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CHAPTER - 6
COMBUSTION AND FLAME
1) Combustible substances :-
Substances which burn in air to produce heat and
light are called combustible substances.
Eg :- wood, coal, charcoal, kerosene, petrol,
diesel, liquified petroleum gas (LPG), compressed
natural gas (CNG) etc.
Wood Coal LPG Kerosene
2) Combustion :-
The chemical process in which a substance reacts with
oxygen to produce heat is called combustion.
The substance which undergoes combustion is called a
combustible substance. It is also called a fuel.
Sometimes light is also produced during combustion
either as a flame or as a glow.
Air is necessary for combustion.
3) Air is necessary for burning :-
(a) (b) (c)
Fix a lighted candle on a table. Put a glass chimney over the table and rest
it on a few wooden blocks in such a way so that air can enter the chimney.
Observe what happens to the flame.
Now remove the blocks and let the chimney rest on the table. Again
observe the flame.
Then put a glass plate over the chimney. Observe the flame again.
The candle burns freely in (a) because air enters the chimney from below.
The candle stops burning in (b) because air does not enter the chimney
from below.
The candle does not burn in (c) because air is not available.
This shows that air is necessary for burning.
4) Ignition temperature :-
The minimum temperature at which a substance catches fire and
burns is called its ignition temperature.
A substance will not catch fire and burn if its temperature is lower
than its ignition temperature.
Different substances have different ignition temperatures.
Eg:- The ignition temperature of kerosene is less than the ignition
temperature of wood.
Substances which have very low ignition temperature and can easily
catch fire with a flame are called inflammable substances. Eg:- petrol,
alcohol, LPG, CNG etc.
5) Conditions necessary for combustion :-
The conditions necessary for combustion are :-
i) Fuel.
ii) Air (to supply oxygen).
iii) Heat (to raise the temperature beyond the
ignition temperature.
A substance will not burn without one or more
of these conditions.
6) How do we control fire ?
The conditions necessary for producing fire are :-
i) Fuel
ii) Air (to supply oxygen)
iii) Heat (to raise the temperature of the fuel beyond its
ignition temperature).
Fire can be controlled by removing any one or more of these
conditions.
A fire extinguisher cuts off the supply of air or brings down the
temperature of the fuel or both and controls the fire.
7) Methods of controlling fire :-
i) By using water :-
Water is the most common fire extinguisher. It can be
used only when materials like wood , paper etc. are on fire.
Water cannot be used if electrical equipments are on fire
because water conducts electricity and can harm those
trying to put out the fire.
Water cannot be used to put out oil and petrol fires
because they float on water and continue to burn.
ii) By using carbon dioxide:-
Carbon dioxide is the best fire extinguisher to put out
fire caused by inflammable materials like oil and petrol and
electrical equipments. Carbon dioxide is heavier than air
and it covers the fire and cuts off the supply of oxygen and
puts out the fire.
Carbon dioxide is stored at high pressure as liquid in
cylinders. Chemicals like sodium bicarbonate (baking
soda), potassium bicarbonate produce carbon dioxide near
the fire.
8) Types of combustion :-
There are three main types of combustion. They are :-
i) Rapid combustion
ii) Spontaneous combustion
iii) Explosion
Rapid combustion:- is combustion in which a
substance burns rapidly and produces heat and light with
the help of external heat.
Eg:- burning of LPG
Spontaneous combustion:- is combustion in which
a substance burns spontaneously and produces heat and
light without the help of external heat.
Eg:- phosphorus burns spontaneously at room
temperature
Explosion:- is a combustion in which a substance
burns suddenly and produces heat, light and sound with
the help of heat or pressure.
Eg:- explosion of crackers on applying heat or
pressure.
Types of combustion
Rapid combustion
Spontaneous combustion
Explosion
9) Flame :-
Flame :- is the zone of combustion of a combustible
substance.
Substances which vapourise during burning produce
flames.
Eg:- kerosene, wax etc.
Substances which do not vapourise during burning do
not produce flames.
Eg:- coal, charcoal etc.
kerosene wax coal charcoal
Structure of a candle flame
Outer zone (blue)
Middle zone (yellow)
Inner zone (black)
(Complete combustion)
(Partial combustion)
Unburnt wax vapours
Hottest part
Moderately hot
Least hot
Luminous zone
Non luminous zone
10) Structure of a candle flame :-
A candle flame has three main zones. They are:-
i) Outer zone
ii) Middle zone
iii) Inner zone
In the outer zone complete combustion of the fuel takes
place and the colour of the flame is blue and is the hottest
part of the flame. It is the non luminous part of the flame.
