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DERIVATIVES-
FUTURES, OPTIONS
-Hareesh M
2014600120
What are Derivatives…?
• A Derivative is a financial instrument whose value is
derived from the value of another asset, which is known as
the underlying.
• When the price of the underlying changes, the value of the
derivative also changes.
• A Derivative is not a product. It is a contract that derives
its value from changes in the price of the underlying.
Example :
The value of a gold futures contract is derived from the
Value of the underlying asset i.e. Gold.
Traders in Derivatives Market
There are 3 types of traders in the Derivatives Market :
1. HEDGER
A Hedger is someone who faces risk associated with price
movement of an asset and who uses derivatives as means of
reducing risk.
They provide economic balance to the market.
2. SPECULATOR
A trader who enters the futures market for pursuit of profits,
accepting risk in the endeavor.
They provide liquidity and depth to the market.
3. ARBITRAGEUR
A person who simultaneously enters into transactions in
two or more markets to take advantage of the
discrepancies between prices in these markets.
• Arbitrage involves making profits from relative mispricing.
• Arbitrageurs also help to make markets liquid, ensure
accurate and uniform pricing, and enhance price stability
OTC and Exchange Traded Derivatives
1)OTC
Over-the-counter (OTC) or off-exchange trading is to trade
financial instruments such as stocks, bonds, commodities or
derivatives directly between two parties without going
through an exchange or other intermediary.
• The contract between the two parties are privately
negotiated.
• The contract can be tailor-made to the two parties’ liking.
• Over-the-counter markets are uncontrolled, unregulated
and have very few laws. Its more like a freefall.
2.)Exchange-traded Derivatives
• Exchange traded derivatives contract (ETD) are those
derivatives instruments that are traded via specialized
Derivatives exchange or other exchanges. A derivatives
exchange is a market where individuals trade standardized
contracts that have been defined by the exchange.
• The world's largest derivatives exchange (by number of
transactions) are the Korea Exchange
• There is a very visible and transparent market price for the
derivatives.
Economic benefits of Derivatives
• Reduces risk
• Enhance liquidity of the underlying asset
• Lower transaction costs
• Enhances the price discovery process.
• Provides signals of market movements
• Facilitates financial markets integration
What is a Forward?
• A forward is a contract in which one party
commits to buy and the other party commits to
sell a specified quantity of an agreed upon
asset for a pre-determined price at a specific
date in the future.
• It is a customised contract, in the sense that the
terms of the contract are agreed upon by the
individual parties.
• Hence, it is traded OTC.
Forward Contract Example
I agree to sell
500kgs wheat at
Rs.40/kg after 3
months.
Farmer Bread
Maker
3 months
Later
Farmer
Bread
Maker
500kgs wheat
Rs.20,000
What are Futures?
• Futures contract is a standardized contract
between two parties to exchange a specified
asset of standardized quantity and quality
for a price agreed today with delivery
occurring at a specified future date, the
delivery date.
•
• It is traded on an organised exchange.
Types of Futures Contracts
• Stock Futures Trading (dealing with shares)
• Commodity Futures Trading (dealing with
gold futures, crude oil futures)
• Index Futures Trading (dealing with stock
market indices)
Terminology
• Contract size – The amount of the asset that has to be
delivered under one contract. All futures are sold in
multiples of lots which is decided by the exchange board.
Eg: If the lot size of Tata steel is 500 shares, then one
futures contract is necessarily 500 shares.
• Contract cycle – The period for which a contract trades.
The futures on the NSE have one (near) month, two
(next) months, three (far) months expiry cycles.
• Expiry date – usually last Thursday of every month or
previous day if Thursday is public holiday.
Terminology
• Strike price – The agreed price of the deal
is called the strike price.
• Cost of carry – Difference between strike
price and current price.
Margins
• A margin is an amount of a money that
must be deposited with the clearing house
by both buyers and sellers in a margin
account in order to open a futures contract.
• Initial Margin - Deposit that a trader must
make before trading any futures. Usually,
10% of the contract size.
What are Options?
• Contracts that give the holder the option to
buy/sell specified quantity of the underlying
assets at a particular price on or before a specified
time period.
• The word “option” means that the holder has the
right but not the obligation to buy/sell underlying
assets.
Types of Options
• Options are of two types – call and put.
• Call option give the buyer the right but not the
obligation to buy a given quantity of the
underlying asset, at a given price on or before a
particular date by paying a premium.
• Put option give the buyer the right, but not
obligation to sell a given quantity of the underlying
asset at a given price on or before a particular date
by paying a premium.
Features of Options
• A fixed maturity date on which they expire. (Expiry date)
• The price at which the option is exercised is called the
exercise price or strike price.
• The person who writes the option and is the seller is
referred as the “option writer”, and who holds the option
and is the buyer is called “option holder”.
• The premium is the price paid for the option by the buyer
to the seller.
Options Terminology
• Underlying: Specific security or asset.
• Option premium: Price paid.
• Strike price: Pre-decided price.
• Expiration date: Date on which option expires.
• Exercise date: Option is exercised.
• Open interest: Total numbers of option contracts
that have not yet been expired.
