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IA 7/ UX 1: IA? IxD? UX!


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IA 7: IA? IxD? UX! is an uncooked  
collection of definitions, categorizations, outlines, and visualizations concerning

⁄ Information  architecture  IA,
⁄ Interaction  design  IxD,  and
⁄ User  experience UX design.

This deck is an updated version of IA 3: IA Concepts. It’s main purpose is to sear the partially dry substances into my own memory.

Download is disabled due to the copyrighted material within the presentation.

Credits: Alan Dix, Ben Shneiderman, Christina Wodtke, Dan Brown, Don Norman, Erin Malone, George Olsen, Jan Borchers, Jesse James Garrett, Jess McMullin, Olga Howard, Peter Morville, Theo Mandel, Todd Warfel

Image credits:, /liewcf, /nypl  

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
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IA 7/ UX 1: IA? IxD? UX!

  1. IA?  IxD?  UX!
  2. ⁄  IA  7:  IA?  IxD?  UX!  is  an  uncooked   collection  of  definitions,  categorizations,   outlines,  and  visualizations  concerning ⁄  Information  architecture   IA , ⁄  Interaction  design   IxD ,  and ⁄  User  experience   UX  design. ⁄  This  deck  is  an  updated  version  of  IA  3:  IA  Concepts. ⁄  Its  main  purpose  is  to  sear  the  partially  dry  substances  into  my  memory  ;)
  3. ⁄ IA   is  defined  by  the  Information  Architecture  Institute  as: 1.  The   structural  design  of  shared   information  environments. 2.  The  art  and  science  of  organizing  and   labeling  web  sites,  intranets,  online   communities,  and  software  to  support  findability  and   usability. 3.  An  emerging  community  of  practice  focused  on   bringing  principles  of  design  and   architecture  to  the  digital  landscape.
  4. ⁄  According  to  the  Interaction  Design  Association: 1.    IxD  defines  the  structure  and   behavior  of  interactive  systems. 2.  Interaction  Designers  strive  to  create   ⁄  people  and   meaningful  relationships  between   ⁄  the  products  and  services  that  they  use,   ⁄  from  computers  to  mobile  devices  to  appliances  and   beyond.
  5. ⁄ UX  is  defined  by  the  Nielsen  Norman  Group  as: all  aspects  of  the  end-­‐‑userʹs  interaction  1.    with  the  company,  its  services,   and  its  products.   2.  The  first  requirement  for  an  exemplary  user   experience  is  to  meet  the  exact  needs  of  the   customer,  without  fuss  or  bother.
  6. 3.  Next  comes   simplicity  and  elegance  that   produce  products  that  are  a  joy  to  own,  a  joy  to   use.   4.  True  user  experience  goes  far  beyond  giving   customers  what  they  say  they  want,  or   providing  checklist  features.   5.  In  order  to  achieve  high-­‐‑quality  user  experience  in  a   companyʹs  offerings  there  must  be  a  seamless   merging  of  the  services  of  multiple   disciplines,  including  engineering,  marketing,   graphical  and  industrial  design,  and  interface  design.
