Article on electric vehicles


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Article on electric vehicles

  1. 1. Drive with Electric Vehicles The Electric Vehicle segment has gained importance in India, as the nation is looking into altemative options of energy efficient transportation solutions. This segment has gained importance because it is an environment-friendly, non-polluting means of transport. In addition , there is hardly any maintenance cost for EV’s and spare parts are inexpensive and therefore affordable. Additionally, the Government is also proving subsidies to this segment in order to encourage more people to buy these vehicles. Hero Electric, a 100 per cent subsidiary of the Hero Group, has been a major player in the Indian Electric Vehicle industry, With a background of extensive research in the EV segment, Hero Electric entered the Electric Vehicle segment with the single- minded objective of providing eco-friendly, cost-effective mode of personalised transportation with its range of Electric Scooters, Maxi and Optima Plus. Over a short period of time, Hero Electric has been quick in establishing itself as an undisputed leader in the Electric Two wheeler segment. It is quite evident from Hero Electric Corporate positioning “save Money, Save the Earth” that it aims to be the best in providing economical and zero pollutiontransportation in the country. Mr. Naveen Munjal, Managing Director, Hero Electric and President-Society of Manufacturers ofElectric Vehicles (SMEV) adds, “Electric Vehicles are the answer to problems like pollution. Dependency on fossil fuels.Thesurest way to reduce pollution within city limits is to push the sale of Electric Vehicles. The Government can give a boost tothe EV Industry through subsidies and police measures on the likes of Delhi Government, which has provided a subsidy of 29.5per cent on EVs in Delhi”. Mr Sohinder Gill, Chief Executive Officer – Hero Electric further adds, “Electric Vehicles are committedto the ecological platform. Government support is the answer to many of the challenges faced by the EV industry. TheGovernment has initiated steps to kick-start the Electric Drive but an even more strong support is the call of the day. Incentivesfrom the Government will help and motivate consumers to switch to electric vehicles, and in the process, help these states intheir drive to be environment friendly. Hero Electric is committed to work at all levels to ensure that Electric two-wheelers gettheir due importance as safe, pollution free and economical mode of transport.”Hero Electric Scooters are 60 per cent cheaperthen the equivalent petrol scooters on the total cost of ownership. For example, on a typical usage of 60 km per day, HeroElectric scooters saves more than Rs 12,000/- per year compared to the petrol driven scooter. Hero Electric has been a pioneerin the India EV space with lot of first only initiatives credited to its name. Hero Electric was the first EV Manufacturer to launchthe concept of ‘Charging Stations’ for Electric two-wheelers in Delhi and first of its kind in India. It is the first Manufacturer tolaunch the Electric Bike Assistance – Door Step Service for electric two wheeler in Delhi and first of its kind in India. At presentthe distribution and servicing network comprises of over 260 exclusive sales and service outlets across the country and thecompany will be adding 100 more in the coming fiscal year.Hero Electric explores global markets for low-speed e-bikesHero Electric has begun exploring international markets for its low-speed electric two-wheelers,even as it tests its high-speed (45 km) bike for the domestic market.According to Mr Sohinder Gill, CEO, Hero Electric, e-bikes built for Indian road conditions woulddo well in Africa. There is also an opportunity in Canada and European markets where lead-acidbattery-powered bikes are allowed. Newer vehicles in developed markets run on the moreexpensive and efficient lithium-ion batteries.The Hero Group company hopes to sell 25,000-30,000 bikes this year, up 40 per cent from lastyear. Its plant has an annual capacity of 120,000 units.Mr Gill, who also serves as the Director of Corporate Affairs for the Society of Manufacturers ofElectric Vehicles (SMEV), says electric vehicles are growing at 30 per cent from its current smallbase. But manufacturers won’t survive without government support.Duty structuresThe SMEV wants duty structures rationalised and a 25 per cent subsidy on purchase of all electric vehicles for two to threeyears. “Every country has offered subsidies of 30-50 per cent during the ‘seeding’ stage of the industry,” he says. Encouraged by
