Business X-Cultur
Cultural Dimensions
Image credit: www.flickr.com/fuzzcat/26224888 >
Individualism/
                         Collectivism




Uncertainty                                         Masculinity/
...
Individualistic
                           or selfish?




                                                    Distinction...
Universalism/
                                Particularism


       Internal/
                                           ...
Rules or
                                 relationships?


                                                        In a gr...
In detail:
 Practical tips for doing
business across cultures
From:
        Trompenaars &
Hampden-Turner, Riding
   the Waves of Culture
            Visit: www.7d-culture.nl >
Universalism




Particularism
Recognizing Universalists:
    1.  Focus is more on rules than on relationships.
    2.  Legal contracts are readily drawn...
Recognizing Universalists:
       3.  There is only one truth   or reality, that which
           has been agreed to.
    ...
Doing business with Universalists:
    1.  Be prepared for “rational”, “professional”
        arguments and presentations ...
Doing business with Universalists:
    2.  Do not take impersonal, “get   down to
          business” attitudes as rude.
 ...
Managing Universalists and being managed by them:
    1.  Strive for consistency and uniform procedures.
    2.  Institute...
Managing Universalists and being managed by them:
       3.    Modify the system so that the system will
             modi...
Individualism




Communitarianism
Recognizing Individualists:
    1.  More frequent use of the “I” form.
    2.  Decisions made on the spot by representativ...
Recognizing Individualists:
    3.  People ideally achieve alone and assume personal
        responsibility.
    4.  Vacat...
Doing business with Individualists:
       1.  Prepare for quick     decisions and sudden offers
           not referred t...
Doing business with Individualists:
    3.  The toughest   negotiations were probably
        already done within the orga...
Doing business with Individualists:
    5.  Conducting business alone means that this person is
        respected by his o...
Managing Individualists and being managed by them:
    1.  Try to adjust individual   needs to organizational
        need...
Managing Individualists and being managed by them:
    3.  Expect job   turnover and mobility to be
        high.




3.  ...
Managing Individualists and being managed by them:
    4.  Seek out high performers, heroes and champions
        for spec...
Neutral




Affective
Recognizing Neutrals:
    1.  Do not reveal what they are thinking or feeling.
       2.  May accidentally reveal tension ...
Recognizing Neutrals:
      4.  Cool and self-possessed conduct is admired.
      5.  Physical contact, gesturing or stron...
Doing business with Neutrals:
    1.  Ask for time-outs from meetings and negotiations
        where you can patch each ot...
Doing business with Neutrals:
    3.  Their lack of emotional tone does not mean they are
        disinterested or bored, ...
Doing business with Neutrals:
     4.  The entire negotiation is typically focused   on
        the object or proposition ...
Managing Neutrals and being managed by them:
    1.  Avoid warm,  expressive or enthusiastic
       behaviors. These are i...
Managing Neutrals and being managed by them:
   2.  If you prepare extensively beforehand, you will find it
       easier ...
Recognizing Neutrals:
    3.  Look for small
                     cues that the person is pleased or
       angry and ampl...
Specific




Diffuse
Recognizing Specificists:
    1.  Direct, to    the point, purposeful in relating.
    2.    Precise, blunt, definitive an...
Recognizing Specificists:
    3.  Principles and consistent moral stands
        independent of the person being addressed...
Doing business with Specificists:
    1.  Study the objectives, principles and numerical
        targets of the specific o...
Doing business with Specificists:
    3.  Structure the meeting with time, intervals and
        agendas.
       4.    Do ...
Managing Specificists and being managed by them:
    1.  Management is the realization of objectives    and
        standa...
Managing Specificists and being managed by them:
    4.  Clear, precise and detailed instructions are
        seen as assu...
Achieved
             Status



Ascribed
Status
Recognizing Specificists:
    1.  Use of titles only when relevant to the
            competence you bring to the task.
  ...
Recognizing Specificists:
    3.  Most senior managers are of varying
                                        age and
    ...
Doing business with Specificists:
    1.  Make sure your negotiation team has enough data,
        technical advisors and ...
Doing business with Specificists:
    2.  Respect the knowledge and information of
        your counterparts even if you s...
Doing business with Specificists:
    3.  Use the title that reflects how competent you are
        as an individual.
    ...
Managing Specificists and being managed by them:
    1.  Respect for a manager is based on knowledge
          and skills....
Past and
          Present