In the middle zone partial combustion of the fuel takes
place and the colour of the flame is yellow and is
moderately hot part of the flame. It is the luminous part of
the flame.
In the inner zone there are unburnt vapours of the fuel and
the colour is black and is least hot part.
11) Types of fuels :-
Fuels are of three main types. They are :-
i) Solid fuels :- Eg:- wood, coal, charcoal etc.
ii) Liquid fuels :- Eg:- kerosene, petrol, diesel etc.
iii) Gaseous fuels :- Eg:- CNG, LPG, biogas, hydrogen etc.
Solid fuels Liquid fuels Gaseous fuels
12) Characteristics of a good fuel :-
The main characteristics of a good fuel
are :-
i) Is readily available.
ii) Is cheap.
iii) Is easy to store and transport.
iv) Burns at a moderate rate.
v) Produces a large amount of heat.
vi) Does not leave behind any undesirable
substances.
vii) Does not cause pollution.
13) Calorific value of a fuel :-
The calorific value of a fuel :- is the amount of heat
energy produced on complete combustion of 1 kg of a fuel.
The calorific valve of a fuel is expressed in
kilojoule per kg.
Calorific values of some fuels in kilojule per kg
Cowdung cake 6000 - 8000
Wood 17000 - 22000
Coal 25000 - 33000
Petrol 45000
Kerosene 45000
Diesel 45000
Methane 50000
CNG 50000
LPG 55000
Biogas 35000 - 40000
Hydrogen 150000
Hydrogen has the highest calorific value among all fuels.
14) Harmful effects on the environment due to
burning of fuels :-
i) Fuels like wood, coal, petroleum release unburnt carbon
particles which cause respiratory diseases like asthma.
ii) Incomplete combustion of fuels release carbon
monoxide gas which is a very poisonous gas which can
cause death.
iii) Burning of most fuels release carbon dioxide gas which
causes rise in the temperature of the atmosphere. This
is called global warming. It causes melting of polar ice,
rise in sea level and flooding of coastal areas.
iv) Burning of coal and petroleum release oxides of sulphur
and nitrogen which dissolve in rain water and forms
acid rain. It is harmful for crops, soil and damages
buildings.

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combustion and flame

  • 2. 1) Combustible substances :- Substances which burn in air to produce heat and light are called combustible substances. Eg :- wood, coal, charcoal, kerosene, petrol, diesel, liquified petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG) etc. Wood Coal LPG Kerosene
  • 3. 2) Combustion :- The chemical process in which a substance reacts with oxygen to produce heat is called combustion. The substance which undergoes combustion is called a combustible substance. It is also called a fuel. Sometimes light is also produced during combustion either as a flame or as a glow. Air is necessary for combustion.
  • 4. 3) Air is necessary for burning :- (a) (b) (c) Fix a lighted candle on a table. Put a glass chimney over the table and rest it on a few wooden blocks in such a way so that air can enter the chimney. Observe what happens to the flame. Now remove the blocks and let the chimney rest on the table. Again observe the flame. Then put a glass plate over the chimney. Observe the flame again. The candle burns freely in (a) because air enters the chimney from below. The candle stops burning in (b) because air does not enter the chimney from below. The candle does not burn in (c) because air is not available. This shows that air is necessary for burning.
  • 5. 4) Ignition temperature :- The minimum temperature at which a substance catches fire and burns is called its ignition temperature. A substance will not catch fire and burn if its temperature is lower than its ignition temperature. Different substances have different ignition temperatures. Eg:- The ignition temperature of kerosene is less than the ignition temperature of wood. Substances which have very low ignition temperature and can easily catch fire with a flame are called inflammable substances. Eg:- petrol, alcohol, LPG, CNG etc.
  • 6. 5) Conditions necessary for combustion :- The conditions necessary for combustion are :- i) Fuel. ii) Air (to supply oxygen). iii) Heat (to raise the temperature beyond the ignition temperature. A substance will not burn without one or more of these conditions.
  • 7. 6) How do we control fire ? The conditions necessary for producing fire are :- i) Fuel ii) Air (to supply oxygen) iii) Heat (to raise the temperature of the fuel beyond its ignition temperature). Fire can be controlled by removing any one or more of these conditions. A fire extinguisher cuts off the supply of air or brings down the temperature of the fuel or both and controls the fire.
