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- 1. 12/18/13 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru 1
- 2. DRAWINGS: ( A Graphical Representation) The Fact about: If compared with Verbal or Written Description, Drawings offer far better idea about the Shape, Size & Appearance of any object or situation or location, that too in quite a less time. Hence it has become the Best Media of Communication not only in Engineering but in almost all Fields. 12/18/13 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Blore 2
- 3. Drawings (Some Types) Portraits ( human faces, expressions etc.) Botanical Drawings ( plants, flowers etc.) Nature Drawings ( landscape, Geographical scenery etc.) Drawings ( maps etc.) Zoological Drawings (creatures, animals etc.) Engineering Drawings, (projections.) Building Related Drawings. Machine component Drawings Orthographic Projections Isometric ( Mech.Engg.Term.) or Perspective(Civil Engg.Term) (Actual Object Drawing 3-D) (Fv,Tv & Sv.-Mech.Engg terms) (Plan, Elevation- Civil Engg.terms) (Working Drawings 2-D type) 12/18/13 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Blore 3
- 4. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS: It is a technical drawing in which different views of an object Are projected on different reference planes observing perpendicular to respective reference plane Different Reference planes are Horizontal Plane (HP), Vertical Frontal Plane ( VP ) Side Or Profile Plane ( PP) And Different Views are Front View (FV), Top View (TV) and Side View (SV) FV is a view projected on VP. TV is a view projected on HP. SV is a view projected on PP. IMPORTANT TERMS OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS: Planes. Pattern of planes & Pattern of views Methods of drawing Orthographic Projections 1 2 3 12/18/13 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Blore 4
- 5. PLANES 1 PRINCIPAL PLANES HP AND VP AUXILIARY PLANES Auxiliary Vertical Plane (A.V.P.) A.V.P. ⊥ to Hp & ∠ to Vp 12/18/13 Auxiliary Inclined Plane (A.I.P.) A.I .P ⊥t oV & p ∠t oH p Profile Plane ( P.P.) . Hareesha N G, DSCE, Blore 5
- 6. 2 PATTERN OF PLANES & VIEWS (First Angle Method) This is a pictorial set-up of all three planes. Arrow direction is a normal way of observing the object. But in this direction only VP and a view on it (fv) can be seen. The other planes and views on those can not be seen. Y PROCEDURE TO SOLVE ABOVE PROBLEM:TO MAKE THOSE PLANES ALSO VISIBLE FROM THE ARROW DIRECTION, A) HP IS ROTATED 900 DOUNWARD B) PP, 900 IN RIGHT SIDE DIRECTION. THIS WAY BOTH PLANES ARE BROUGHT IN THE SAME PLANE CONTAINING VP. X Click to view Animation On clicking the button if a warning comes please click YES to continue, this program is safe for your pc. PP VP Y FV LSV Y X X TV HP HP IS ROTATED DOWNWARD 900 12/18/13 AND BROUGHT IN THE PLANE OF VP. PP IS ROTATED IN RIGHT SIDE 90 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Blore AND BROUGHT IN THE PLANE OF VP. 0 ACTUAL PATTERN OF PLANES & VIEWS OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS DRAWN IN 6 FIRST ANGLE METHOD OF PROJECTIONS