Future
Recognizing the Past-oriented:
       1.  Talk about history, origin of family, business and
           nation.
       2. ...
Recognizing the Past- and Present-oriented:




1.  Much talk of prospects,
    potentials, aspirations,
   future
   achi...
Recognizing the Past-oriented:
    3.  Show respect for ancestors, predecessors and older
        people.
    4.  Everythi...
Recognizing the Past- and Present-oriented:




3.  Show great interest in the
    youthful and in future
    potentials.
...
Doing business with the Past- and Present-oriented:
    1.  Emphasize the history, tradition and rich cultural
        her...
Doing business with the Past- and Present-oriented:
    3.  Agree future meetings in principle but do     not fix
        ...
Sequential




Synchronic
Recognizing Sequentialists:
       1.  Only do one    activity at a time.
       2.    Keep appointments strictly; schedul...
Recognizing Sequentialists:
       4.  Strong preference for following
                                        initial pla...
Managing Sequentialists and being managed by them:
   1.  Employees feel rewarded and fulfilled by achieving
       planne...
Managing Sequentialists and being managed by them:
   3.  Plan the career of an employee jointly with him/ her,
       str...
Internal
              Orientation



External
Orientation
Recognizing Internalists:
    1.  Often dominating attitude bordering on
        aggressiveness towards environment.
    2...
Recognizing Internalists:
    3.  Focus is on self, function, own group and own
        organization.
    4.  Discomfort w...
Doing business with Internalists:
      1.  Playing “hard ball” is legitimate to test the
          resilience of an oppon...
Doing business with Internalists:
      2.  It is most important to “win   your objective”.
      3.    Win some, lose som...
Managing Internalists and being managed by them:
    1.  Get agreement on and ownership of clear
        objectives.
    2...
Managing Internalists and being managed by them:
    3.    Discuss disagreements and conflicts
          openly; these sho...
Find More
⁄  Harald Felgner & the Red Fez
⁄  A spectrum of projects, from international marketing to IT.
⁄  xculture.felgner.ch
⁄  t...
Credits
/webel/63951310/                                      /teejaybee/758753661/



                                           ...
⁄  Many thanks to:
⁄  Fons Trompenaars & Charles Hampden-Turner
⁄  www.7d-culture.nl
⁄  All excerpts were taken from the e...
X-cultural Communication 5: Doing Business Across Cultures
X-cultural Communication 5: Doing Business Across Cultures
X-cultural Communication 5: Doing Business Across Cultures
X-cultural Communication 5: Doing Business Across Cultures
X-cultural Communication 5: Doing Business Across Cultures
X-cultural Communication 5: Doing Business Across Cultures
X-cultural Communication 5: Doing Business Across Cultures
X-cultural Communication 5: Doing Business Across Cultures
X-cultural Communication 5: Doing Business Across Cultures
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X-cultural Communication 5: Doing Business Across Cultures

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X-cultural Communication as presented at the University of Applied Sciences/ Communication Design faculty in Constance between 2004 and 2008.

Doing business across cultures.

According to Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, Riding the Waves of Culture, 2007.

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X-cultural Communication 5: Doing Business Across Cultures