• Option holder: One who buys option.
• Option writer: One who sells option.
Derivatives futures,options-presentation-hareesh

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Derivatives futures,options-presentation-hareesh

  • 2. What are Derivatives…? • A Derivative is a financial instrument whose value is derived from the value of another asset, which is known as the underlying. • When the price of the underlying changes, the value of the derivative also changes. • A Derivative is not a product. It is a contract that derives its value from changes in the price of the underlying. Example : The value of a gold futures contract is derived from the Value of the underlying asset i.e. Gold.
  • 3. Traders in Derivatives Market There are 3 types of traders in the Derivatives Market : 1. HEDGER A Hedger is someone who faces risk associated with price movement of an asset and who uses derivatives as means of reducing risk. They provide economic balance to the market. 2. SPECULATOR A trader who enters the futures market for pursuit of profits, accepting risk in the endeavor. They provide liquidity and depth to the market.
  • 4. 3. ARBITRAGEUR A person who simultaneously enters into transactions in two or more markets to take advantage of the discrepancies between prices in these markets. • Arbitrage involves making profits from relative mispricing. • Arbitrageurs also help to make markets liquid, ensure accurate and uniform pricing, and enhance price stability
  • 5. OTC and Exchange Traded Derivatives 1)OTC Over-the-counter (OTC) or off-exchange trading is to trade financial instruments such as stocks, bonds, commodities or derivatives directly between two parties without going through an exchange or other intermediary. • The contract between the two parties are privately negotiated. • The contract can be tailor-made to the two parties’ liking. • Over-the-counter markets are uncontrolled, unregulated and have very few laws. Its more like a freefall.
  • 6. 2.)Exchange-traded Derivatives • Exchange traded derivatives contract (ETD) are those derivatives instruments that are traded via specialized Derivatives exchange or other exchanges. A derivatives exchange is a market where individuals trade standardized contracts that have been defined by the exchange. • The world's largest derivatives exchange (by number of transactions) are the Korea Exchange • There is a very visible and transparent market price for the derivatives.
  • 7. Economic benefits of Derivatives • Reduces risk • Enhance liquidity of the underlying asset • Lower transaction costs • Enhances the price discovery process. • Provides signals of market movements • Facilitates financial markets integration
  • 8. What is a Forward? • A forward is a contract in which one party commits to buy and the other party commits to sell a specified quantity of an agreed upon asset for a pre-determined price at a specific date in the future. • It is a customised contract, in the sense that the terms of the contract are agreed upon by the individual parties. • Hence, it is traded OTC.
  • 9. Forward Contract Example I agree to sell 500kgs wheat at Rs.40/kg after 3 months. Farmer Bread Maker 3 months Later Farmer Bread Maker 500kgs wheat Rs.20,000
  • 10. What are Futures? • Futures contract is a standardized contract between two parties to exchange a specified asset of standardized quantity and quality for a price agreed today with delivery occurring at a specified future date, the delivery date. • • It is traded on an organised exchange.
  • 11. Types of Futures Contracts • Stock Futures Trading (dealing with shares) • Commodity Futures Trading (dealing with gold futures, crude oil futures) • Index Futures Trading (dealing with stock market indices)
  • 12. Terminology • Contract size – The amount of the asset that has to be delivered under one contract. All futures are sold in multiples of lots which is decided by the exchange board. Eg: If the lot size of Tata steel is 500 shares, then one futures contract is necessarily 500 shares. • Contract cycle – The period for which a contract trades. The futures on the NSE have one (near) month, two (next) months, three (far) months expiry cycles. • Expiry date – usually last Thursday of every month or previous day if Thursday is public holiday.
  • 13. Terminology • Strike price – The agreed price of the deal is called the strike price. • Cost of carry – Difference between strike price and current price.
  • 14. Margins • A margin is an amount of a money that must be deposited with the clearing house by both buyers and sellers in a margin account in order to open a futures contract. • Initial Margin - Deposit that a trader must make before trading any futures. Usually, 10% of the contract size.
  • 15. What are Options? • Contracts that give the holder the option to buy/sell specified quantity of the underlying assets at a particular price on or before a specified time period. • The word “option” means that the holder has the right but not the obligation to buy/sell underlying assets.
  • 16. Types of Options • Options are of two types – call and put. • Call option give the buyer the right but not the obligation to buy a given quantity of the underlying asset, at a given price on or before a particular date by paying a premium. • Put option give the buyer the right, but not obligation to sell a given quantity of the underlying asset at a given price on or before a particular date by paying a premium.
  • 17. Features of Options • A fixed maturity date on which they expire. (Expiry date) • The price at which the option is exercised is called the exercise price or strike price. • The person who writes the option and is the seller is referred as the “option writer”, and who holds the option and is the buyer is called “option holder”. • The premium is the price paid for the option by the buyer to the seller.
  • 18. Options Terminology • Underlying: Specific security or asset. • Option premium: Price paid. • Strike price: Pre-decided price. • Expiration date: Date on which option expires. • Exercise date: Option is exercised. • Open interest: Total numbers of option contracts that have not yet been expired. • Option holder: One who buys option. • Option writer: One who sells option.