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  1. 1. TeAM YYePG08 2005 Digitally signed by TeAM YYePG DN: cn=TeAM YYePG, c=US, o=TeAM YYePG, ou=TeAM YYePG, Reason: I attest to the accuracy$ 9 .9 5 and integrity of this document Date: 2005.08.11 11:29:55 +0800A P U B L I C AT I O N O F T H E M C G R A W - H I L L C O M PA N I E S BIG ENOUGH FOR MILAN? FUKSAS DESIGNS A MILE-LONGw w w. a rc h it e ct u ra l re c o rd . c o m EXHIBITION HALL ALSO BIG AND BIGGER IN PARIS, GATESHEAD, AND LEIPZIG SPECIAL SECTION LIGHTING
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  6. 6. EDITOR IN CHIEF Robert Ivy, FAIA, MANAGING EDITOR Beth Broome, DESIGN DIRECTOR Anna Egger-Schlesinger, DEPUTY EDITORS Clifford A. Pearson, Suzanne Stephens, Charles Linn, FAIA, Profession and Industry, SENIOR EDITORS Sarah Amelar, sarah_ Sara Hart, sara_ Deborah Snoonian, P.E., William Weathersby, Jr., Jane F. Kolleeny, PRODUCTS EDITOR Rita Catinella Orrell, NEWS EDITOR Sam Lubell, DEPUTY ART DIRECTOR Kristofer E. Rabasca, ASSOCIATE ART DIRECTOR Clara Huang, PRODUCTION MANAGER Juan Ramos, WEB EDITOR Randi Greenberg, WEB DESIGN Susannah Shepherd, WEB PRODUCTION Laurie Meisel, EDITORIAL SUPPORT Linda Ransey, Monique Miller, COPY EDITOR Leslie Yudell ILLUSTRATOR I-ni Chen EDITORIAL ASSISTANTS Gregory Hafkin, Amanda Webb EDITOR AT LARGE James S. Russell, AIA, CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Raul Barreneche, Robert Campbell, FAIA, Andrea Oppenheimer Dean, David Dillon, Lisa Findley, Blair Kamin, Nancy Levinson, Thomas Mellins, Robert Murray, Sheri Olson, FAIA, Nancy B. Solomon, AIA, Michael Sorkin, Michael Speaks, Ingrid Spencer SPECIAL INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT Naomi R. Pollock, AIA INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENTS David Cohn, Claire Downey, Tracy Metz GROUP PUBLISHER James H. McGraw IV, VP, ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER Laura Viscusi, VP, MARKETING AND BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT David Johnson, VP, GROUP EDITORIAL DIRECTOR Robert Ivy, FAIA, GROUP DESIGN DIRECTOR Anna Egger-Schlesinger, DIRECTOR, CIRCULATION Maurice Persiani, Brian McGann, DIRECTOR, MARKETING COMMUNICATION Chris Meyer, DIRECTOR, MULTIMEDIA DESIGN & PRODUCTION Susan Valentini, MANAGER, ADVERTISING PRODUCTION Stephen R. Weiss, DIRECTOR, FINANCE Ike Chong, DIRECTOR, SPECIAL PROJECTS Charles Pinyan, REPRINTS Reprint Management Services, EDITORIAL OFFICES: 212/904-2594. Editorial fax: 212/904-4256. E-mail: Two Penn Plaza, New York, N.Y. 10121-2298. WEB SITE: SUBSCRIBER SERVICE: 877/876-8093 (U.S. only). 609/426-7046 (outside the U.S.). Subscriber fax: 609/426-7087. E-mail: AIA members must contact the AIA for address changes on their subscriptions. 800/242-3837. E-mail: INQUIRIES AND SUBMISSIONS: Letters, Robert Ivy; Practice, Charles Linn; Books, Deborah Snoonian; Record Houses and Interiors, Sarah Amelar; Products, Rita Catinella Orrell; Lighting and Interiors, William Weathersby, Jr.; Residential, Jane F. Kolleeny; Web Editorial, Randi Greenberg. ARCHITECTURAL RECORD: (ISSN 0003-858X) August 2005. Vol. 193, No. 08. Published monthly by The McGraw-Hill Companies, 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, N.Y. 10020. Periodicals postage paid at New York, N.Y. and additional mailing offices. Canada Post International Publications Mail Product Sales Agreement No. 40012501. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: DPGM Ltd., 2-7496 Bath Road, Mississauga, ON L4T 1L2. Email: Registered for GST as The McGraw-Hill Companies. GST No. R123075673. Postmaster: Please send address changes to ARCHITECTURAL RECORD, Fulfillment Manager, P.O. 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THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS 2005 BOARD OF DIRECTORS • OFFICERS: Douglas L Steidl, FAIA, MRAIC, President; Kate Schwennsen, FAIA, First Vice President; Shannon Kraus, AIA, Vice President; Thomas R. Mathison, FAIA, Vice President; RK Stewart, FAIA, Vice President; John C. Senhauser, FAIA, Secretary; James A. Gatsch, FAIA, Treasurer; Ana Guerra, Associate AIA, Associate Representative to the AIA Executive Committee; Saundra Stevens, Hon. AIA, CACE Representative to the AIA Executive Committee; Norman L. Koonce, FAIA, Executive Vice President/CEO. • REGIONAL DIRECTORS: Peter J. Arsenault, AIA, NCARB, LEED AP; Douglas E. Ashe, AIA; Michel C. Ashe, AIA; Ronald J. Battaglia, FAIA; William D. Beyer, FAIA; Michael Broshar, AIA; David J. Brotman, FAIA; Randy Byers, AIA; Tommy Neal Cowan, FAIA; Jacob Day; Jeremy Edmunds, Associate AIA, LEED AP; Glenn H. Fellows, AIA; Robert D. Fincham, AIA; Jonathan L. Fischel, AIA; Marion L. Fowlkes, FAIA; Saul Gonzalez; The Hon. Jeremy Harris, Hon. AIA; John J. Hoffmann, FAIA; William E. Holloway, AIA; Clark Llewellyn, AIA; Marvin J. Malecha, FAIA; Clark D. Manus, FAIA; Linda McCracken-Hunt, AIA; Carl F. Meyer, FAIA; George H. Miller, FAIA; Elizabeth E. Mitchell; Hal P. Munger, AIA; Robin L. Murray, AIA, PP; Celeste A. Novak, AIA, LEED AP; Gordon N. Park, CDS, AIA; David R. Proffitt, AIA; Marshall E. Purnell, FAIA; Miguel A. Rodriguez, AIA; Jerry