  1. 1. Business X-Cultur
  2. 2. Cultural Dimensions Image credit: www.flickr.com/fuzzcat/26224888 >
  3. 3. Individualism/ Collectivism Uncertainty Masculinity/ Avoidance Femininity Culture Time Power Orientation Distance
  4. 4. Individualistic or selfish? Distinction Minimizing between male uncertainty and female? Culture Different On time? levels of power?
  5. 5. Universalism/ Particularism Internal/ Individualism/ External Collectivism Orientation Culture Time Neutral/ Orientation Affective Achieved/ Specific/ Ascribed Diffuse Status
  6. 6. Rules or relationships? In a group or In control or as an part of it? individual? Culture Past, present, Display or future? emotions? Prove or How far to receive get involved? status?
  7. 7. In detail: Practical tips for doing business across cultures
  8. 8. From: Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, Riding the Waves of Culture Visit: www.7d-culture.nl >
  9. 9. Universalism Particularism
  10. 10. Recognizing Universalists: 1.  Focus is more on rules than on relationships. 2.  Legal contracts are readily drawn up. 3.  A trustworthy person is the one who honors their word or contract. 1.  Focus is more on relationships than on rules. 2.  Legal contracts are readily modified. 3.  A trustworthy person is the one who honors changing mutualities. Recognizing Particularists
  11. 11. Recognizing Universalists: 3.  There is only one truth or reality, that which has been agreed to. 4.  A deal is a deal. 3.  There are several perspectives on reality relative to each participant. 4.  Relationships evolve. Recognizing Particularists
  12. 12. Doing business with Universalists: 1.  Be prepared for “rational”, “professional” arguments and presentations that push for your acquiescence. 1.  Be prepared for personal “meandering” or „irrelevancies“ that do not seem to be going anywhere. With Particularists
  13. 13. Doing business with Universalists: 2.  Do not take impersonal, “get down to business” attitudes as rude. 3.  Carefully prepare the legal ground with a lawyer if in doubt. 2.  Do not take personal, “get to know you” attitudes as small talk. 3.  Carefully consider the personal implications of your legal “safeguards”. With Particularists
  14. 14. Managing Universalists and being managed by them: 1.  Strive for consistency and uniform procedures. 2.  Institute formal ways of changing the way business is conducted. 1.  Build informal networks and create private understandings. 2.  Try to alter informally accustomed patterns of activity. Managing Particularists
  15. 15. Managing Universalists and being managed by them: 3.  Modify the system so that the system will modify you. 4.  Signal changes publicly. 5.  Seek fairness by treating all like cases in the same way. 3.  Modify relations with you, so that you will modify the system. 4.  Pull levers privately. 5.  Seek fairness by treating all cases on their special merits. Managing Particularists
  16. 16. Individualism Communitarianism
  17. 17. Recognizing Individualists: 1.  More frequent use of the “I” form. 2.  Decisions made on the spot by representatives. 1.  More frequent use of the “We” form. 2.  Decisions referred back by delegate to organization. Recognizing Communitarians
  18. 18. Recognizing Individualists: 3.  People ideally achieve alone and assume personal responsibility. 4.  Vacations taken in pairs, even alone. 3.  People ideally achieve in groups which assume joint responsibility. 4.  Vacations in organized groups or with extended family. Recognizing Communitarians
  19. 19. Doing business with Individualists: 1.  Prepare for quick decisions and sudden offers not referred to HQ. 2.  Negotiator can commit those who sent him or her and is very reluctant to go back on an undertaking. 1.  Show patience for time taken to consent and to consult. 2.  Negotiator can only agree tentatively and may withdraw an undertaking after consulting with superiors. With Communitarians
  20. 20. Doing business with Individualists: 3.  The toughest negotiations were probably already done within the organization while preparing for the meeting. 4.  You have a tough job selling them the solution to this meeting. 3.  The toughest negotiations are with the communitarians you face. 4.  You must somehow persuade them to cede to your points which the multiple interests in your company demand. With Communitarians
  21. 21. Doing business with Individualists: 5.  Conducting business alone means that this person is respected by his or her company and has its esteem. 6.  The aim is to make a quick deal. 5.  Conducting business when surrounded by helpers means that this person has high status in his or her company. 6.  The aim is to build lasting relationships. With Communitarians