  7. 2  Enable  frequent   users  to  use  shortcuts 6  Permit  easy   reversal  of  actions 1  Strive  for   5  Offer  consistency simple   error   7   Support   handling internal   3  Offer   locus  of   control informative   8  Reduce  short-­‐‑ feedback term  memory  load 4  Design  dialog   to  yield  closure
  8. Consistent  sequences  of   Abbreviations actions  in  similar   Function  keys situations Hidden  commands Identical  terminology  in   prompts,  menus,  and   Macro  facilities 1  Strive  for  consistency interaction help  screens 2  Enable  frequent  users  to  use   shortcuts  to  increase  the  pace  of   Consistent  commands   throughout
  9. System  feedback  for   Organization  of   every  operator  action sequences  of  actions  into   Modest  response  for   groups  with  a  beginning, frequent  and  minor   middle,  and  end   actions Informative  feedback  at  3  Offer  informative  feedback accomplishment the  completion  of  a   4  Design  dialog  to  yield  closure  to   provide  a  satisfaction  of   More  substantial   response  for  infrequent   group  of  actions  in  order   and  major  actions to  provide • a  sense  of  relief,   • the  signal  to  drop  contingency   plans  and  options,  and • an  indication  that  the  way  is   clear  to  prepare  for  the  next   group  of  actions
  10. As  much  as  possible,   Encourage  exploration   design  the  system  so  the   of  unfamiliar  options user  cannot  make  a   The  units  of  reversibility   serious  error may  be If  an  error  is  made,  the   • a  single  action,   5  Offer  simple  error  handling relieve  anxiety system  should  be  able  to   6  Permit  easy  reversal  of  actions  to   • a  data  entry,  or     detect  the  error  and  offer • a  complete  group  of  actions • simple,   • comprehensible  mechanisms   for  handling  the  error                      
  11. Experienced  operators   The  limitation  of  human   strongly  desire  the  sense   information  processing   that  they  are  in  charge  of   in  short-­‐‑term  memory   the  system  and  that  the   requires  that  displays  be system  responds  to  their   • kept  simple, actions 7  Support  internal  locus  of  control 8  Reduce  short-­‐‑term  memory  load • multiple  page  displays  be       consolidated,   Design  the  system  to   • window-­‐‑motion  frequency  be   make  users  the  initiators   reduced,  and of  actions  rather  than  the   • sufficient  training  time  be   responders allobed  for  codes,  mnemonics,   and  sequences  of  actions                  
  12. Literature   Review Cognitive   Walkthrough Without  Users Heuristic   Evaluation Evaluation  Techniques Model-­‐‑based   Evaluation Model   Extraction Silent   Observation Qualitative Think  Aloud Constructive   Interaction With  Users Retrospective   Testing Controlled   Quantitative Experiments
  13. Reduce  users‘   memory  load Place   users  in   control   of  the   Make  the   user  interface interface   consistent
  14. 1  Use  modes  judiciously   (modeless) 2  Allow  users  to  use  either   keyboard  or  mouse  (flexible) 3  Allow  users  to  change  focus   (interruptible) the  interface Place  users  in  control  of   4  Display  descriptive  messages   and  text  (helpful) 5  Provide  immediate  and   reversible  actions,  and  feedback   (forgiving) 6  Provide  meaningful  paths  and   exits  (navigable) 7  Accommodate  users  with   different  skill  levels  (accessible) 8  Make  the  user  interface   transparent  (facilitative) 9  Allow  users  to  customize  the   interface  (preferences) 10  Allow  users  to  directly   manipulate  interface  objects (interactive)
  15. 11  Relieve  short-­‐‑term  memory   (remember) 12  Rely  on  recognition,  not   recall  (recognition) 13  Provide  visual  cues  (inform) load 14  Provide  defaults,  undo,  and  Reduce  users‘  memory   redo  (forgiving) 15  Provide  interface  shortcuts   (frequency) 16  Promote  an  object-­‐‑action   syntax  (intuitive) 17  Use  real-­‐‑world  metaphors   (transfer) 18  User  progressive  disclosure   (context) 19  Promote  visual  clarity   (organize)
  16. 20  Sustain  the  context  of  users’   tasks  (continuity) 21  Maintain  consistency  within   and  across  products   (experience) 22  Keep  interaction  results  the   consistent same  (expectations) Make  the  user  interface   23  Provide  aesthetic  appeal  and   integrity  (abitude) 24  Encourage  exploration   (predictable)
  17. Keep  the   Avoid  errors,   Design  clear   interface   help  to  recover,   exits  and  closed   simple! offer  Undo! dialogs! Speak  the   Include  help   Minimize   user’s   and   memory  load! language! documentation! Be  consistent   Provide   Offer  shortcuts   and   feedback! for  experts! predictable!
  18. Context Content Users
  19. Business   Audience Document/   goals Tasks data  types Context: Users: Content: Funding Needs Content   Politics objects Information   Culture seeking   Volume Technology behavior Existing   Experience structure Resources Constraints
  20. ⁄  What  is  IA?   1.  IA  is   content  architecture  (Rosenfeld  &  Morville’s   Polar  Bear  style)  —    organization  for  easy   retrieval. 2.  IA  is  interaction  design  (Cooper’s  About  Face)   —  architecting  for  use.   3.  IA  is  information  design  (Wurmanʹs  Information   Architects)  —  organizing  for  comprehension   AND  UI  design.