K. Roller, AIA, NCARB; Jeffrey Rosenblum, AIA; Robert I. Selby, FAIA; Norman Strong, FAIA; Leslie J. Thomas, AIA; J. Benjamin Vargas, AIA; Bryce A. Weigand, FAIA. • AIA MANAGEMENT COUNCIL: Norman L. Koonce, FAIA, Executive Vice President/CEO; James Dinegar, CAE, Chief Operating Officer; Richard J. James, CPA, Chief Financial Officer; Jay A. Stephens, Esq., General Counsel; Helene Combs Dreiling, FAIA, Team Vice President, AIA Community; Ronald A. Faucheux, PhD, Esq., Team Vice President, AIA Government Advocacy; Barbara Sido, CAE, Team Vice President, AIA Knowledge; Elizabeth Stewart, Esq., Team Vice President, AIA Public Advocacy; David Downey, CAE, Assoc. AIA, Managing Director, AIA Communities by Design; Suzanne Harness, AIA, Esq., Managing Director and Counsel, AIA Contract Documents; Richard L. Hayes, Ph.D., RAIC, AIA, CAE, Managing Director, AIA Knowledge Resources; Brenda Henderson, Hon. AIA, Managing Director, AIA Component Relations; Christine M. Klein, Managing Director, AIA Meetings; Carol Madden, Managing Director, AIA Membership Services; Philip D. O’Neal, Managing Director, AIA CIRCLE 3 ON READER SERVICE CARD OR GO Technology; C.D. Pangallo, EdD, Managing Director, AIA Continuing Education; Terence J. Poltrack, Managing Director, AIA Communications; Phil Simon, Managing Director,TO ARCHRECORD.CONSTRUCTION.COM/PRODUCTS/ AIA Marketing and Promotion; Laura Viehmyer, SPHR, CEBS, CAE, Chief Human Resources Officer. 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  11. 11. ©2005 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved. Adobe, the Adobe logo, Acrobat, the Adobe PDF logo and Better by Adobe are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States and / or other countries. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. BE A
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  13. 13. Never Follow audiusa.comYou may need to build a Bauhaus garage.The Audi A6, 2005’s World Car of the Year, demonstrates the ideal unity between art andtechnology. With available quattro® all-wheel drive, advanced FSI® engine technologyand an engaging interior, the A6 is at the pinnacle of its class. It’s greater to lead than follow.“Audi,” “Never Follow,” “A6,” “quattro,” “FSI” and the four rings emblem are registered trademarks of AUDI AG. ©2005 Audi of America, Inc.World Car of the Year information available at
  14. 14. 08.2005 On the Cover: Milan Trade Fair, by Studio Fuksas. Photograph by Giuseppe Blengini/Studio Fuksas Right: The Sage Gateshead, by Foster and Partners. Photograph by Richard Bryant/ARCAID News Building Types Study 848 23 Redesigned Freedom Tower will be sleeker, safer* 117 Introduction: Colleges and Universities by Deborah Snoonian, P.E. 28 London begins plans for 2012 Olympics* 118 Joseph A. Steger Student Life Center, Ohio by Jayne Merkel* Moore Ruble Yudell Architects & Planners Departments 124 Harvard Science Center Expansion, Massachusetts 17 Editorial: Three Little Letters* by Deborah Snoonian, P.E.* Leers Weinzapfel Associates Architects 19 Letters* 130 Evergreen Seminar II Building, Washington by John Pastier* 47 Archrecord2: For the emerging architect by Randi Greenberg* Mahlum Architects 51 Critique: A home for political football by Michael Sorkin 134 Chandler-Gilbert Student Center, Arizona by Clifford A. Pearson* 55 Snapshot: The Craigieburn Bypass by Beth Broome Architekton209 Dates & Events*231 Record House of the Month by James S. Russell, AIA* For six additional college or university projects, go to Building Types Study at Features Architectural Technology 60 Saving the Early Modernist Cottages of Cape Cod by Mildred F. Schmertz, FAIA 155 A New Era for Fire Protection and Life Safety by Sara Hart* Preservationists strive to save an enclave of Modernist homes. While codes and standards are updated, buildings are still rising. 68 Is There Hope for the Big Box? by Sam Lubell 163 Tech Briefs by Deborah Snoonian, P.E.* Retailers are beginning to up the design ante for behemoth stores. Lighting Projects 155 Introduction by William Weathersby, Jr. 89 Introduction by Suzanne Stephens* 156 Escada at GUM by William Weathersby, Jr. 82 Central Building, BMW Plant, Germany by Raul A. Barreneche* Ansorg Zaha Hadid Architects 160 Cocoon Club by John Peter Radulski A building harnesses motion and brings people and cars together. 3deluxe 92 Milan Trade Fair, Italy by Paul Bennett* 168 Morongo Casino Resort and Spa by William Weathersby, Jr. Studio Fuksas Visual Terrain Steel and glass drape a convention center for trade and fashion. 177 Euroluce Show Review by William Weathersby, Jr.100 Renault Square Com, France by Philip Jodidio* 180 Lighting Products by Rita Catinella Orrell Jakob + MacFarlane A vast factory shed becomes a vibrant communications center. Products106 The Sage Gateshead, England by Suzanne Stephens* 187 Landscape Options Foster and Partners 191 Product Briefs Tethered to the Tyne River, this gleaming performing arts center 201 Product Literature promises to transform an industrial region into an arts mecca. 216 Reader Service* 216 AIA/CES Self-Report Form* * You can find these stories at, including expanded coverage of Projects, Building Types Studies, and AR is the proud recipient of a Web-only special features. National Magazine Award for General Excellence 08.05 Architectural Record 13
