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Indian Forest Congress 2011


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Reproductive biology [ Dry Season Blooming Tree species, Boswellia ovalifoliolata (Burseraceae) and Terminalia pallida (Combretaceae) as key food plants for Insects/Sunbirds during Dry Season in Southern Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh ]

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Indian Forest Congress 2011

  1. 1. Dry Season Blooming Tree species, Boswellia ovalifoliolata (Burseraceae) and Terminalia pallida(Combretaceae) as key food plants for Insects/Sunbirds during Dry Season in Southern Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh P Hareesh chandra Research Scholar Department of Environmental Sciences Andhra University ,Visakhapatnam 530003
  2. 2. Introduction• The genus Boswellia belongs to the Burseraceae family and is widely distributed in the dry regions of tropical Africa, Arabia and India.• There are about 18 species of Boswellia which are shrubs or trees with outer bark often flaking.• B. serrata and B. ovalifoliolata have been reported to be distributed in India.• The genus Terminalia includes about 200 species of trees and shrubs distributed in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world.• 20 species have been reported to be distributed in tropical and sub- tropical states of India.• The study is contemplated to provide Reproductive Biology information keeping in view their prominent role in the forest ecosystem where they have been reported to be key species.
  4. 4. Boswellia ovalifoliolata• Boswellia ovalifoliolata occurs on the foothills of the Seshachalam hill ranges of Eastern Ghats in Chittoor, Kadapa and Kurnool districts of Andhra Pradesh up to an altitude of about 600-900 m.• Local tribes and others make deep incisions on the main trunk to extract the gum and resin causing damage to trees which in turn leading to the depletion of the plant population in the natural habitat.• The gum together with other undisclosed combinations is used extensively to cure a number of diseases: mouth, throat and stomach ulcers, fever, stomach pain, ulcers, scorpion sting, amoebic dysentery, hydrocele, etc.• The decoction of the bark is used for joint or rheumatic pains.
  5. 5. Terminalia pallida• Terminalia pallida occurs on rocky hilly areas of dry deciduous forests of Chittoor, kadapa and Kurnool districts at 700-800 m elevation in the Eastern Ghats but it is mainly centered at Tirumala Hills of Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh.• The leaf is used for treating skin blisters and skin diseases while the stem bark as diuretic and swellings.• The fruit is used as anti-pyretic, purgative, for diarrhea, peptic ulcers, diabetes, venereal diseases, cough, cold, dysentery, fissures, cracks and in tanning.• It is also used as a substitute for the fruit of Terminalia chebula.
  6. 6. Materials and Methods• Examination of Flower Morphology• Flower Behaviour• Determination of Pollen Output• Examination of Nectar Production (Baker and Baker, 1973)• Determination of Stigma Receptivity (Dafni et al, 2005)• Observations of Flower-Visitors• Examination of Foraging Behaviour of Insects/birds• Observations of seed dispersal and seedling ecology• Olympus Binoculars (PX35 DPSR Model)• Nikon D40X Digital SLR (10.1 megapixel) and Nikon D90 Digital SLR (12mega pixel)
  7. 7. Boswellia ovalifoliolata
  8. 8. Acraea violae, Danaus chrysippus, Nectarinia asiatica, Funambulus palmarum
  9. 9. List of flower foragers on Boswellia ovalifoliolataFamily Scientific Name Common NameOrder: HymenopteraApidae Apis dorsata Rock bee A. cerana Indian honey bee A. florea Dwarf honey bee Trigona iridipennis Stingless bee Ceratina sp. Small carpenter bee Xylocopa latipes Large carpenter bee X. pubescens Large carpenter beeScoliidae Scolia sp. Digger waspVespidae Eumenes petiolata Potter wasp Rhynchium sp. Potter waspEumenidae Eumenes conica Potter wasp Eumenes sp. Potter waspDipteraBombyliidae Hyperalonia sp. Pomace flyLepidopteraPieridae Catopsilia Common EmigrantNymphalidae Junonia lemonias Lemon Pansy Acraea violae Tawny Coster Danaus chrysippus Plain TigerClass: AvesOrder: PiciformesCapitonidae Megalaima haemacephala CoppersmithOrder: PasseriformesNectariniidae Nectarinia asiatica Purple Sunbird N. zeylonica Purple-rumped SunbirdPycnonotidae Pycnonotus jocosus Red Whiskered Bulbul P. cafer Red-vented BulbulCampephagidae Pericrocotus cinnamomeus Small MinivetDicruridae Dicrurus adsimilis Black Drongo D. caerulescens White-bellied DrongoParidae Parus xanthogenys Yellow-cheeked TitMuscicapidae Turdoides striatus Jungle BabblerMotacillidae Motacilla flava Yellow Wagtail
  10. 10. Terminalia pallidaApis cerana, Scolia sp., Ceratina sp., Eumenes petiolata, Hyperalonia sp.
  11. 11. Graphium nomius, Hypolimnas bolina, Precis iphita, Tirumala limniace
  12. 12. List of flower foragers on Terminalia pallidaFamily Scientific Name Common NameHymenopteraApidae Apis dorsata Rock bee A. cerana Indian honey bee A. florea Dwarf honey bee Trigona iridipennis Stingless bee Ceratina sp. Small carpenter bee Xylocopa latipes Large carpenter beeHalictidae Halictus Sweat beeScoliidae Campsomeris annulata Flower wasp Scolia sp. Digger waspVespidae Eumenes petiolata Potter wasp Vespa cincta Yellow-banded wasp V. orientalis Oriental HornetEumenidae Eumenes conica Potter wasp Eumenes sp. Potter waspHemipteraLygaeidae Lygaeus sp. Black and Red bugDipteraBombyliidae Hyperalonia sp. Pomace flySyrphidae Helophilus sp. HoverflyLepidopteraPapilionidae Papilio polytes Common Mormon Graphium nomius Spot SwordtailNymphalidae Junonia lemonias Lemon Pansy Precis iphita Chocolate Pansy Hypolimnas bolina Great Eggfly Danaus chrysippus Plain Tiger Phalanta phalantha Common Leopard Tirumala limniace Blue Tiger Euploea core Common Indian Crow Neptis hylas Common Sailer Arhopala amantes Large OakblueHesperiidae Pseudocoladenia indrani Tricolour Pied Flat
  13. 13. Conclusions• In Boswellia ovalifoliolata, the flowers are small, mildly odoriferous and weakly protandrous.• Insects, especially juvenile Xylocopa bees and Apis dorsata and wasps are important pollinators in effecting cross-pollination.• The flowers are not appropriate for birds, however, sunbirds visit them for nectar regularly and pollinate the flowers.• Fruit set in open-pollination is below 10% while it is up to 34% in manual cross-pollination.• limitation of cross-pollination, space constraint for seed production from all ovules of the flower and availability of limited resources to the tree with rocky, dry and limited litter in the floor of the forest seem to be the constraints for higher fruit set.• Mature fruits dehisce and disseminate their light weight, papery and winged seeds with the aid of wind.
  14. 14. • In T. pallida, protogyny is a device to promote out-crossing but it is very weak, however it is partly promoted by gradual anther dehiscence over a period of six hours.• The plant is entomophilous and cross-pollination is effected mainly by large bees, wasps and butterflies.• The natural fruit set stands around 6% as against the 62% fruit set realized in manual xenogamous pollinations.• Fruit predation rate is excessively high by a rodent species, Funambulus palmarum.• The fallen fruits are dispersed by rain water and the seeds germinate and establish seedlings depending on the soil status.• There is a mutualistic relationship between the tree species studied and the dependent pollinators, the former for pollination while the latter for food.
  15. 15. Thank you