  22. 22. Managing Individualists and being managed by them: 1.  Try to adjust individual needs to organizational needs. 2.  Introduce methods of individual incentives like pay-for-performance, individual assessment, MBO. 1.  Seek to integrate personality with authority within the group. 2.  Give attention to esprit de corps, morale and cohesiveness. Managing Communitarians
  23. 23. Managing Individualists and being managed by them: 3.  Expect job turnover and mobility to be high. 3.  Have low job turnover and mobility. Managing Communitarians
  24. 24. Managing Individualists and being managed by them: 4.  Seek out high performers, heroes and champions for special praise. 5.  Give people the freedom to take individual initiatives. 4.  Extol the whole group and avoid showing favoritism. 5.  Hold up superordinate goals for all to meet. Managing Communitarians
  25. 25. Neutral Affective
  26. 26. Recognizing Neutrals: 1.  Do not reveal what they are thinking or feeling. 2.  May accidentally reveal tension in face and posture. 3.  Emotions often dammed up will occasionally explode. 1.  Reveal thoughts and feelings verbally and non-verbally. 2.  Transparency and expressiveness release tensions. 3.  Emotions flow easily, effusively, vehemently and without inhibition. Recognizing Affectives
  27. 27. Recognizing Neutrals: 4.  Cool and self-possessed conduct is admired. 5.  Physical contact, gesturing or strong facial expressions often taboo. 6.  Statements often read out in monotone. 4.  Heated, vital, animated expressions admired. 5.  Touching, gesturing and strong facial expressions common. 6.  Statements declaimed fluently and dramatically. Recognizing Affectives
  28. 28. Doing business with Neutrals: 1.  Ask for time-outs from meetings and negotiations where you can patch each other up and rest between games of poker with the Impassive Ones. 2.  Put as much as you can on paper beforehand. 1.  Do not be put off your stride when they create scenes and get histrionic; take time-outs for sober reflection and hard assessments. 2.  When they are expressing goodwill, respond warmly. With Affectives
  29. 29. Doing business with Neutrals: 3.  Their lack of emotional tone does not mean they are disinterested or bored, only that they do not like to show their hand. 3.  Their enthusiasm, readiness to agree or vehement disagreement does not mean that they have made up their minds. With Affectives
  30. 30. Doing business with Neutrals: 4.  The entire negotiation is typically focused on the object or proposition being discussed, not so much on you as persons. 4.  The entire negotiation is typically focused on you as persons, not so much on the object or proposition being discussed. With Affectives
  31. 31. Managing Neutrals and being managed by them: 1.  Avoid warm, expressive or enthusiastic behaviors. These are interpreted as lack of control over your feelings and inconsistent with high status. 1.  Avoid detached, ambiguous and cool demeanor. This will be interpreted as negative evaluation, as disdain, dislike and social distance. You are excluding from “the family”. Managing Affectives
  32. 32. Managing Neutrals and being managed by them: 2.  If you prepare extensively beforehand, you will find it easier to “stick to the point”, that is, the neutral topics being discussed. 2.  If you discover whose work, energy and enthusiasm has been invested in which projects, you are more likely to appreciate tenacious positions. Managing Affectives
  33. 33. Recognizing Neutrals: 3.  Look for small cues that the person is pleased or angry and amplify their importance. 3.  Tolerate great “surfeits” of emotionality without getting intimidated or coerced and moderate their importance. Recognizing Affectives
  34. 34. Specific Diffuse
  35. 35. Recognizing Specificists: 1.  Direct, to the point, purposeful in relating. 2.  Precise, blunt, definitive and transparent. 1.  Indirect, circuitous, seemingly “aimless” forms of relating. 2.  Evasive, tactful, ambiguous, even opaque. Recognizing Diffusers
  36. 36. Recognizing Specificists: 3.  Principles and consistent moral stands independent of the person being addressed. 3.  Highly situational morality depending upon the person and context encountered. Recognizing Diffusers
  37. 37. Doing business with Specificists: 1.  Study the objectives, principles and numerical targets of the specific organization with which you are dealing. 2.  Be quick, to the point and efficient. 1.  Study the history, background and future vision of the diffuse organization with which you expect to do business. 2.  Take time and remember there are many reads to Rome. With Diffusers
  38. 38. Doing business with Specificists: 3.  Structure the meeting with time, intervals and agendas. 4.  Do not use titles or acknowledge skills that are irrelevant to the issue being discussed. 3.  Let the meeting flow, occasionally nudging its process. 4.  Respect a person’s title, age, background connections, whatever issue is being discussed. With Diffusers