  2. 2. India’s recent commitment towards solar energy, the SMEV is banking on the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy to dosomething for electric vehicles too. It also wants the Government to set up rapid charging stations.Excise duty and counterailing duty (CVD) was removed last year, but only on completely built units. “While the move was well-intended it only benefited traders importing bikes from China. The organised sector, accounting for 55 per cent of e-vehicles,continues to pay a CVD of 10 per cent on motors, batteries and control panels it imports,” says Mr Gill. The SMEV has taken thematter up with the Finance Ministry and is hoping the duties will be rectified in its favour.It also wants the Value Added Tax reduced, in line with the Central VAT Committee Rules that call for a lower VAT on energysaving products. Over the last six months, the SMEV has managed to persuade 10 States to lower the VAT from 12.5% to 4%.VAT on e-vehicles is zero in Uttarakhand and New Delhi. “Zero road tax and a 13 per cent subsidy in the Capital, has broughtdown the cost of an electric vehicle to 60 per cent of their petrol equivalent and helped sales,” says Mr Gill.“A low-speed scooter saves Rs 12,000 a year, and is still cheaper to own even if you take into account the battery replacementcost of Rs 6,500,” he adds. Domestic battery and motor manufacturers are being persuaded to start supply but given the smallvolumes, they are reluctant. Two-wheelers in India and VietNam: Market Analysis and EnvironmentalImpactsDate: November 2009Type: BooksCountry: India; Viet NamSubject: Energy; Transport and ICTISBN: 978-971-561-873-1 (print)
  3. 3. DescriptionWhile the use of electric two-wheelers has increased in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) in the past decade, such unparalleledgrowth has not extended beyond the PRCs borders to countries, such as India and Viet Nam, where environmentally detrimentalgasoline motorcycles dominate. This report documents market conditions in Ahmedabad, India, and Ha Noi, Viet Nam, to explainwhy this is so, and analyzes the potential environmental impact of electric two-wheelers to show how they could chart a path towardsustainable transport in these and other countries in the region.While the use of electric two-wheelers has increased in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) in the past decade, such unparalleledgrowth has not extended beyond the PRCs borders to countries, such as India and Viet Nam, where environmentally detrimentalgasoline motorcycles dominate. This report documents market conditions in Ahmedabad, India, and Ha Noi, Viet Nam, to explainwhy this is so, and analyzes the potential environmental impact of electric two-wheelers to show how they could chart a path towardsustainable transport in these and other countries in the region.Contents Acknowledgments Executive Summary Introduction Market Analysis Environmental Impacts Conclusions Appendix 1: Logit Modeling Formulation Appendix 2: Electric Vehicle Emission Rate Estimation Appendix 3: Market Analysis
  4. 4., Belgium - The electric bike is expected to become a ”mainstream product” in 2009.2008′s faltering economic outlook and sky-high fuel prices provided a boost for the segment because of increased consumer awareness and interest.The LEV (light electric vehicles), including electric bicycles, will also be one of the focal points at Taipei Cycle 2009, a trade show in China.The e-Bike industry is looking forward to the introduction of the new EN 15194 standard for „Electronically Power Assisted Cycles‟ (EPAC). This willtake place on April 30 , 2009.Here is the complete EPAC implementation time table. January 14th, 2009 was the date when the definitive text for EN 15194 was sent to all European National Standards Bodies and was accepted by them. Sixth month after the acceptance of the definitive text all European National Standards Bodies will have implemented the standard as national standard and any previous national standards shall be withdrawn before this date. This date is July 31st 2009. The date of announcement by which the standard shall go into force is April 30th, 2009. The standard will be announced by the European National Standards Bodies and the text of the complete EN 15194 standard for „Electronically Power Assisted Cycles‟ (EPAC) will be available at the National Standards Bodies in the various European countries.The implementation of the CE standard varies by country. In some European countries the CE standard is compulsory by law, while in other countriesit is just a part of the European product safety ruling.At Taipei Cycle an E-Bike Forum was held in Conference Room 402 at the TWTC Nangang Exhibition Hall 4F on March 18, the show‟s second day. Atall days of the Taipei Cycle show, the ExtraEnergy Test track was open for test rides on electric bikes and scooters of various manufacturers. Just likelast year, the test course included a spectacular 100m long incline to feel the real benefit of an