  15. 15. Visit us at August 2005 Building Types Study College and university building remains strong, and planners are looking closely at how new projects contribute to the overall feel of a campus. See the projects in our magazine and six additional projects exclusive to the Web. Sponsored byPhoto ©: Steven Evans Project: Schulich School of Business and Executive Learning Centre, York UniversityArchitect: Hariri Pontarini Architects Letters to the Editor Quarterly Lighting Our June feature “After We’re darting across Theory” by Michael Speaks international datelines to has raised a lot of eyebrows report on how designers and has garnered many around the world are responses. We’re publishing tackling diverse lighting several of the letters on our challenges. Peruse projects Web site. Find out what other from Moscow, Frankfurt, readers have to say on the and Palm Springs. topic of the value of theory. Courtesy Escada archrecord2 Residential WebInsider Discover the many As we celebrate 50 years Go to our Web site facets of the design firm of Record Houses, we and sign up for the Miloby Ideasystem. invite you to visit a vintage WebInsider, your Also, have a closer look Record House each monthly guide to at an architectural spin month in 2005. This what’s new and on fashion—a wallpaper- month we take another engaging on clothing combo. look at Gordon Bunshaft’s Architectural Record’s East Hampton house. Web site. Sponsored byWalldrobe/WearpaperCourtesy Ben Pell connecting people_projects_products Find us online at
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  18. 18. Three Little Letters Editorial By Robert Ivy, FAIA A s if we didn’t have enough initials to keep up with, three little let- one to choose? Twin, simultaneous speakers often vied for attention, as did ters now demand remembering. You may never have heard of the multiple panelists presenting academic papers, scattered across the cityscape. Union Internationale des Architectes, or U.I.A., but don’t remain Yet the real draw lay not in the substance of the remarks (who, ignorant. This international organization, which holds a large gathering after all, will remember exactly what Odile Decq said, except “to resist”), but every three years, purports to represent the worldwide community of archi- in the mélange. Chance encounters with colleagues known and unknown, tects and their shared interests, a tall order in an increasingly global, though the extended conversations over cocktails, the disjunctures that brought small fractured, civilization. The U.I.A.’s recently concluded triennial Congress and shocks of recognition, all added up to a broad, if incoherent overview of this Assembly, which was held in Istanbul, Turkey, from July 3 to 10, deserves a confluence of people and ideas. That conceit worked. Such collisions pro- retrospective look from both sides of the Bosphorus. duced their own palpable power. First, a bit of background. Founded in 1948, the organization has Architects naturally took to the streets of the Byzantine and wobbled from initially lofty goals to the present, with varying degrees of efficacy. Ottoman capital, where, enraptured beneath the sublime dome of the archi- In the past decade, its proceedings have occasionally seemed centered on arcane tect Sinan’s Suleymaniye Mosque, they could look over and spy another legalisms, though in fact, many topics have been of import to architects every- transfixed architecture-lover, and a conversation might ensue. Mutual where. Like the United Nations, the subject matter has sometimes been occluded appreciation—of the great treasury of architecture and urbanity—further by polemics, by political posturing and U.S. bashing, and plagued with finan- strengthened incipient bonds. cial woes (who pays for this uber-organization?). Few serious designers have Delegates at the assembly’s final three days, which constitutes a given the U.I.A more than a lazy glance, but the world has changed. gathering of representatives of the national member associations, reported This July witnessed a kind of perceptual shift, a subjective realiza- that, despite initial political posturing, events proceeded more smoothly than tion that the congress had been vivified. Attendance provided a key indicator: in the past. A new president, Gaetan Siew from Mauritius, will take the helm, In 2005, energy fairly crackled around the gathering, as upwards of 7,500 leading the organization through its next great assembly in Turin, Italy, in architects flew into Istanbul for a weeklong, self-styled architectural bazaar. 