Interactions in the evolution of dispersal
   distance and emigration propensity

               Andreas Gros

           ...
Interactions in the evolution of dispersal distance and emigration
   propensity




   1.    Introduction
         • Thes...
Introduction
Introduction - Dispersal




                        Why study dispersal?




Andreas Gros                                ...
Introduction - Dispersal




      Image: c User eco-photography CC-License: CC-BY-NC-ND 2006 via Flickr


Andreas Gros   ...
Introduction - Dispersal




        Image: c User Imbaker CC-License: CC-BY-NC-SA 2007 via Flickr


Andreas Gros         ...
Introduction - Dispersal




           Image: c User crustmania CC-License: CC-BY-NC-ND 2006 via Flickr


Andreas Gros   ...
Introduction - Work overview

   Work overview:
   •   With Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke (Uni Wurzburg)
     ...
Introduction - Work overview

   Work overview:
   •   With Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke (Uni Wurzburg)
     ...
Introduction - Work overview

   Work overview:
   •   With Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke (Uni Wurzburg)
     ...
Introduction - Work overview

   Work overview:
   •   With Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke (Uni Wurzburg)
     ...
Introduction - Work overview

   Work overview:
   •   With Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke (Uni Wurzburg)
     ...
Introduction - Work overview

   Work overview:
   •   With Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke (Uni Wurzburg)
     ...
Introduction - Work overview

   Work overview:
   •   With Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke (Uni Wurzburg)
     ...
Introduction - Dispersal




Andreas Gros                  29.10.2008
Introduction - Dispersal




               Actively moving organisms “Dispersal is the
                    permanent move...
Introduction - Dispersal




               Actively moving organisms “Dispersal is the
                    permanent move...
Introduction - Costs and benefits of dispersal




       •   Costs:
           • Dispersal mortality
           • Investme...
Introduction - Costs and benefits of dispersal




       •   Costs:                         •   Benefits:
           • Disp...
Introduction - Driving factor


   Kin-competition




Andreas Gros                       29.10.2008
Introduction - Driving factor


   Kin-competition

   •    Dispersal pays be-
        cause of demographic
        benefit...
Introduction - Driving factor


   Kin-competition

   •    Does dispersal still
        pay?




Andreas Gros            ...
Introduction - Driving factor


   Kin-competition

   •    Dispersal pays
        • because you can
          compete wit...
Introduction - Driving factor


   Kin-competition

   •    Dispersal pays
        • because you can
          compete wit...
Thesis chapters

   Detailed view on two chapters of my thesis:
   •       Evolution of
           •     local adaptations...
Local adaptations
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

   •   Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies




...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

   •    Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

  ...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

   •       Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies
...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

   •       Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies
...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

   •       Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies
...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

   •       Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies
...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

   •       Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies
...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

   •   The system: annual clonal plants on an island




         ...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

   •   How far to disperse one’s offspring on an island?




Andre...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

   •   How far to disperse one’s offspring on an island?




Andre...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

   •   How far to disperse one’s offspring on an island?




Andre...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

   •   How far to disperse one’s offspring on an island?




Andre...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

   •   How far to disperse one’s offspring on an island?




Andre...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

   •   How far to disperse one’s offspring on an island?




     ...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

   •   How do the corresponding phenotypes look like?




        ...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

   •   How do the corresponding phenotypes look like?
            ...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

   •   Resulting seed density




Andreas Gros                    ...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies


   •   The system: plants on an island

   •   The model:




   ...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies


   •   The system: plants on an island   Different dispersal func...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

   Results



                                         6
         ...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

   Results



                                         6
         ...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

   Results



                                         6
         ...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

   Results



                                             6
     ...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

   Results



                                             6
     ...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

   Summary
   •   Island size strongly influences dispersal distanc...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

   Summary
   •   Island size strongly influences dispersal distanc...
Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies

   Summary
   •   Island size strongly influences dispersal distanc...
Sex-biased dispersal
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific
   dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding

...
Summary




Andreas Gros   29.10.2008
Summary




   •   Small cost differences in dispersal can explain big biases in dispersal
       propensity.