electric bike.EnergyBus and BATSO were both present at a joint booth with ITRI. Interested industry representatives could make appointments here for privatemeetings on both items.A 2-hour information session on each, EnergyBus and BATSO, were planned for March 19, 2009.Tags: bicycle, bicycles, bike forum, bike industry, bikes, brussels belgium, china, consumer awareness,consumers, definitive text, ebike, electric bicycles, electric bike, electricity, epac, exhibition hall,implementation time, july 31st, light electric vehicles, liking, mainstreamproduct, national standards bodies, News, s, scooter, scooters, segment, segments, taipei cycle, test course, test rides, test track,twtcRelated News China’s EPA Subsidizes Electric Bikes Electric Bike Sales Picking Up in Brisbane Electric Bikes Vs Engine Powered Bikes Dirt Rider Test-Rides the Zero-X Go Go Gocyle in England
  5. 5. electric bike is not the same thing as an electric scooter or motorcycle.The difference is rather obvious – an electric bike has pedals! This enables the rider to pedal and get some exercise, using the motor only when facedwith a long uphill climb, or when just a little bit more speed is wanted for some reason.An electric bike is a vehicle that is subject to the rules of the road. (So is a standard bicycle, for that matter.) Because we want electric bikes to beaccepted, we must know the rules of the road and follow them. Otherwise, tickets and outraged motorists will be left in our wake!The location where you purchase your electric bike should be able to give you a manual for the rules of the road – or more likely will point you to thewebsite where they are posted. Ignorance of the rules is no excuse when it comes to the police – they will ticket you for breaking them.Because an electric bike has a bit more power than a regular bike, it‟s easier to use it as a shopping transport vehicle. But many people ride them justas they would their normal bikes, just for pleasure, although, again, secure in the knowledge that if they come to a monster hill, they won‟t have to killthemselves getting to the top of it.Indeed, that is the only drawback to an electric bicycle – the weight. A battery pack currently weighs about 17 pounds. Well, think of how strong yourlegs will get pedaling all that extra weight around.In addition, an electric bike can be solar powered. Think of how sweet that would be. The solar panels would be in the wheels. The energy absorbedfrom the sun is transmitted to the battery where it is stored and used on demand. Such a battery would last a long, long time.Rather than purchase a brand new electric bike, why not start out by purchasing a “conversion kit” to turn your current bike into an electric one. Give ita try for a while, and see if you don‟t become hooked.Tags: battery pack, bicycle, bicycles, conversion kit, drawback, electric bicycle, electric bike, electric scooters, electricity, excuse, legs, littlebit, long long time, monster, motorcycle, motorists, pack,pleasure, rules of the road, s, scooter, scooters, Shop, shopping, solarpanels, sun, transport vehicle,uphill climb, weights, wheelsRelated News Electric Bike Sales Picking Up in Brisbane China’s EPA Subsidizes Electric Bikes Electric Bikes Go Mainstream Dirt Rider Test-Rides the Zero-X Colorado Commuters Save Money with Electric Bikes
  6. 6. 21st-century equivalent of the cavalry has come charging in to rescue cities in China and South Asia in their battles against airpollution and global warming. And its also beginning to help out on the traffic-choked streets in London, New York, São Paulo andLos Angeles.This is the electric bicycle, or "e-bike," a technology that blends the simplicity and mobility of a traditional bicycle with the speed ofa moped or motorized scooter, but without the internal combustion engine.Transportation experts say e-bikes -- along with electric cars, light-rail trains and more pedestrian-friendly cities -- could becomeone of the primary drivers of cleaner air and reduced global greenhouse emissions across much of the urbanized world, with China,India and Southeast Asia leading the fight to clear the air."The bicycle is an enormously efficient vehicle," said Ed Benjamin, managing director of eCycleElectric, a consulting firm to the lightelectric vehicle industry with offices in the United States, China and Taiwan. "The rolling resistance is minimal. They cost very littlein terms of materials and the energy needed to build them compared to other vehicles. They dont require gasoline and can beparked almost anywhere." Commuting becomes electric in Suzhou, China. Photo courtesy of eCycleElectric"The problem," Benjamin added, "is we could say a bicycle is only good for healthy, strong people who are willing to get out in theweather. And there are large populations around the world that dont fall into that