2008. Tokyo will follow three years later. Dashikis, saris, and fezzes blended with blue jeans in a buzzing polyphony At a time when international commerce seems white-hot, and all emblematic of the disparate character of the participants. architects want to work in each other’s backyards, the need for places of Youth added to the buzz, mobbing keynote speakers such as debate and discourse, in matters as lofty as the future of our cities or asP H OTO G R A P H Y : © A N D R É S O U R O U J O N Michael Sorkin and Moshe Safdie, FAIA, like rock stars after each perform- thorny as professional reciprocity, will only increase. We encourage the ance, and peppering them with bids for attention. Holding the congress increasing maturation of international organizations like the U.I.A., with its adjacent to the nation’s preeminent architecture school, the Istanbul blend of academia, youth, socializing, and locale, and we are already book- Technical University, enriched proceedings too often dominated by 40- ing our tickets to Italy for the next round. somethings. Kids were everywhere. Organizers, including the current president, Turkish-born Suha Ozkan, Hon. AIA, as well as the 26,400 members of the Chamber of Architects of Turkey, served up a wealth of programmatic offerings in a vari- ety of locales, providing a disconcerting range of events at any time. Which 08.05 Architectural Record 17
  20. 20. LettersLeave theory alone their revenge in the next cycle. And dot matrix printer is theoretically Commentary, and Ideology. Speaks DEPARTMENTSThe architecture coverage in the there is no way for our sophisticated much more efficient for the innova- urges us to jettison “theory” andJune issue was thoroughly engag- architectural culture not to be theo- tive small practice. One can argue concentrate on a market-savvying, though it was surprising to see retical––at least not since Alberti that efficiency breeds solutions, design method. Design method, inthat RECORD had allowed itself to and Palladio raised our craft to a but at what cost? If the profession its revival from the 1960s, is also abecome a forum for political and discipline and discourse on a par sacrifices a complex model of what part, but not the most importanteconomic ideology. Such was the with science and the humanities. Our architecture is and can be, where part, of architectural theory.impression given by the piece bear- brains will always tend to be ahead does that take us? The assertion that “theory,” asing the disingenuous title “After of our hands, even though some Architecture as information Speaks abuses the term, is “not justTheory” by Michael Speaks [page things are better learned through and production becomes merely a irrelevant but continues to be an72], which reads like a memo in the the encounter with materials and generation of speculation in steady impediment” not only lacks finesse,culture wars. This humorless, anti- tools. Although some breakthroughs supply instead of the very physical but sense. He needs only a dictionaryintellectual attack on “theory” was come from the workshop floor, connective tissue of culture it has to learn that theory is “the general orgratuitous at best, cynically oppor- expensive and long-lived works of been and desperately needs to be. abstract set of principles regarding atunistic at worst. Having been told architecture and urbanism need Thinking and doing are intercon- fact, science, or art.” Architecturalthat “theory” is no good for capital- intelligent and careful thought. Let’s nected, but merely switching tools theory, the body of knowledge thatism, can we expect to hear next that continue to be theoretical, but in a and terminology never generates defines practice, is what we knowit is unpatriotic? It is embarrassing more pragmatic way that addresses innovation. Let’s hope we will have about architecture, and more impor-that this posture is being falsely environmental, social, and economic the courage as educators, students, tant, what we want and need toattributed to an entire generation of problems and opportunities, as well and professionals alike to pursue know about architecture. Withoutyounger architects and academics. as aesthetic issues. any new truth we discover—imper- theory, architectural writing is emptyStill, it’s apparently more fun for Let’s also remember that not fect though it may be—by any and rhetoric, whether by Hannes Meyersome to join the market fundamen- all the strategies and solutions will every means available to us. or Michael Speaks.talist party than it is to risk thinking need to be new or innovative. —Melissa Matos But let’s not throw out theoryimaginatively and critically. Architectural production is not just Los Angeles with the latest ideological bathwater.—Reinhold Martin, Associate market- and technology-driven. It is We must reserve for theory itsProfessor of Architecture, also an expression and embodiment Craft, not art form role as a producer and sustainer ofColumbia University, and principal, of culture, which typically changes “Pleased” barely describes my architectural knowledge.Martin/Baxi Architects more slowly and incrementally than reaction to Speaks’s essay. An —Eugene Kupper, architect science and technology. Architects architectural “theory” is woefully and Professor Emeritus ofNot the end of theory can help make sure people are nei- outclassed by those in physics or Architecture, UCLAI agree with Michael Speaks that ther overwhelmed by these changes chemistry. But I am mostly con-design theory is finally and fortu- nor left behind