Andreas ...
Summary




   •   Small cost differences in dispersal can explain big biases in dispersal
       propensity.
   •   In co...
Summary




   •   Small cost differences in dispersal can explain big biases in dispersal
       propensity.
   •   In co...
Outlook




               Questions for future research




Andreas Gros                                   29.10.2008
Outlook




               Image: c User Ron Layters CC-License: CC-BY-NC-SA 2008 via Flickr
Andreas Gros                 ...
Outlook




               Image: c User Kevin Saff CC-License: CC-BY-SA 2005 via Flickr



Andreas Gros                  ...
Outlook




               •   There’s now not only heterogeneity in space, but
                   increasingly also in ti...
Outlook



        • What are the rates of change of habitat conditions in space
          and time that species can adapt...
Thank you to




 Image: c User TerenceKearns.com CC-License: CC-BY-NC-SA 2007 via Flickr


Andreas Gros                  ...
Thank you to




   •     Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke




 Image: c User TerenceKearns.com CC-License: CC-BY...
Thank you to




   •     Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke
   •     all people from the Field Station




 Image:...
Thank you to




   •     Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke
   •     all people from the Field Station
   •     my...
Thank you to




   •     Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke
   •     all people from the Field Station
   •     my...
Thank you to




   •     Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke
   •     all people from the Field Station
   •     my...
Thank you to




   •     Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke
   •     all people from the Field Station
   •     my...
Thank you


                                    Thank you for your attention!




           Image: c User Elron6900 CC-Li...
Questions?




Andreas Gros    29.10.2008
Questions?




   Questions?




Andreas Gros    29.10.2008
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Interactions in the evolution of dispersal distance and emigration propensity

701 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
701
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Interactions in the evolution of dispersal distance and emigration propensity