  • 8. 7) Methods of controlling fire :- i) By using water :- Water is the most common fire extinguisher. It can be used only when materials like wood , paper etc. are on fire. Water cannot be used if electrical equipments are on fire because water conducts electricity and can harm those trying to put out the fire. Water cannot be used to put out oil and petrol fires because they float on water and continue to burn. ii) By using carbon dioxide:- Carbon dioxide is the best fire extinguisher to put out fire caused by inflammable materials like oil and petrol and electrical equipments. Carbon dioxide is heavier than air and it covers the fire and cuts off the supply of oxygen and puts out the fire. Carbon dioxide is stored at high pressure as liquid in cylinders. Chemicals like sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), potassium bicarbonate produce carbon dioxide near the fire.
  • 9. 8) Types of combustion :- There are three main types of combustion. They are :- i) Rapid combustion ii) Spontaneous combustion iii) Explosion Rapid combustion:- is combustion in which a substance burns rapidly and produces heat and light with the help of external heat. Eg:- burning of LPG Spontaneous combustion:- is combustion in which a substance burns spontaneously and produces heat and light without the help of external heat. Eg:- phosphorus burns spontaneously at room temperature Explosion:- is a combustion in which a substance burns suddenly and produces heat, light and sound with the help of heat or pressure. Eg:- explosion of crackers on applying heat or pressure.
  • 10. Types of combustion Rapid combustion Spontaneous combustion Explosion
  • 11. 9) Flame :- Flame :- is the zone of combustion of a combustible substance. Substances which vapourise during burning produce flames. Eg:- kerosene, wax etc. Substances which do not vapourise during burning do not produce flames. Eg:- coal, charcoal etc. kerosene wax coal charcoal
  • 12. Structure of a candle flame Outer zone (blue) Middle zone (yellow) Inner zone (black) (Complete combustion) (Partial combustion) Unburnt wax vapours Hottest part Moderately hot Least hot Luminous zone Non luminous zone
  • 13. 10) Structure of a candle flame :- A candle flame has three main zones. They are:- i) Outer zone ii) Middle zone iii) Inner zone In the outer zone complete combustion of the fuel takes place and the colour of the flame is blue and is the hottest part of the flame. It is the non luminous part of the flame. In the middle zone partial combustion of the fuel takes place and the colour of the flame is yellow and is moderately hot part of the flame. It is the luminous part of the flame. In the inner zone there are unburnt vapours of the fuel and the colour is black and is least hot part.
  • 14. 11) Types of fuels :- Fuels are of three main types. They are :- i) Solid fuels :- Eg:- wood, coal, charcoal etc. ii) Liquid fuels :- Eg:- kerosene, petrol, diesel etc. iii) Gaseous fuels :- Eg:- CNG, LPG, biogas, hydrogen etc. Solid fuels Liquid fuels Gaseous fuels
  • 15. 12) Characteristics of a good fuel :- The main characteristics of a good fuel are :- i) Is readily available. ii) Is cheap. iii) Is easy to store and transport. iv) Burns at a moderate rate. v) Produces a large amount of heat. vi) Does not leave behind any undesirable substances. vii) Does not cause pollution.
  • 16. 13) Calorific value of a fuel :- The calorific value of a fuel :- is the amount of heat energy produced on complete combustion of 1 kg of a fuel. The calorific valve of a fuel is expressed in kilojoule per kg. Calorific values of some fuels in kilojule per kg Cowdung cake 6000 - 8000 Wood 17000 - 22000 Coal 25000 - 33000 Petrol 45000 Kerosene 45000 Diesel 45000 Methane 50000 CNG 50000 LPG 55000 Biogas 35000 - 40000 Hydrogen 150000 Hydrogen has the highest calorific value among all fuels.
  • 17. 14) Harmful effects on the environment due to burning of fuels :- i) Fuels like wood, coal, petroleum release unburnt carbon particles which cause respiratory diseases like asthma. ii) Incomplete combustion of fuels release carbon monoxide gas which is a very poisonous gas which can cause death. iii) Burning of most fuels release carbon dioxide gas which causes rise in the temperature of the atmosphere. This is called global warming. It causes melting of polar ice, rise in sea level and flooding of coastal areas. iv) Burning of coal and petroleum release oxides of sulphur and nitrogen which dissolve in rain water and forms acid rain. It is harmful for crops, soil and damages buildings.