by them. Let’s stop cerned that being “cool” and Correctionsnately shedding the negativism the pendulum before it swings from “engaged” will soon become dis- In the July issue’s archrecord2 Workand nihilism of Deconstruction and too little theory to too much theory. carded theories in a changing world. feature [page 48], designer MitchMarxism. His lucid essay “After Maybe a little balance—that would Speaks’s views would resonate McEwen’s name is misspelled. InTheory” in the June issue also cele- be radical. more forcibly had he ratcheted up June’s product review of storm-brates the rise of the “post-critics,” —Doug Kelbaugh, FAIA, Dean, his thinking and viewed architec- resistant windows and doors [pagewho have rejected “criticality” in University of Michigan Taubman ture as a craft, which it is, rather 208], the wrong image ran with thefavor of engagement with the mar- College of Architecture and Urban than an art form struggling to find description of Cornell Iron Works’ketplace and embraced proactive, Planning an academic home. wind-load configurator. Also in June,so-called “projective” practices. After Ann Arbor, Michigan —James A. Gresham, FAIA the Architectural Technology intro-a generation of bingeing on abstract Tucson duction contained an incorrect Webtheory, it is time for vanguard archi- Need: theory and courage address for information abouttects to start addressing the many Despite its due criticism of previous Of babies and bathwater classes that the architectural firmproblems that face society. The rise theory, Michael Speaks’s essay The “theory” that Michael Speaks of Rafael Viñoly Architects is host-of young, innovative “workshop” provides yet another reactionary addresses is not theory, but a recent ing. The correct Web address ispractices represents a return to theoretical analogy to gnaw at bias of ideology: neo-Marxist criti- as craft, albeit high-tech. the roots of the profession. Yes, cism. At best, it’s at the extreme Does this mean the end of working design in a spreadsheet end of theory. Find more “After Theory” letters ontheory? I hope not. That would only mind-set complete with CNC milling We need to distinguish the dif- www.architectural Sendensure critical theorists will have as the place holder for the obsolete ference between Theory, Criticism, letters to 08.05 Architectural Record 19
  21. 21. HOW BUILDING A LEARNINGENVIRONMENT HELPED PROTECTANOTHER. As the largest recycling company in the world, we’re a pretty natural choice for environmentallyconscious projects. So when the Austin,Texas School District envisioned a green school, they calledus. Using nearly 100% recycled steel, we customized joists to help form a roof thatcurves to conserve rainwater for reuse in the air conditioner’s cooling tower. And helpedkeep school kids (and Mother Nature) a lot more comfortable. ® It’s Our Nature. Visit CIRCLE 11 ON READER SERVICE CARD OR GO TO ARCHRECORD.CONSTRUCTION.COM/PRODUCTS/
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  23. 23. Record News p.28 London begins 2012 Olympic plans p.28 Gehry to work on L.A.’s Grand Avenue plan Highlights p.30 Russia set for building boom p.34 Holl’s Bellevue Arts Museum reopens Redesigned Freedom Tower will be sleeker, safer After having about six weeks to development, will be created through Arad on the World Trade Center rethink its plans, Skidmore, Owings a collaboration with several engi- Memorial. It remains unclear whether & Merrill on June 29 unveiled a neers and artists. The spire’s design, nearby Fulton and Vesey Streets will slenderer and safer design of the says lead designer David Childs, be open to vehicular traffic. Like the 1,776-foot-tall World Trade Center FAIA, evokes the torch of the Statue original Freedom Tower, the building Freedom Tower. The tower’s original of Liberty. Its centering was necessi- will contain a concrete core through- design, the centerpiece of redevel- tated for cable support, and due to out, although that core will now be opment at Ground Zero, had been requirements of the Metropolitan slightly narrower. Low-iron glass will ordered back to the drawing board Television Alliance by New York Governor George Pataki (MTVA). The original on May 4, after the New York Police tower’s planned cage of Department noted its concern about steel cables and wind the building’s vulnerability to truck turbines has been bombs. The new tower, which has a dropped. While security solid base and a centered spire, is played the biggest role while Libeskind did not work on the much more reminiscent of local land- in such changes, many new plan, SOM utilized his master marks, such as the former Twin speculate that aesthetic plan and design guidelines, which Towers and the Empire State Building. and monetary concerns have been further developed. Some Many of the tower’s design were also instrumental. critics felt that the new building changes stem from the need to set It is unclear how the lacked originality, and that it fit poorly the building back from West Street, to changes will affect into the original master plan. its west, to limit vehicular access. The the costs. The new Freedom Tower