  1. 1. Interactions in the evolution of dispersal distance and emigration propensity Andreas Gros 29 October 2008
  2. 2. Interactions in the evolution of dispersal distance and emigration propensity 1. Introduction • Thesis overview • Important factors 2. Detailed view on (a) Local adaptations (b) Sex-biased dispersal Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  3. 3. Introduction
  4. 4. Introduction - Dispersal Why study dispersal? Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  5. 5. Introduction - Dispersal Image: c User eco-photography CC-License: CC-BY-NC-ND 2006 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  6. 6. Introduction - Dispersal Image: c User Imbaker CC-License: CC-BY-NC-SA 2007 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  7. 7. Introduction - Dispersal Image: c User crustmania CC-License: CC-BY-NC-ND 2006 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  8. 8. Introduction - Work overview Work overview: • With Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Evolution of • local adaptations in dispersal strategies • dispersal under distance dependent costs • sex-biased dispersal under sex-specific dispersal costs • sex-biased dispersal under asymmetric competition • With Ulf Dieckmann (IIASA, Laxenburg) • Evolution of dispersal kernels • With Martin Wegmann (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Analysis of patch irreplacibility Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  9. 9. Introduction - Work overview Work overview: • With Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Evolution of • local adaptations in dispersal strategies • dispersal under distance dependent costs • sex-biased dispersal under sex-specific dispersal costs • sex-biased dispersal under asymmetric competition • With Ulf Dieckmann (IIASA, Laxenburg) • Evolution of dispersal kernels • With Martin Wegmann (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Analysis of patch irreplacibility Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  10. 10. Introduction - Work overview Work overview: • With Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Evolution of • local adaptations in dispersal strategies • dispersal under distance dependent costs • sex-biased dispersal under sex-specific dispersal costs • sex-biased dispersal under asymmetric competition • With Ulf Dieckmann (IIASA, Laxenburg) • Evolution of dispersal kernels • With Martin Wegmann (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Analysis of patch irreplacibility Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  11. 11. Introduction - Work overview Work overview: • With Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Evolution of • local adaptations in dispersal strategies • dispersal under distance dependent costs • sex-biased dispersal under sex-specific dispersal costs • sex-biased dispersal under asymmetric competition • With Ulf Dieckmann (IIASA, Laxenburg) • Evolution of dispersal kernels • With Martin Wegmann (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Analysis of patch irreplacibility Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  12. 12. Introduction - Work overview Work overview: • With Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Evolution of • local adaptations in dispersal strategies • dispersal under distance dependent costs • sex-biased dispersal under sex-specific dispersal costs • sex-biased dispersal under asymmetric competition • With Ulf Dieckmann (IIASA, Laxenburg) • Evolution of dispersal kernels • With Martin Wegmann (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Analysis of patch irreplacibility Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  13. 13. Introduction - Work overview Work overview: • With Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Evolution of • local adaptations in dispersal strategies • dispersal under distance dependent costs • sex-biased dispersal under sex-specific dispersal costs • sex-biased dispersal under asymmetric competition • With Ulf Dieckmann (IIASA, Laxenburg) • Evolution of dispersal kernels • With Martin Wegmann (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Analysis of patch irreplacibility Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  14. 14. Introduction - Work overview Work overview: • With Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Evolution of • local adaptations in dispersal strategies • dispersal under distance dependent costs • sex-biased dispersal under sex-specific dispersal costs • sex-biased dispersal under asymmetric competition • With Ulf Dieckmann (IIASA, Laxenburg) • Evolution of dispersal kernels • With Martin Wegmann (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Analysis of patch irreplacibility Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  15. 15. Introduction - Dispersal Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  16. 16. Introduction - Dispersal Actively moving organisms “Dispersal is the permanent movement an individual makes from its birth site to the place where it reproduces or would have reproduced had it survived and found a mate.” (Howard,1960) Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  17. 17. Introduction - Dispersal Actively moving organisms “Dispersal is the permanent movement an individual makes from its birth site to the place where it reproduces or would have reproduced had it survived and found a mate.” (Howard,1960) Sessile organisms “Dispersal includes all mechanisms leading to the displacement of offspring away from the position of the mother.” (Hovestadt, 2005) Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  18. 18. Introduction - Costs and benefits of dispersal • Costs: • Dispersal mortality • Investment in dispersal mechanism instead of fertility • Time spent on dispersal Image: c User spinedoc18 CC-License: CC-BY-NC 2007 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  19. 19. Introduction - Costs and benefits of dispersal • Costs: • Benefits: • Dispersal mortality • Avoidance of • Investment in (kin-)competition dispersal mechanism • Avoidance of instead fertility inbreeding depression • Time spent on • Avoidance of bad dispersal conditions Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  20. 20. Introduction - Driving factor Kin-competition Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  21. 21. Introduction - Driving factor Kin-competition • Dispersal pays be- cause of demographic benefits Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  22. 22. Introduction - Driving factor Kin-competition • Does dispersal still pay? Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  23. 23. Introduction - Driving factor Kin-competition • Dispersal pays • because you can compete with non-siblings Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  24. 24. Introduction - Driving factor Kin-competition • Dispersal pays • because you can compete with non-siblings • and your relatives have the chance to rear more offspring Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  25. 25. Thesis chapters Detailed view on two chapters of my thesis: • Evolution of • local adaptations in dispersal strategies (Gros et. al, 2006)1 • sex-biased dispersal under sex-specific dispersal costs (Gros et. al, 2008) 2 1 Gros, A., Poehtke, H.J., Hovestadt, T., 2006. Oikos 114: 544-552 2 Gros, A., Hovestadt, T., Poehtke, H.J., 2008. Ecological Modelling 219: 226-233 Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  26. 26. Local adaptations