- 7. 3 Methods of Drawing Orthographic Projections First Angle Projections Method Here views are drawn by placing object Third Angle Projections Method Here views are drawn by placing object in 3rd Quadrant. in 1st Quadrant ( Fv above X-y, Tv below X-y ) ( SYMBOLIC PRESENTATION OF BOTH METHODS WITH AN OBJECT STANDING ON HP ( GROUND) ON IT’S BASE. FV X TV 12/18/13 Y Tv above X-y, Fv below X-y ) NOTE:HP term is used in 1st Angle method & For the same Ground term DSCE, Blore is used Hareesha N G, in 3rd Angle method of projections TV X Y FV G L 7
- 8. FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION FOR T.V. IN THIS METHOD, THE OBJECT IS ASSUMED TO BE SITUATED IN FIRST QUADRANT MEANS ABOVE HP & INFRONT OF VP. OBJECT IS INBETWEEN OBSERVER & PLANE. PP VP FV LSV Y X R FO . .V S FO R F.V . TV HP ACTUAL PATTERN OF PLANES & VIEWS IN FIRST ANGLE METHOD 12/18/13 OF PROJECTIONS Hareesha N G, DSCE, Blore 8
- 9. THIRD ANGLE PROJECTION FOR T.V. IN THIS METHOD, THE OBJECT IS ASSUMED TO BE SITUATED IN THIRD QUADRANT ( BELOW HP & BEHIND OF VP. ) PLANES BEING TRANSPERENT AND INBETWEEN OBSERVER & OBJECT. TV X Y LSV FV ACTUAL PATTERN OF PLANES & VIEWS OF THIRD ANGLE PROJECTIONS 12/18/13 R FO . .V S Hareesha N G, DSCE, Blore FO R F.V . 9
- 10. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS OF POINTS, LINES, PLANES, AND SOLIDS. To draw projections of any object, One must have ollowing information A) OBJECT { WITH IT’S DESCRIPTION, WELL DEFINED.} B) OBSERVER { ALWAYS OBSERVING PERPENDICULAR TO RESP. REF.PLANE}. C) LOCATION OF OBJECT, { MEANS IT’S POSITION WITH REFFERENCE TO H.P. & V.P.} Terms ‘above’ & ‘below’ with respective to H.P. And terms ‘infront’ & ‘behind’ with respective to V.P Form 4 quadrants. Objects can be placed in any one of these 4 quadrants. . 12/18/13 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Blore 10
- 11. NOTATIONS FOLLOWING NOTATIONS SHOULD BE FOLLOWED WHILE NAMEING DIFFERENT VIEWS IN ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS. OBJECT POINT A LINE AB IT’S TOP VIEW a ab IT’S FRONT VIEW a’ a’ b’ IT’S SIDE VIEW a” a” b” SAME SYSTEM OF NOTATIONS SHOULD BE FOLLOWED INCASE NUMBERS, LIKE 1, 2, 3 – ARE USED. 12/18/13 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Blore 11
- 12. VP 2 nd Quad. 1ST Quad. Y Observer HP X Y X 3rd Quad. 4th Quad. This quadrant pattern, If observed along x-y line ( in red arrow direction) Will exactly appear as shown on right side and hence, It is further used to understand illustration properly. 12/18/13 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Blore 12
- 13. Point A is Placed In different quadrants and it’s Fv & Tv are brought in same plane for Observer to see clearly. Fv is visible as it is a view on VP. But as Tv is is a view on Hp, it is rotated downward 900, In clockwise direction.The In front part of Hp comes below xy line and the part behind Vp comes above. Observe and note the process. 12/18/13 POINT A IN 2ND QUADRANT A POINT A IN 1ST QUADRANT VP a’ VP a’ A a HP HP OBSERVER OBSERVER a a HP HP A POINT A IN RD 3 QUADRANT OBSERVER OBSERVER a a’ a’ VP VP Hareesha N G, DSCE, Blore A POINT A IN 4TH QUADRANT 13
- 14. PROJECTIONS OF A POINT IN FIRST QUADRANT. POINT A ABOVE HP & INFRONT OF VP For Tv For Tv PICTORIAL PRESENTATION a’ A Y X POINT A IN HP & INFRONT OF VP POINT A ABOVE HP & IN VP a’ A Y For Fv For Fv Y a’ a X X a For Tv PICTORIAL PRESENTATION A a For Fv ORTHOGRAPHIC PRESENTATIONS OF ALL ABOVE CASES. Fv above xy, Tv below xy. Fv above xy, Tv on xy. VP Fv on xy, Tv below xy. VP a’ X VP a’ Y X a Y a’ X a a HP 12/18/13 Y HP Hareesha N G, DSCE, Blore HP 14

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