design new tower will be set back about 90 Another key secu- is reminiscent of other New York feet from that street, 65 feet farther rity enhancement is skyscrapers. The building’s massive,P H OTO G R A P H Y : C O U R T E SY LO W E R M A N H AT TA N D E V E LO P M E N T C O R P O R AT I O N / D B OX than the original proposed location. the building’s new centered antenna recalls not only To accommodate this setback, the 2.5- to 3-foot-thick the spires of the Empire State and structure will be built on a 200-foot- concrete base, which Chrysler Buildings, but the World by-200-foot square footprint, instead will cover 80 feet of Trade Center’s original North Tower. of the original plan’s parallelogram- lobby space and 120 The new Freedom Tower will be set back consider- Its footprint size will be similar to that shaped base. The tower will no longer feet of mechanical and ably from the street. It will have a solid base and of the Twin Towers, while the height twist, but will be chamfered back from exhaust systems. To an obelisklike shape, with a rotated roof. of its occupied space—1,362 feet at its corners, creating eight tall isosce- enliven and minimize the observation deck and 1,368 feet les triangles. Maintaining the original what could be a bunkerlike aes- clad the rest of the building, as in the at a glass parapet— will equal their building’s torque with a square base thetic, the base will be sheathed in original scheme, but it will be thicker. heights. Holmes notes that the would have been awkward, notes a gridded pattern of titanium and New York Governor Pataki, who height match wasn’t intentional, but SOM spokesperson Elizabeth Kubany. stainless steel, which Childs says admitted that he had never heard of was quickly discovered, and pin- The newly situated building will also will allow the light to glitter off its the word “chamfered” before the pointed, as the height of the tower be about 20 percent slimmer than surface. Clerestory windows at the redesign process, said that he liked increased. He notes that the design’s the original Freedom Tower, says base’s apex will admit some natural the new Freedom Tower better than other similarities to the Twin Towers SOM. Because its amount of office light into the open lobby, notes SOM the old one, judging it “simpler and and other local landmarks were “not space will remain the same, the thin- principal Jeffrey Holmes. yet more elegant.” He was joined on a starting point,” but that the firm is ner tower will have 69 office floors, To connect the set-back stage by World Trade Center master very “conscious of the engagement versus 60 in the original plan. Freedom Tower with the street, the planner Daniel Libeskind, who, of that history.” Above these will sit an obser- building will have entrances on all despite initial battles with Childs, Construction on the Freedom vation deck, a restaurant, and a four sides. Tower owners Silverstein praised the new design as not only Tower is expected to begin in early 400-foot spire centered over the Properties have said that new land- better than the last, but very close to 2006, with a topping out by 2009. building and secured by a system of scaping will be designed by Peter his original vision of a “slender, crys- The building is expected to be ready guy cables. The new spire, still in Walker, who is working with Michael talline tower.” Holmes points out that for tenants by 2009. Sam Lubell 08.05 Architectural Record 23
  24. 24. Record News mutters, ‘It’s the best we could do, under the circumstances.’ their original designs to increase their height: the Chrysler … A building that is emi- Building and the Empire State nently practical, deeply rational, Building. But in both cases, the and elegant enough, but hardly vertical extension was integratedFreedom Tower redesign—the critics respond the muscular symbol [New York into the overall design. That is“Never in my most pessimistic among the site’s structures.”— Governor Pataki] demanded … not the case with the Freedomimaginings could I have antici- Nicolai Ourousoff, The New York Times This is fundamentally a conven- Tower … One hopes thatpated what we are now being tional office building sitting on the [Childs] is not irrevocably wed-shown: a beautiful tower rising “The unveiling of a new and most traditional of Manhattan ded to this concept. Hisabove a solid concrete base with fortresslike Freedom Tower for units: a 200-by-200-foot city handsome obelisk doesn’t needno windows. We are told that Ground Zero … is the latest and block.… On any other site, or in a spike on its top.” —Witoldthis 20-story bunker will be clad most visible sign that the rede- any other city, the classical poise Rybczynski, Slate Magazinein a “shimmering metal curtain velopment of the former World and proportions of Freedomthat will give the impression of Trade Center site is slouching Tower 2 would deserve “It is not a visionary structure. Itmovement and light.” The opera- toward mediocrity. applause.