  21. The Nine Pillarsof Successful Web TeamsJesse James Garrett <> project management9 July 2003The most successful Web teams build their team structures and theirprocesses on these nine essential competencies:Project Management: The hub that binds all the tactical competenciestogether as well as the engine that drives the project forward to completion,project management requires a highly specialized set of skills all its own. concreteNeglecting this area often results in missed deadlines and cost overruns. d i designConcrete Design: Before the abstract design can become a fully realizeduser experience, you must determine the specific details of interfaces,navigation, information design, and visual design. This realm of concretedesign is essential to creating the final product. tacticalContent Production: Knowing what content you need isnt enough. You also technology contentneed to know how youll produce it. Gathering raw information, writing andediting, and defining editorial workflows and approvals are all part of content implementation productionproduction.Technology Implementation: Building technical systems involves a lot ofhard work and specialized knowledge: languages and protocols, coding anddebugging, testing and refactoring. The more complex your site, the moreimportant a competency in technology implementation becomes. abstract bstraAbstract Design: Information architecture and interaction design translate d designstrategic objectives into a conceptual framework for the final userexperience. These emerging disciplines addressing abstract design areincreasingly recognized for their value in the Web development process. strategicContent Strategy: Content is often the reason users come to your site. Butwhat content can you offer to meet your users expectations? How much technology contentcontent is appropriate, and what form should it take? What style or toneshould it have? Before you can produce that content, you need to answer strategy strategyfundamental content strategy questions such as these.Technology Strategy: Web sites are technologically complex, and gettingmore intricate all the time. Identifying the technology strategy for the site –platforms, standards, technologies, and how they can all interoperate – isessential to avoiding costly mistakes. siteSite Strategy: Defining your own goals for the site can be surprisingly strategy trategtricky. Arriving at a common understanding of the sites purpose for yourorganization, how youll prioritize the sites various goals, and the means bywhich youll measure the sites success are all matters of site strategy.User Research: User-centered design means understanding what yourusers need, how they think, and how they behave – and incorporating thatunderstanding into every aspect of your process. User research provides theraw observations that fuel this insight into the people your site must serve. user researchadaptive path
  22. User Experience Design Process: Critical Path Kickoff Project Initiation Initial Design Cyc l e Design Iteration / Testing / Iteration / E a r l y R e f i n e m e n t Refinement / Copy / Final Visual Design / Robust Testing Production Build / Reviews / Design Team Sign Offs Meeting Project is Product Team meets - Product Team meets - Product Marketing Prod. Marketing does P&L, content evaluation, Product Team meets - inititated by Product Design meeting with Hand off to creates materials that describe needs, goals, Design presents functional Marketing with Prod. Mktg. feeds team Product Team meets - Product Marketing, Product Team production, objectives, dependencies, partnerships, user flow, potential user Product Team meets - Program any results from Marke t Review Engineering, and Approval cycle here engineering and business issues and any other relev a n t scenarios and high level Review revisions Management Resear c h recommendations from Usability to review operations mode of content or functionality issues, pulls together screens need e d testing recommendations the product cycle cross-functional tea m Approval cycle h e r e iteration cycle Detailed Product Feasability Studies / Field testing - both for Resear c h Expert advice on Functionality/ Usability functionality and What do Users w a n t previous research a n d feedback cyc l e Conceptual model new research need e d testing with early specific content and How do they want to do it Meeting visual design iteration cycle (Usability Conceptual Phase) (Usability 2nd Phase) prototypes coordinated by iteration cycle Program iteration cycle feedback cyc l e Management UE Team member Create D e s i g n Design takes assigned to Spec/Creative Rapid prototype for User Ed develops recommended Design works w i t hExperience Design project Brie f proof of concept user education plan changes and input Design team Usability to provide Design team Final functionality & attends meeting UE Team Material is from and early testing w/ from Team - brainstorms, iterates prototype and presents visual design signoff Initial concept brainstorm