  39. 39. Managing Specificists and being managed by them: 1.  Management is the realization of objectives and standards with rewards attached. 2.  Private and business agendas are kept separate from each other. 3.  Conflicts of interests are frowned upon. 1.  Management is a continuously improving process by which quality improves. 2. Private and business issues interpenetrate. 3.  Consider an employee’s whole situation before you judge him or her. Managing Diffusers
  40. 40. Managing Specificists and being managed by them: 4.  Clear, precise and detailed instructions are seen as assuring better compliance, or allowing employees to dissent in clear terms. 5.  Begin reports with an executive summary. 4.  Ambiguous and vague instructions are seen as allowing subtle and responsive interpretations through which employees can exercise personal judgment. 5.  End reports with a concluding overview. Managing Diffusers
  41. 41. Achieved Status Ascribed Status
  42. 42. Recognizing Specificists: 1.  Use of titles only when relevant to the competence you bring to the task. 2.  Respect for superior in hierarchy is based on how effectively his or her job is performed and how adequate their knowledge. 1.  Extensive use of titles, especially when these clarify your status in the organization. 2.  Respect for superior in hierarchy is seen as a measure of your commitment to the organization and its mission. Recognizing Diffusers
  43. 43. Recognizing Specificists: 3.  Most senior managers are of varying age and gender and have shown proficiency in specific jobs. 3.  Most senior managers are male, middle-aged and qualified by their background. Recognizing Diffusers
  44. 44. Doing business with Specificists: 1.  Make sure your negotiation team has enough data, technical advisors and knowledgeable people to convince the other company that the project, jointly pursued, will work. 1.  Make sure your negotiation team has enough older, senior and formal position-holders to impress the other company that you consider this negotiation important. With Diffusers
  45. 45. Doing business with Specificists: 2.  Respect the knowledge and information of your counterparts even if you suspect they are short of influence back home. 2.  Respect the status and influence of your counterparts, even if you suspect they are short of knowledge. Do not show them up. With Diffusers
  46. 46. Doing business with Specificists: 3.  Use the title that reflects how competent you are as an individual. 4.  Do not underestimate the need of your counterparts to do better or do more than is expected. 3.  Use the title that reflects your degree of influence in your organization. 4.  Do not underestimate the need of your counterparts to make their ascriptions come true. With Diffusers
  47. 47. Managing Specificists and being managed by them: 1.  Respect for a manager is based on knowledge and skills. 2.  MBO and pay-for-performance are effective tools. 3.  Decisions are challenged on technical and functional grounds. 1.  Respect for a manager is based on seniority. 2.  MBO and pay-for-performance are less effective than direct rewards from the manager. 3.  Decisions are only challenged by people with higher authority. Managing Diffusers
  48. 48. Past and Present Future
  49. 49. Recognizing the Past-oriented: 1.  Talk about history, origin of family, business and nation. 2.  Motivated to recreate a golden age. 1.  Activities and enjoyments of the moment are most important (not mañana). 2.  Plans not objected to, but rarely executed. Recognizing the Present-oriented
  50. 50. Recognizing the Past- and Present-oriented: 1.  Much talk of prospects, potentials, aspirations, future achievements. 2.  Planning and strategizing done enthusiastically. Recognizing the Future-oriented
  51. 51. Recognizing the Past-oriented: 3.  Show respect for ancestors, predecessors and older people. 4.  Everything viewed in the context of tradition or history. 3.  Show intense interest in present relationships, “here and now”. 4.  Everything viewed in terms of its contemporary impact and style. Recognizing the Present-oriented
  52. 52. Recognizing the Past- and Present-oriented: 3.  Show great interest in the youthful and in future potentials. 4.  Present and past used, even exploited, for future advantage. Recognizing the Future-oriented
  53. 53. Doing business with the Past- and Present-oriented: 1.  Emphasize the history, tradition and rich cultural heritage of those you deal with as evidence of their great potential. 2.  Discover whether internal relationships will sanction the kind of changes you seek to encourage. 1.  Emphasize the freedom, opportunity and limitless scope for that company and its people in the future. 2.  Discover what core competence or continuity the company intends to carry with it into the envisaged future. With the Future-oriented