  27. 27. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies Image: c User Aaron Escobar 2008 CC-BY via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  28. 28. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies 4 factors play a role: Image: c User Aaron Escobar 2008 CC-BY via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  29. 29. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies 4 factors play a role: • increase in costs towards the border Image: c User Aaron Escobar 2008 CC-BY via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  30. 30. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies 4 factors play a role: • increase in costs towards the border • decrease in competition towards the border Image: c User Aaron Escobar 2008 CC-BY via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  31. 31. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies 4 factors play a role: • increase in costs towards the border • decrease in competition towards the border • dispersal destroys local adaptation Image: c User Aaron Escobar 2008 CC-BY via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  32. 32. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies 4 factors play a role: • increase in costs towards the border • decrease in competition towards the border • dispersal destroys local adaptation • kin-competition drives dispersal Image: c User Aaron Escobar 2008 CC-BY via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  33. 33. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies The questions: • Do we find local adaptation? • If yes, under which conditions can local adaptation evolve? Image: c User Aaron Escobar 2008 CC-BY via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  34. 34. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • The system: annual clonal plants on an island Image: c User Aaron Escobar 2008 CC-BY via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  35. 35. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • How far to disperse one’s offspring on an island? Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  36. 36. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • How far to disperse one’s offspring on an island? Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  37. 37. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • How far to disperse one’s offspring on an island? Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  38. 38. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • How far to disperse one’s offspring on an island? Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  39. 39. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • How far to disperse one’s offspring on an island? Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  40. 40. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • How far to disperse one’s offspring on an island? X Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  41. 41. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • How do the corresponding phenotypes look like? Image: c User Roger Smith 2006 CC-BY-NC-ND via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  42. 42. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • How do the corresponding phenotypes look like? dispersal kernel 1.0 mean distance = 1 mean distance = 2 0.8 probability density 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 distance Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  43. 43. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • Resulting seed density Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  44. 44. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • The system: plants on an island • The model: A1 A2 A3 A4 Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  45. 45. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • The system: plants on an island Different dispersal functions: kernel prob. density traits Global (G) Gp Nearest Neighbour (NN) Gp Neg. Exp. (NE) Gd Neg. Exp.+ (NE+) G d , Gp Skewed (S) Gd Skewed+ (S+) G d , Gp Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  46. 46. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies Results 6 mean dispersal distance 5 A1 A2 A3 A4 4 3 2 1 A1 A2 A3 A4 center rim area number Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  47. 47. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies Results 6 small patch (radius 25) mean dispersal distance 5 A1 A2 A3 A4 4 3 2 1 A1 A2 A3 A4 center rim area number Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  48. 48. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies Results 6 big patch (radius 150) small patch (radius 25) mean dispersal distance 5 A1 A2 A3 A4 4 3 2 1 A1 A2 A3 A4 center rim area number Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  49. 49. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies Results 6 big patch (radius 150) small patch (radius 25) mean dispersal distance 5 A1 A2 A3 A4 4 island (patch) size is most important determinant for dispersal distance 3 2 1 A1 A2 A3 A4 center rim area number Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  50. 50. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies Results 6 big patch (radius 150) small patch (radius 25) mean dispersal distance 5 A1 A2 A3 A4 4 minimum patch size necessary for local adaptation 3 2 1 A1 A2 A3 A4 center rim area number Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  51. 51. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies Summary • Island size strongly influences dispersal distances • Local adaptations evolve only above a certain habitat size • Below that size the cost-benefit profile of dispersal is too weak and local adaptation is completely destroyed by dispersal Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  52. 52. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies Summary • Island size strongly influences dispersal distances • Local adaptations evolve only above a certain habitat size • Below that size the cost-benefit profile of dispersal is too weak and local adaptation is completely destroyed by dispersal Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  53. 53. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies Summary • Island size strongly influences dispersal distances • Local adaptations evolve only above a certain habitat size • Below that size the cost-benefit profile of dispersal is too weak and local adaptation is completely destroyed by dispersal Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  54. 54. Sex-biased dispersal