with MRP/PRD and Early functionality usability Design works w i t h including Product and collaborates on guidance of what Refine Visual wireframes a n d User Ed. delivers all - Production brainstorms wit h Takes input from Usability - led by Revises user fl o w brainstorming notes designs and User Education to Marketing, visual representation Visual Design Experience priorities of direction, copy, mockups to Help text and - Engineering all members as project team and works Product Marketing to and other definitions of Could be paper begin any Help and Engineering, Exp. of functionality and exploration, Design team discovery shoul d user instructions, production with full associate d - QA UE Team member assigned related to UI member through greater collect and gather requirements, distills pages needed for prototype, functional FAQs and other Design Team and screen design s copy writte n review Visual be - i.e. business help and UI set of style specs screenshots a n d - Partner (if applicable) to project design detail of individual requirements and info, looks at developed static HTML, Flash instructional text Usability Research Work can begin while and finetuned direction constraints, components as [font size & color, specs t o - Usability whats the best scree n s understand competitive functionality interaction, and all error user flow a n d technical necessary line spacing, Production - Creative Director Receives Requirements scenario fo r competitive landscape landscape, rev i e w s Mockups/ messages Revises user fl o w functionality is constraints, colors, images, - Product Marketing Document use r s scope in context of Wireframes as and works thro u g h iterating optional versions to links, etc] - VP (as necessary) Needs: network and sit e image maps greater detail of test List of team precedenc e individual screens members, contact info, initial schedule, approval process Initial exposure to Production receives Production builds (people) scope of design and approved mockups site and features functionality HTML and works w i t h working wi t h Design on product Engineering as Assess techn i c a l area as needed applicable limitations and alternatives Discussion with engineering Engineering informs Engineering Engineering might about any potential new Design if there are begin coding technology and its impact on changes, issues w i t h work from initial schedule and desired user planned functionality functionality tasks spe c sCredits: Erin Malone: Designed for AltaVista November 10, 2000
  23. The Elements of the Users Experience » Trigger Some circumstance triggers a need and a corresponding expectation of satisfaction. Trigger » Expectation What does the user expect to do, how do they expect to » do it, what do they expect to get out of it in the end? » Proximity How close is the user to the necessary part of the Expectation » system? Are they on the right webpage, near the instore on » Pr kiosk, or next to the information desk at the airport? » Awareness Does the user notice the necessary part of the system - ox the link, the kiosk, or the information desk? Or are they ti The Users l a distracted by something else, like a spinning logo? im» Eva u » Connection ity Does the user make the connection between their need Experience Cycle and the neccessary part of the system? Do the system cues match their expectation so that they can make this » The user experience is not one simple action - it connection and then act on it? is an interconnected cycle of attempting to » Action satisfy hopes, dreams, needs, and desires. This Can the user take action, or is there a mismatch with how AwaRespon takes the shape of individuals comparing their they expected to act and the actual action required? expectations to the outcomes generated by their » Response interaction with a system. Managing expections The system provides a response to the users action - is it rene then becomes key to successfully providing a the expected response? Does it meet the need? satisfying "return on experience" that delights » Evaluation se ss users and generates shared, sustainable value. The user compares the response with the expection. Based on this comparison, the user will adjust their » » expectations. - If expectations are managed well, and are met consistently, the user will continue the cycle until their Ac io n initial need is satisfied. tio n » ect - If expectations are not met, the user will stop using the Co n n system and try other channels or abandon the goal for the time being. The Experience Cycle model © 2003-2004 Jess McMullin. All rights reserved. The Experience Cycle model synthesizes work from three sources: » Don Normans work with mapping and subsequent cognitive walkthrough methods. » The AIDA model from marketing literature - Awareness, Interest, Desire, Action. » The notion of cyclical adjustment of expectation reflects the game theory notion of repeated expected utility. This has been explored in the interactive domain with work done at PARC on information foraging.