  54. 54. Doing business with the Past- and Present-oriented: 3.  Agree future meetings in principle but do not fix deadlines for completion. 4.  Do your homework on the history, traditions and past glories of the company; consider what re- enactments you might propose. 3.  Agree specific deadlines and do not expect work to be complete unless you do. 4.  Do your homework on the future, the prospects and the technological potentials of the company; consider mounting a sizeable challenge. With the Future-oriented
  55. 55. Sequential Synchronic
  56. 56. Recognizing Sequentialists: 1.  Only do one activity at a time. 2.  Keep appointments strictly; schedule in advance and do not run late. 3.  Generally, relationships are subordinate to schedule. 1.  Do more than one activity at a time. 2.  Appointments are approximate and subject to “giving time” to significant others. 3.  Generally, schedules are subordinate to relationships. Recognizing Synchronicists
  57. 57. Recognizing Sequentialists: 4.  Strong preference for following initial plans. 5.  Time is tangible and measurable. 4.  Strong preference for following where relationships lead. 5.  Time is like a wide ribbon and intangible. Recognizing Synchronicists
  58. 58. Managing Sequentialists and being managed by them: 1.  Employees feel rewarded and fulfilled by achieving planned future goals as in MBO. 2.  Employees’ most recent performance is the major issue, along with whether their commitments for the future can be relied upon. 1.  Employees feel rewarded and fulfilled by achieving improved relationships with supervisors/ customers. 2.  Employees’ whole history with the company and future potential is the context in which their current performance is viewed. Managing Synchronicists
  59. 59. Managing Sequentialists and being managed by them: 3.  Plan the career of an employee jointly with him/ her, stressing landmarks to be reached certain times. 4.  The corporate ideal is the straight line and the most direct efficient and rapid route to your objectives. 3.  Discuss with employee his/ her final aspirations in the context of the company; in what ways are these realizable? 4.  The corporate ideal is the interacting circle in which past experience, present opportunities and future possibilities cross-fertilize. Managing Synchronicists
  60. 60. Internal Orientation External Orientation
  61. 61. Recognizing Internalists: 1.  Often dominating attitude bordering on aggressiveness towards environment. 2.  Conflict and resistance means that you have convictions. 1.  Often flexible attitude, willing to compromise and keep the peace. 2.  Harmony and responsiveness, that is, sensibility. Recognizing Externalists
  62. 62. Recognizing Internalists: 3.  Focus is on self, function, own group and own organization. 4.  Discomfort when environment seems “out of control” or changeable. 3.  Focus is on “other”, that is customer, partner, colleague. 4.  Comfort with waves, shifts, cycles if these are “natural”. Recognizing Externalists
  63. 63. Doing business with Internalists: 1.  Playing “hard ball” is legitimate to test the resilience of an opponent. 1.  Softness, persistence, politeness and long, long patience will get rewards. With Externalists
  64. 64. Doing business with Internalists: 2.  It is most important to “win your objective”. 3.  Win some, lose some. 2.  It is most important to “maintain your relationship”. 3.  Win together, lose apart. With Externalists
  65. 65. Managing Internalists and being managed by them: 1.  Get agreement on and ownership of clear objectives. 2.  Make sure that tangible goals are clearly linked to tangible rewards. 1.  Achieve congruence among various people’s goals. 2.  Try to reinforce the current directions and facilitate the work of employees. Managing Externalists
  66. 66. Managing Internalists and being managed by them: 3.  Discuss disagreements and conflicts openly; these show that everyone is determined. 4.  MBO works if everyone is genuinely committed to directing themselves towards shared objectives and if these persist. 3.  Give people time and opportunities to work quietly through conflicts; these are distressing. 4.  MBO works if everyone is genuinely committed to adapting themselves to fit external demands as these shift. Managing Externalists
  67. 67. Find More
  68. 68. ⁄  Harald Felgner & the Red Fez ⁄  A spectrum of projects, from international marketing to IT. ⁄  xculture.felgner.ch ⁄  twitter.com/haraldfelgner
  69. 69. Credits
  70. 70. /webel/63951310/ /teejaybee/758753661/ /23065375@N05/2235525962/ http://www.flickr.com /srboisvert/45435603/ /colm/2467012869/ /nick777/565229268/ /fuzzcat/26224888/ /der_bobbel/2600591128/ /liewcf/894035077/ Paramount Pictures
  71. 71. ⁄  Many thanks to: ⁄  Fons Trompenaars & Charles Hampden-Turner ⁄  www.7d-culture.nl ⁄  All excerpts were taken from the excellent textbook: ⁄  Riding the Waves of Culture, 2nd Edition, London, 1997 ⁄  Order your copy from Amazon US via bit.ly/7Q02P7

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