category."Still, e-bikes -- defined as two-wheeled vehicles equipped with a traditional bicycle drivetrain but enhanced with an electric motorcapable of propelling a bike as fast as 20 mph -- have solved the mobility problem for hundreds of millions around the world.In China alone, more than 100 million e-bikes have been sold over the past decade, accounting for "the single largest adoption ofalternative fuel vehicles in history," said Christopher Cherry, a University of Tennessee engineering professor and leading sch olar one-bikes.In addition to being light and relatively inexpensive, e-bikes are also more climate-friendly than other modes of transportation,including gasoline- or diesel-powered cars and buses, and even electric passenger vehicles. In fact, carbon dioxide emissions for aChinese e-bike are about one-tenth of what is emitted by a conventional electric car, when factoring in the electricity source neededto power the cars much larger batteries, according to research published recently by Cherry and colleague Shuguang Ji.Yet despite their many positive attributes, e-bikes have been slow to win favor with consumers outside Asia, and they represent atiny fraction of total U.S. bicycle sales. In the United States last year, official tallies show e-bike sales of 80,000 units, according todata compiled by Electric Bikes Worldwide Reports. That compares to 30 million e-bikes sold last year in China, 1.4 million in India,400,000 in Europe and 300,000 to 350,000 in Japan.
  7. 7. Pedal-prone people grow olderWhile no two countries or regions have the same set of factors driving the adoption of e-bikes, most share a few things in common-- namely urban congestion, a lack of sufficient parking for cars and a cultural acceptance of two-wheeled vehicles as a viable formof daily transportation.Throughout much of Europe, where the modern bicycle was invented in Germany around 1818, "the population is generally gettingolder and less mobile, but these are people who have ridden bicycles their entire lives," said Benjamin. "So the idea of bein g able togo longer distance at faster speeds, but still doing it on a bike, has broad appeal."Chinas e-bike explosion dates to the mid-1990s, when large cities like Beijing and Shanghai adopted strict anti-pollution measuresto alleviate some of the worlds worst urban air quality. The country has its own cultural bond to two-wheeled transit.In the 1860s, bicycles ridden mostly by foreign businessmen, students and missionaries began plying the streets of Chinas portcities, eventually spreading to interior cities and provincial capitals. But only after 1949, with the founding of the Peoples Republicof China, did bicycling see the kind of explosion that made for the popular image of Chinese thoroughfares jammed curb to curbwith bikes.According to bicycle historian Amir Moghaddass Esfehani, Chinas Communist Party leaders embraced the bicycle industry bymerging small manufacturers into national firms, giving the industry preferential allowances of rationed materials and providingsubsidies to Chinese workers to purchase bikes.Cherry, the University of Tennessee engineering professor, said that while traditional bicycles remain part of the transportation mix,Chinese consumers have embraced the e-bike with revolutionary zeal. On recent trips to cities like Shanghai and Beijing, Cherrysaid, thoroughfares that used to carry a mix pedestrians and bicycles have become "veritable rivers of e-bikes."As clean as it gets?That transition, experts say, has netted huge benefits for Chinas urban air quality and has helped rein in greenhouse gas emissionsfrom the countrys transportation sector.Recent research published by Cherry and colleagues in the journal Environmental Science & Technology identified e-bikes as theleast-polluting form of motorized transportation in China, with significantly lower emissions of fine particulates (PM 2.5) andgreenhouse gases than even conventional electric vehicles (EVs), when accounting for the source of electricity used to charge thecars larger batteries.While Chinas electricity sector is not uniform -- with some regions relying more on hydropower than on fossil fuels -- it remains, onthe whole, dominated by coal plants that emit millions of tons of pollutants per year. Battery-powered substitute for the family car. Photo courtesy of eCycleElectricAccording to Cherrys recent study comparing vehicle emissions in 34 Chinese cities, carbon dioxide emissions from both internalcombustion vehicles and EVs were an order of magnitude higher than those for e-bikes, which average just 250 watts and can be