  24. Ease  of  use  remains  vital usable Usability  is  necessary  but   not  sufficient Web  sites  should  be   accessible  to  people  with   disabilities accessible Eventually,  it  will  become   the  law
  25. Ask  whether  our  products   and  systems  are  useful useful Define  innovative   solutions  that  are  more   useful Navigable  web  sites Locatable  objects findable
  26. Appreciation  for  the   power  and  value  of  image   desirable Identity,  brand,  and  other   elements  of  emotional   design Design  elements   influence  whether  users  trust  and  believe  what  we   credible tell  them
  27. Value  to  our  sponsors For  non-­‐‑profits:  Advance  the   mission valuable With  for-­‐‑profits:  Contribute  to   the  bobom  line  and  improve   customer  satisfaction
  28. PracticeUX Persona Diagram (Sample) Educated in Industry Not Educated in Industry How did we get here? 1 Marketing Director User has never worked with a like-client 3 1) Find the person in your client’s organization that has the IT Director consultancy most knowledge of their clients and prospects (if that’s who your site should speak to). In this case we spoke to Exclusionary Focal the Sales Director. 2) Get as much information related to the kinds of questions their clients and prospects ask. This will give you first-hand insight into the client/prospect knowledge of Familiar with Core Business the industry and their knowledge of your clients work. 3) Create a Persona chart that defines the client/prospect in terms of knowledge discussed above. 4) Discuss the chart with your client to see if you’ve missed anything and ask your client to chose a focal vs. exclusionary persona. Might be a client Might be a client CEO, CIO, Management, Director Focal Not Familiar with Core Business Knowledge Factor Exclusionary Focal Persona 2 Might be a client w/role in executive level 4 Where Persona should be!"Copyright Olga Howard 2005-2006
  29. User  Needs  Documentation Personas Usability   Strategy  Documentation Test  Plans Competitive  Usability   Analyses Design  Documentation Reports Concept   Site  Maps Models User  Flows Content   Inventories Wireframes Screen   Designs
  30. Design  Diagrams Personas Concept   Design  Deliverables Models Design  Site  Maps Briefs Flowcharts Competitive   Reviews Wireframes Usability   Plans Usability   Reports
  31. Call History - Compiled Task Analysis Before Scene After Scene Future Scene The spare bedroom (office) of Jenny’s two bedroom townhome in suburban Indianapolis. The spare bedroom (office) of Jenny’s two bedroom townhome in suburban Indianapolis. The spare bedroom (office) of Jenny’s two bedroom townhome in suburban I Jenny comes home from a weekend away and wants to see if there have been any important phone calls or messages that she missed. She Jenny comes home from a weekend away and wants to see if there have been any important phone calls or messages that she missed. She Jenny comes home from a weekend away and wants to see if there have been sees the voicemail indicator on her phone and begins the lengthy process of calling and listening to her voicemail. looks at her Comcast Message Center Dashboard she quickly sees that she has five new voicemails. Through the Comcast Message Center’s looks at her Comcast Message Center Dashboard she quickly sees that she has dashboard, she is able to see that the third voicemail is from her mother and plays the message instantly. dashboard, she is able to see that the third voicemail is from her mother and p presence indicator, Jenny can see that her mother may not be home, but has h cell phone. Jenny returns home from a Jenny checks to see if anyone Jenny checks to see if anyone Jenny listens to her Jenny checks for missed calls Jenny adds the caller to her Jenny reviews her list of calls Jenny returns her p Sub Tasks weekend away. called while she was away. left a voicemail message. voicemail. she needs to return. address book. to return. calls. Jenny returns home from a weekend Jenny walks into the office to check the Jenny checks the voicemail indicator and Jenny sees there are four new voicemail Jenny sees that her grandmother called, One of Jenny’s friends called from her Jenny has a list of calls to return. Each Jenny reviews the order of ca Scenario away. She walks in the door, puts down caller id light on her phone to see if see’s the number six. She knows she had messages. The second new message is but didn’t leave a voicemail; she typically new mobile phone. Jenny wants to add item has the name, number, and a few needs to make and returns th her bags and takes a look around. anyone called while she was away. saved some messages, but doesn’t know from her mother. She would like to listen doesn’t leave messages. the number to her address book. brief notes about the call. calls she can now, saving the Everything appears to be right where she how many. to it first. later. left it. Can I be notified that I missed calls while Can I be notified quickly that someone Can I check quickly to see if I have any Can I listen to a specific message? Can I Can I check my missed