… Childs said he wanted is a very tall building …tive word in that phrase is Though it has an appeal- the building to be ‘handsome,’ and There’s an accepted theory“impression.” The first rule of it is, especially at the top, where among writers: If you have toplanning for pedestrians is ‘eyes the antenna is housed in a lovely explain the metaphor, it doesn’ton the street’: windows and halo of cables. work. The Freedom Tower is adoors connecting inside and … Whether [the] lower metaphor not for freedom,out. No one will happily walk chunk of the building will look but for politics. Its very name ispast a blank wall, no matter how like a squat refrigerator or have contrived.…much it shimmers. a textured, animated surface will The idea of asking the pub- This is one of the main depend on details that have yet lic what it wanted for Groundtenets of urban design taught to to be worked out.” —Justin Zero was a good one … Soall of the mayors who attend the Davidson, Newsday what was the point of asking usNEA’s Mayor’s Institute on City what we thought if it never mat-Design. It is undisputed. That a “The 77-story Freedom Tower has tered at all?” —Alfred P. Doblin,proven design failure is being benefited greatly from its most New Jersey Herald Newsproposed for such a prominent recent redesign. Gone are thesite only confirms how far from Libeskind signature elements: the “If it were just another officereason the security mandate off-center spire, a clumsy visual building, the redesignedhas taken us.” —Jeff Speck, echo of the Statue of Liberty, the Freedom Tower would be moredesign director, National Endowment Freedom Tower architect David trapezoidal plan, the crystalline appealing. Simple and elegant,for the Arts Childs explains his design. form.… The gimmicky open-air its steel and glass design almost structure at the top of the tower pin-striped, it would add a“… Somber, oppressive, and ingly simple shape, which comes (which was to have housed wind touch of class to the Manhattanclumsily conceived, the project from the way it slopes back at its turbines, of all things) is gone, too. skyline.suggests a monument to a society corners to what will appear from What Childs has produced instead But Ground Zero doesn’tthat has turned its back on any some angles to be a monumen- is a simple obelisk, an appropriate call for an ordinary office build-notion of cultural openness. It is tal obelisk, it still doesn’t hold shape for a building that is, at ing. Maybe some architectexactly the kind of nightmare that up its end of the skyline conver- least in part, a memorial. somewhere could design agovernment officials repeatedly sation with the Empire State and The base of Freedom Tower, building that would both healasserted would never happen Chrysler Buildings. Their Art however, needs a lot of work. At and inspire, that would be ashere: an impregnable tower Deco spires conspicuously out- the moment it is a masonry cube unique as the site itself andbraced against the outside world. class its cable-stayed antenna, tentatively supporting a tall glass convey some of the many emo- The new obelisk-shaped which represents a lackluster shaft. The two parts need to be tions associated with it. Buttower, which stands on an enor- stab at Buck Rogers dazzle.”— integrated. By making the shaft the redesigned Freedom Tower P H OTO G R A P H Y : © A S S O C I AT E D P R E S Smous, 20-story concrete Blair Kamin, Chicago Tribune more solid and the base more isn’t it. It is certainly safe andpedestal, evokes a gigantic glass glassy, Freedom Tower could cele- functional. But, as severalpaperweight with a toothpick “Buffeted by politics, constrained brate its impregnability, not hide it. critics have said, it is also sterile,stuck on top … As an urban by cost, shaped by fear, hurry, The [408-foot antenna] is mediocre, and uninspired.object, the tower’s static form and the profit motive, the obviously an architectural addition Whatever flair the first swirlingand square base finally brush redesign of the Freedom Tower is to bring the total height of the design possessed has beenaside the last remnants of better than many expected and building up to 1,776 feet, making lost to a squarer, more conven-[Daniel] Libeskind’s master plan, not nearly good enough. Instead it the tallest in the world. There tional shape.” —Editorial,whose only real strength was the of proclaiming, ‘Here is what we are two famous New York sky- Bergen Record, Bergen County,potential tension it created are capable of,’ the new tower scrapers that had masts added to New Jersey24 Architectural Record 08.05
