<br />Communication between the persons at right time from right source is very much crucial for the effective operation of the systems and to take correct decisions. Person to Person communication systems includes communication with the help of <br /><ul><li>Telephones
Two-way radio communication or walkie-talkies </li></ul>All the offices, other units like CHP, Washery, etc and Officers houses in the township are connected with PBX phones which are monitored from the central control room. The privileges are given to certain Officers to connect to PSTN from this PBX phone with separate dialing facilities.<br />Within the mine operations, all the officers who are on duty are supplied with walkie-talkie instruments from the central control room for interpersonal communication during the operations between different units/places of working.<br />During night shifts the workmen are provided with the PED (Personnel Emergency Device) cap lamp which is having RFID and Pager facility by which it is easy to locate the person in case of emergency and also it is possible to send any message to him from the control room.<br />6. Communication – Person to Machine:<br />This type of communication is mainly required in case some danger is expected at the working place with the machine or surroundings. This type of situations is more prevailing in case of underground mining but whereas in opencast mining such type of situations is very rare and can be dealt easily. <br />Mostly operating the equipment using the remote control systems covers this type of communication, for example Blast PED is one such device used for safe and centralized remote blast initiation.<br /> <br />The entire washery unit is shown in the form of Block flow diagram in the central control room. The change of certain parameters in the control room will change the flow in the plant.<br />7. Communication –Machine to Person:<br />The classic example for this type of communication is Operator Independent Truck Dispatch System (TDS), this system will make the effective utilization of the equipment and manpower to avoid unnecessary delays.<br />The different type of systems covered under this are<br /><ul><li>Conveyor alignment tracking
Environmental monitoring system</li></ul>8. Communication – Machine to Machine:<br />This is fully automated system where personal interference is very limited. This type of systems is needed for effective control of emergency situations and managing the same. These systems includes<br /><ul><li>Fire detection/protection system
Auto Inter locking between different equipment</li></ul>9. Data Management:<br />Data is a collection of facts, text, graphics, images, sound or video that have some meaning in the user’s environment. Data in itself has little meaning and is generally useless until it is turned into information that can be used to manage a process in the business environment in which it exists.<br />The management of mining and mineral processing operations involves the collection, organization, analysis and reporting of data from multiple sources. These data sources can be as simple as truck counts in a small quarry operation to as complex as real-time process data used to monitor and control a billion dollar mineral processing facility. Their importance to their respective operations lies in how the data and subsequent information created from that data is used to manage their respective businesses. As operations become more complex the importance of managing an ever increasing amount of data becomes more important and more significant of a task due to the cost implications of the information created from that data. In mining operations, even the ones that are relatively small, good data management is a requirement; first, to optimize the results of their operations, and second, in response to changing legislative requirements.<br />The sources and types of data produced in a typical mining operation come in three forms: <br /><ul><li>Structured data – data maintained in database system
Unstructured Data – notes, emails, personnel knowledge. This type of data is not as easily utilized but represents the next frontier of information management and knowledge sharing.
Metadata – data that describes the properties or characteristics of other data and puts the data into a context that makes it understandable. Example is geologic codes in a database that relate geological intercepts to know rock types.</li></ul>A centrally located server is to be maintained within the purview of central control room and all the data related to different systems and operations is to be dumped into the server and accessed by different users from various places by connecting to the LAN system provided in their respective offices.<br />10. Management Information System:<br />Management Information System (M.I.S.) is basically concerned with collection, storing and processing data into information which is then communicated to the various Departments in the organization for appropriate decision-making.<br />All the activities right from a worker entering into the mine to product going out the mine are recorded by different systems and stored in a centrally located server and this data is organized and converted into useful information by using the different software applications and sent in an appropriate form to the appropriate persons at right time.<br />An MIS provides the following advantages. <br />It facilitates planning: MIS improves the quality of plants by providing relevant information for sound decision making. Due to increase in the size and complexity of organizations, managers have lost personal contact with the scene of operations. <br />It minimizes information overload: MIS change the larger amount of data in to summarize form and there by avoids the confusion which may arise when managers are flooded with detailed facts. <br />MIS Encourages Decentralization: Decentralization of authority is possibly when there is a system for monitoring operations at lower levels. MIS is successfully used for measuring performance and making necessary change in the organizational plans and procedures. <br />It brings Co ordination: MIS facilities integration of specialized activities by keeping each department aware of the problem and requirements of other departments. It connects all decision centers in the organization. <br />It makes control easier: MIS serves as a link between managerial planning and control. It improves the ability of management to evaluate and improve performance. The used computers has increased the data processing and storage capabilities and reduced the cost. <br />11. Suppliers of different Communication devices:<br />(Please press control key and click on the below name then it will open the respective vendor site)<br />Active Control Technology Inc.AFL TelecommunicationsAnchises Technology Co., LTD.Applied Mining Technologies.Austdac Pty. Ltd.Becker Mining SystemsCapRock Communications, Inc.Comtrol InternationalCON-SPACE CommunicationsGamma Services International, Inc.Global Security & Engineering SolutionsGrace Industries Inc.HelicommHirschmann Automation and ControlHLS Hard-Line Solutions, Inc.Hose-McCann CommunicationsIdentec SolutionsIP Access InternationalITC GlobalLOGIMINE S.A.R.L.Meshdynamics, Inc.MinecomMine Radio Systems Inc.Mine Site TechnologiesMineTracerModular Mining Systems, Inc.NL Technologies Inc.Optical Cable CorporationPyott-Boone ElectronicsRajant CorporationSchauenburg Flexadux Corp.Stolar Horizon Inc.Subterracom Wireless SolutionsTransTekTunnel Radio of AmericaVaris - Smart Underground CommunicationsVital Alert Communications Inc.VUANCE Ltd.Wholesale Mine Supply<br />