  8. 8. charged overnight using a standard wall plug. Conventional vehicle emissions came directly from tailpipes, while those associatedwith EVs come from power plant smokestacks, often located outside cities.The result, he said, is that some urban areas are experiencing cleaner air conditions because the emissions-free electric vehicles aremoving pollutants from city streets to power plants, but that the countrys overall pollution budget remains unchanged or evenslightly higher due to the additional generation by coal plants."Hands down, electric bikes are about as clean as it gets in terms of addressing these primary pollutants," he said.To be sure, there are some downsides. Critics have noted that 95-plus percent of e-bike motors produced in China today rely onlead-acid batteries, which until recently were discarded as trash when they wore out, according to Benjamin. A gradual shift towardlithium-ion batteries, combined with an aggressive campaign by Chinese government officials to encourage battery recycling, hashelped, but concerns about lead pollution persist in some areas.And in some Chinese cities, where e-bike riders are vying for lane space with cars, traditional bikes and pedestrians, sometimesthere are disastrous results. According to Chinese government data, the death toll from accidents involving e-bikes reached morethan 3,600 in 2009, compared with 2,500 in 2007.While some cities -- including Beijing and Shenzhen -- have responded to public safety concerns with e-bike bans, most have beenpoorly enforced or scrapped after the measures had little effect on e-bike ridership, Benjamin said.Last March, the Chinese national government began enforcing decade-old standards requiring that e-bikes weigh no more than 40kilograms (88 pounds) with top speeds of no more than 20 kilometers per hour (12.4 mph). Any e-bikes that exceeded those limitswould be deemed substandard and be subject to confiscation.U.S. consumers catch on, but slowlyIn the United States, where e-bikes have captured a tiny niche within the larger bicycle industry, the challenge is convincing bicyclepurists about e-bikes and converting users from strictly recreational riders into commuters for work or personal business.Larry Pizzi, president of Chatsworth, Calif.-based Currie Technologies, the largest e-bike distributor in the United States, said the e-bike industry saw a sizable boost in 2008, when gasoline prices in the United States soared to nearly $4 per gallon. That trendrepeated itself in 2011 as gas prices soared again, and could happen again this summer if pump prices go up."I think there is a growing interest, particularly among urban dwellers, that is directly linked to the cost of gasoline," Pizzi said. Atthe same time, he said, urbanites are seeking more convenient ways to navigate city streets and sidewalks without the hassle andcost of parking a motorcycle or full-size vehicle.Benjamin said urban planners and developers are increasingly discussing how to efficiently move people to their workplaces,shopping districts, parks and other places that are within commuting distance but are not walkable due to terrain, weather or otherobstacles."This is what transportation planners now call the first-kilometer vehicle," Benjamin said. "We used to drive those kinds ofdistances, and we touted the idea of inexpensive automobile transportation. But those three words dont fit together anymore."Not surprisingly, experts say the early adopters of e-bikes in the United States are people living in high-density areas such as NewYork, Los Angeles and Chicago, as well as in bicycle-friendly cities with hilly terrain such as San Francisco and Seattle.E-bikes are also being deployed by police departments -- Los Angeles has police officers on 26 e-bikes -- and on traffic-chokedcollege campuses such as the University of Tennessee, where Cherry and his associates have piloted a program to get students andfaculty out of their cars and onto motorized bikes.Pizzi said the U.S. market for e-bikes also includes many older Generation Xers and Baby Boomers who seek a recreational bicyclefor short trips and mild exercise. "Their initial intent is to buy the e-bike to have fun recreationally, but what inevitably happens isthey seed how easy and practical it is to use it for other things," Pizzi said. "They begin to use it for neighborhood transportation."Cost remains a factor for e-bike adopters in the United States. An entry-level e-bike sold by Currie Technologies -- with most of itscomponents coming from China -- runs around $1,000, roughly three times more than a conventional bicycle of equal quality, Pizzisaid. Higher-end e-bikes, such as those used by the Los Angeles Police Department, can fetch as much as $5,000 per unit.
  9. 9. Even so, "almost every nation in the world has been exploring the idea of electric bikes," said Benjamin. And as Chinese productioncontinues to scale up, with exports to as many as 200 countries last year, theres little reason to think the technology wont takehold elsewhere, including the United States.