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  26. 26. Record News trees as in the team’s original scheme, adds Walker. The Lower Manhattan DevelopmentNew controversies emerge at Ground Zero Corporation (LMDC) did not answer requests toAs plans move forward at Ground September 11.’’ That remark brought speak with Arad.Zero, controversies and questions subsequent protests of censorship. Design debatescontinue to surface; not a surprise IFC executive director Tom seemed inevitable whenfor a project of such magnitude. Bernstein released the statement: the LMDC partnered Arad “The IFC will never host ‘debates’ and Handel ArchitectsUnpatriotic exhibits? about the ‘reasons’ for the murder of For now, Arad’s memorial includes fewer ramps, with two experiencedFamilies of victims of 9/11, already nearly 3,000 people at the World more trees, and new alignment. firms, and are certainlyworried that the planned Ground Trade Center, nor will it be used as a not uncommon in a project of thisZero cultural complex might over- forum for denigrating the country we Memorial picked apart? scope. “I think it’s important that eachshadow the World Trade Center love.” The museums’ fate is uncertain. Parties involved with the WTC of the firms has its sense of things it(WTC) Memorial, say they fear that Memorial confirm that many of archi- wants to address,” says Bond. Walkerits museums might also feature A conflict of interest? tect Michael Arad, AIA’s original plans says he feels for Arad, confrontingexhibits that they consider insulting. Bernstein is also a board member of have changed. Most of the modifica- the realities of architecture, but notes,Critics say shows in the International the WTC Memorial Foundation, which tions have come from landscape “People can’t win every battle.”Freedom Center (IFC) may examine is raising money for both the memo- architect Peter Walker and architect Walker and Bond, not Arad,“unpatriotic” subjects, such as slav- rial and the cultural complex. Some of record Max Bond, FAIA. Four have long been slated to sign con-ery. They have also targeted The involved at Ground Zero have pri- ramps descending to the memorial struction documents for the project.Drawing Center, which has shown vately said this could pose a problem, were changed to two last December, But asked whether Arad had thecontroversial 9/11-related art, such inferring that Bernstein’s influence on because, says Bond, their proximity to chance to approve the documents,as an image combining sex and the the foundation’s board could sway streets caused security concerns and Bond’s partner, Carl Krebs, said, “ITwin Towers, at its SoHo gallery. resources toward his Freedom Center. circulation problems. The memorial’s don’t think there’s a sign-off process, New York Governor George Lynn Rasic, a spokesperson for the waterfalls have been aligned with the and it’s never been discussed.” LMDCPataki responded on June 25 by foundation, denied any conflict. “The original Twin Tower footprints, reorient- spokesperson Joanna Rose says thatsaying, “We will not tolerate anything board has a clear conflict-of-interest ing the underground Memorial Center it is premature to comment on con-on that site that denigrates America, policy that we expect all members to and changing internal views of the struction documents, but Arad will bedenigrates New York or freedom, or adhere to.” She notes that a recent waterfalls. Walker says victims’ fami- an integral part of the review processdenigrates the sacrifice or courage board resolution prioritizes memorial lies requested this change. Current with the design review committee.that the heroes showed on fund-raising over other projects. plans call for almost twice as many S.L. and Kevin Lerner I M A G E S : C O U R T E SY LO W E R M A N H AT TA N D E V E LO P M E N T C O R P O R AT I O N / D B OX ( TO P ) ; NIST releases World Trade Center report In June, the National Institute of protection, better adherence of Standards and Technology (NIST) fireproofing, and redundancy in life- released its $16 million building and safety systems, where warranted. safety investigation of the World Trade NIST is leaving specifics up to build- Center collapse. The 10,000-page ing officials and owners, who should probe, conducted over three years, note buildings at higher risk due to studied the design and construction iconic status, says Shyam Sunder, © R O B E R T A . M . S T E R N A R C H I T E CT S ( B OT TO M T W O ) of the buildings as well as their per- NIST’s lead investigator. NIST also formance after the September 11, urges compartmentation—open 2001, attacks. Considered the most areas no greater than 12,000 square extensive of any such report in feet—to discourage fire spread, and history, it was funded by Congress “timely” evacuation of buildings dur- under the National Construction ing emergencies. The report also Safety Team Act. NIST concluded that suggests continuing education and the Twin Towers’ collapse was caused training for architects, engineers, and Separated-at-birth department The New York Post reported on by the inability of the compromised fire-protection engineers, in each July 1 that David Childs’s Freedom Tower seems to have been heavily steel frames, stripped of fireproofing other’s specialties. influenced by the chamfered shaft of Robert A.M. Stern’s initial design in the attacks, to maintain structural Critics worry the suggestions (now changed) for his Comcast Tower in Philadelphia. “I’m aware of the integrity in the attack-caused fires. might drive up construction costs resemblance, and I’m surprised and flattered,” Stern told the Post. S.L. NIST’s high-rise safety sugges- without bringing real increases in tions include improved active fire public-safety benefits. ENR magazine26 Architectural Record 08.05
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