Individualism versus collectivismrefers to the extent to which people are expected to stand up for themselves, or alternatively act predominantly as a member of the group or organization.Individualism has negative connotations in certain societies and environments where it is associated with selfishness. For example, individualism is highly frowned upon in most East Asian countries where self-interested behavior is traditionally regarded as a kind of betrayal of those to whom one has obligations (e.g. family and firm). The U.S.A. is one of the most individualistic cultures.
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In long term oriented societies, thrift and perseverance are valued more; in short term oriented societies, respect for tradition and reciprocation of gifts and favors are valued more.Eastern nations tend to score especially high here, with Western nations scoring low and the less developed nations very low; China scored highest and Pakistan lowest.
Monochrone:Timeismoney!Youhave to be on time!One thingafteranother.Polychone:Relax, wehaveenough time!Half an hourlateisok.Flexible in arranging a multitude of tasks and projects.
The value placed on a clear separation of traditionally male or female values.Masculine cultures clearly separate male values (competitiveness, assertiveness, ambition, and the accumulation of wealth and material possessions) from female values (harmony, relationships and quality of life).In feminine cultures the distinction vanishes.Japan is considered by Hofstede to be the most "masculine" culture, Sweden the most "feminine." The U.S. is moderately masculine.
The extent to which a society attempts to cope with anxiety by minimizing uncertainty. Members of a culture with low uncertainty avoidance do not perceive uncertainty as a threat but as an opportunity!Cultures that scored high in uncertainty avoidance prefer rules (e.g. about religion and food) and structured circumstances, and employees tend to remain longer with their present employer.Mediterranean cultures and Japan rank the highest in this category.
The degree to which the less powerful members of society expect there to be differences in the levels of power.A high score suggests that there is an expectation that some individuals wield larger amounts of power than others.A low score reflects the view that all people should have equal rights. Power distance canbeapplied in different sociologicalcontexts: Family, school, workplace,state/ government.Latin American and Arab nations are ranked the highest in this category; Scandinavian and Germanic speaking countries the least.
X-cultural Communication 3: Cultural Dimensions, Part 1 - Geert Hofstede