  55. 55. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding • Sex-biased dispersal 1. female-biased (often in birds) 2. male-biased (often in mammals) Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  56. 56. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding • Sex-biased dispersal 1. female-biased (often in birds) 2. male-biased (often in mammals) Image: c User nkenji 2007 CC-BY-NC-ND via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  57. 57. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding • Sex-biased dispersal 1. female-biased (often in birds) 2. male-biased (often in mammals) Image: c User mecocrus 2006 CC-BY-NC-SA via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  58. 58. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding • Sex-biased dispersal 1. female-biased (often in birds) 2. male-biased (often in mammals) It is unclear • under which circumstances sex-biased dispersal evolves, and • which factors determine exactly which gender becomes more dispersive 3 3 Image: c User mecocrus 2006 CC-BY-NC-SA via Flickr Kokko, H. & Jennions, M. D., 2008. Parental investment, sexual selection and sex ratios. J. Evol. Biol. 21, 919-948. Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  59. 59. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding Explanations for sex-biased dispersal: • avoidance of inbreeding depression Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  60. 60. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding Explanations for sex-biased dispersal: • avoidance of inbreeding depression • differences in competition about reproductive resources Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  61. 61. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding Explanations for sex-biased dispersal: • avoidance of inbreeding depression • differences in competition about reproductive resources • differences in dispersal payoff Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  62. 62. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding Explanations for sex-biased dispersal: • avoidance of inbreeding depression • differences in competition about reproductive resources • differences in dispersal payoff ... or costs Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  63. 63. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding Explanations for sex-biased dispersal: • avoidance of inbreeding depression • differences in competition about reproductive resources • differences in dispersal payoff ... or costs Differences in dispersal costs are an obvious reason for biased dispersal, but can they explain big sex-biases in dispersal propensity – especially when the cost differences are small? Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  64. 64. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding The model Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  65. 65. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding The model • patch-matrix world Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  66. 66. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding The model • patch-matrix world • N breeding territories per patch • annual, sexually reproducing species • monogamous pairs • pairs with territory get an N=10 equal number of offspring • individuals have two loci: dm , df Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  67. 67. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding The model • patch-matrix world • N breeding territories per patch • annual, sexually reproducing species • monogamous pairs c c • pairs with territory get an N=10 equal number of offspring • individuals have two loci: c c dm , df • dispersal mortality c • disperser pick patch randomly Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  68. 68. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding Given the costs c, how many sib- lings should disperse? Image: c User Andrew Pescod CC-BY-NC-SA 2006 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  69. 69. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding Given the costs c, how many sib- lings should disperse? • Kin-selection theory states: Image: c User Andrew Pescod CC-BY-NC-SA 2006 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  70. 70. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding Given the costs c, how many sib- lings should disperse? • Kin-selection theory states: Rb > c Image: c User Andrew Pescod CC-BY-NC-SA 2006 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  71. 71. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding Given the costs c, how many sib- lings should disperse? • Kin-selection theory states: Rb > c R−c ∗ R−c2 if R > c ⇒d = 0 if R ≤ c Image: c User Andrew Pescod CC-BY-NC-SA 2006 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  72. 72. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding Given the costs c, how many sib- lings should disperse? • Kin-selection theory states: 1.0 c = 0.4 Rb > c 0.8 dispersal probability d 0.6 R−c ∗ R−c2 if R > c ⇒d = 0.4 0 if R ≤ c 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 relatedness R Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  73. 73. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does it look like for sex- specific costs? Image: c User Andrew Pescod CC-BY-NC-SA 2006 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  74. 74. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does it look like for sex- specific costs? R−cf R−c2 if R > cf d∗ f = f 0 if R ≤ cf R−cm R−c2 if R > cm d∗ m = m 0 if R ≤ cm Image: c User Andrew Pescod CC-BY-NC-SA 2006 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  75. 75. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does a difference in dispersal mortality influence dispersal? Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  76. 76. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does a difference in dispersal mortality influence dispersal? Results from the numerical model difference = 2 % difference = 5 % difference = 10 % 0.5 0.5 0.5 a b c 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 N = 10 df , dm 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 c c c Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  77. 77. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does a difference in dispersal mortality influence dispersal? Results from the numerical model difference = 2 % difference = 5 % difference = 10 % 0.5 0.5 0.5 a b c 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 N = 10 df , dm 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 c c c Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  78. 78. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does a difference in dispersal mortality influence dispersal? Results from the numerical model difference = 2 % difference = 5 % difference = 10 % 0.5 0.5 0.5 a b c 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 N = 10 df , dm 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 c c c Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  79. 79. