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  1. 1. The Amygdala<br />By: Alinka, Harel, Vjosa<br />
  2. 2. General Information; Function<br />
  3. 3. General Information; Location<br />
  4. 4. Study 1<br />Aim: Determine the volume in the amygdala in a series of brains post-mortems<br />Procedure:<br />Amygdala volume was estimated using point-counting in both hemispheres of brains of 10 male and 8 female patients with schizophrenia <br />Had a comparison group of 9 male and 9 female post-mortems without neuropsychiatric disorder <br />Results: No significant reduction of amygdala found  <br />Implications: Significant volume reduction isn’t not consistent feature in schizophrenia <br />
  5. 5. Study 2<br />Aim: Examine neural activity in amygdala during episodes of mania. <br />Procedure: <br />9 manic participants & 9 healthy comparison subjects underwent fMRI while performing a neuropsychological paradigm known to activate the amygdala<br />Experimental Task: participants see faces displaying affection<br />Control task: geometric forms<br />Goal: Match them to one of two similar images presented at same time<br />Results: Manic participants had significantly increased activation in the left amygdala and reduced bilateral activation in the lateral orbit frontal cortex relative to the comparison participants. <br />Implications: Increased activation in the amygdala and decreased activation in the orbitofrontal cortex may represent disruption of a specific neuroanatomic circuit involved in mania. These brain regions may be implicated in disorders involving regulation of affect.<br />
  6. 6. Study 3<br />Aim: Investigate what happens in the brain during and after phobia treatment<br />Procedure: <br />Examined brain activity of 18 people w/ social phobia as they spoke in front of a group using PET scans<br />1/3 of the participants received 9 weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy<br />1/3 received the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor Citalopram and 1/3 received no treatment. <br />Participants were tested again, using the same public speaking task, at 9 weeks and again after one year. <br />Results: Activation in the amygdala and related cortical areas at 9 weeks could predict which people's symptoms would improve after one year<br />
  7. 7. Dysfunction <br />