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does a difference in dispersal mortality influence dispersal? Results from the numerical model difference = 2 % difference = 5 % difference = 10 % 0.5 0.5 0.5 a b c 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 N = 10 df , dm 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 c c c Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  80. 80. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does a difference in dispersal mortality influence dispersal? Results from the numerical model difference = 2 % difference = 5 % difference = 10 % 0.5 0.5 0.5 Small differences in dispersal mortality can cause big a b c differences in evolving dispersal propensities. 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 N = 10 df , dm 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 c c c Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  81. 81. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does the evolutionary outcome depend on inbreeding-depression? Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  82. 82. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does the evolutionary outcome depend on inbreeding-depression? high inbreeding > c, no difference 1.0 0.8 male dispersal 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 female dispersal Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  83. 83. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does the evolutionary outcome depend on inbreeding-depression? high inbreeding > c, no difference 1.0 0.8 male dispersal > female dispersal male dispersal 0.6 0.4 0.2 female dispersal > male dispersal 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 female dispersal Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  84. 84. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does the evolutionary outcome depend on inbreeding-depression? high inbreeding > c, no difference 1.0 0.8 male dispersal > female dispersal male dispersal 0.6 0.4 0.2 female dispersal > male dispersal 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 female dispersal Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  85. 85. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does the evolutionary outcome depend on inbreeding-depression? inbreeding = 0.6, c = 0.4, difference = 10 % 1.0 0.8 male dispersal 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 female dispersal Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  86. 86. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does the evolutionary outcome depend on inbreeding-depression? inbreeding = c = 0.4, difference = 10 % 1.0 0.8 male dispersal 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 female dispersal Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  87. 87. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does the evolutionary outcome depend on inbreeding-depression? inbreeding = c = 0.4, difference = 10 % 1.0 0.8 male dispersal 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 female dispersal Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  88. 88. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does the evolutionary outcome depend on inbreeding-depression? inbreeding = c = 0.4, difference = 10 % 1.0 0.8 Small cost differences in dispersal can explain big biases in dispersal propensity, especially in combination with male dispersal 0.6 inbreeding depression 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 female dispersal Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  89. 89. Summary Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  90. 90. Summary • Small cost differences in dispersal can explain big biases in dispersal propensity. Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  91. 91. Summary • Small cost differences in dispersal can explain big biases in dispersal propensity. • In combination with inbreeding depression the dispersal bias increases. Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  92. 92. Summary • Small cost differences in dispersal can explain big biases in dispersal propensity. • In combination with inbreeding depression the dispersal bias increases. • Local adaptations to habitat conditions are only possible, if the habitat is big enough. Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  93. 93. Outlook Questions for future research Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  94. 94. Outlook Image: c User Ron Layters CC-License: CC-BY-NC-SA 2008 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  95. 95. Outlook Image: c User Kevin Saff CC-License: CC-BY-SA 2005 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  96. 96. Outlook • There’s now not only heterogeneity in space, but increasingly also in time. Image: c User Kevin Saff CC-License: CC-BY-SA 2005 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  97. 97. Outlook • What are the rates of change of habitat conditions in space and time that species can adapt to? • What are the predictions for changes in dispersal strategies? • Do we need to develop dedicated protection strategies for genders? Image: c User cliff1066 CC-License: CC-BY 2008 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  98. 98. Thank you to Image: c User TerenceKearns.com CC-License: CC-BY-NC-SA 2007 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  99. 99. Thank you to • Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke Image: c User TerenceKearns.com CC-License: CC-BY-NC-SA 2007 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  100. 100. Thank you to • Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke • all people from the Field Station Image: c User TerenceKearns.com CC-License: CC-BY-NC-SA 2007 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  101. 101. Thank you to • Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke • all people from the Field Station • my partner Pleuni Pennings Image: c User TerenceKearns.com CC-License: CC-BY-NC-SA 2007 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  102. 102. Thank you to • Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke • all people from the Field Station • my partner Pleuni Pennings • all family members Image: c User TerenceKearns.com CC-License: CC-BY-NC-SA 2007 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  103. 103. Thank you to • Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke • all people from the Field Station • my partner Pleuni Pennings • all family members • all the people that I forgot to mention Image: c User TerenceKearns.com CC-License: CC-BY-NC-SA 2007 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  104. 104. Thank you to • Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke • all people from the Field Station • my partner Pleuni Pennings • all family members • all the people that I forgot to mention • the DFG for financial support (DFG PO 244/3-1) Image: c User TerenceKearns.com CC-License: CC-BY-NC-SA 2007 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  105. 105. Thank you Thank you for your attention! Image: c User Elron6900 CC-License: CC-BY-NC 2007 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  106. 106. Questions? Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  107. 107. Questions? Questions? Andreas Gros 29.10.2008

×