calls quickly and Can I add the new number to my address Do I have enough time to return all these Do I have enough time to ret Considerations/Influencers I was away? Is it quick? Is it easy? Do I important called while I was away? messages waiting? listen to the message quickly? Can I save conveniently? Can I quickly determine book quickly and easily? If an entry calls now? Which calls should I return calls now? need any special equipment? How much or delete the message before it is which calls I need to return that don’t already exists, can I update it easily? Can first? does it cost? completed playing? have voicemails? I sync the address book with my mobile? Checking for missed calls and voicemail I have to go to my office to see if anyone How many of the messages are new? Listening to voicemail is time inconve- Checking for missed calls is inconvenient Keeping all my devices in sync is How do I know what each call is about? How do I keep track of which Pain-Points is laborious and inconvenient. called. Checking from the road is even Which ones are important? Can I pick a nient and time consuming. Why can’t I and time consuming. Can the system difficult. How can I keep my mobile How will I know that I’ve returned a call, returned? Do I have to use so more laborious and inconvenient. specific message to listen to? Which listen to a specific message without help me determine which calls need to be phone and email address books in sync? or marked it for “call back later?” else to return the calls? messages need immediate attention? listening to the ones before it? Do I have returned? time to listen to the messages now? C 2.1 View call history status. C 3.1 View voicemail status. C 4.1 Access the voicemail system. C 5.1 View new missed call history. C 6.1 Add to address book (update in C 7.1 Review call back list. C 8.1 Return calls.nd Functionality (1) The customer can view the status of (1) The customer can view the status of (1) The customer accesses the voicemail (1) The customer can view the new (1) address book). (1) The customer can review a call back (1) The customer can return whether or not (s)he has any new whether or not (s)he has any new system to listen to new messages. missed calls history. The customer can add (update) a list, ordered by priority, and with within the message centm missed calls. voicemail. name and number in the address notes for each call.asy book. C 2.2 View new missed calls history. C 3.2 View new voicemail list. C4.2 Select a voicemail for playback. C 5.2 View call priority status. C 6.2 Sync address book. C 8.2 Mark call as returned. (1) The customer can view the call (1) The customer can view a list of new (1) The customer reviews the list of (4) The customer can view the (4) The customer can sync the address (2) Once a call has been retu history for new missed calls. voicemail messages with the name messages and related info and priority/importance of a call to help book across home phone, mobile message is automatically (number) and date/time of each selects a message to play. them determine which calls need to phone, email, etc. returned. voicemail. be returned. C 2.3 View full missed call history. C 3.3 View full voicemail history. C 4.3 Play message. C 5.3 Delete. (2) The customer can view the entire (2) The customer can view the entire (1) Upon selection, the message (1) The customer can delete missed call history, including new and past voicemail history, including new and automatically begins playback. calls from the missed call history. missed calls. past voicemails. C 2.4 View full incoming call history. C 3.4 View similar or duplicate messages. C 4.4 Message notes. (3) The customer can view the entire (4) The customer can view if anyone (4) The customer can place notes incoming call history, including all who left a duplicate voicemail on and/or a description next to the missed, answered, and forwarded multiple phones, or email for a voicemail - useful when returning or calls. similar message. saving the call. C 2.5 View similar or duplicate calls. C 4.5 Set message priority and/or (4) The customer can view if anyone (4) reminder. placed a duplicate call to more than The customer can set a priority one phone. level, due date, and/or reminder for the message. Over time, the system learns and sets these automatically. C 4.6 Save message. (1) The message is automatically saved if the customer doesn’t delete it. C 4.7 Delete. (1) The customer deletes the message. They should be able to perform this action at any time during the message playback. C 4.8 Rewind and fast forward. (2) The customer can rewind and fast forward through the message during playback. C 4.9 Forward message. (4) The customer can forward the message to another number or email Glossary address. Ratings (1) High - address as soon as possible (2) Medium - address after priority 1 (3) Low - after priority 2 and if there is time in development cycle Compiled Task Analysis 1 (4) Future - consider for a future version of the product
  32. ⁄  “Information  architecture   does  not  exist  as  a   profession. no  such  thing  as  an  interaction  designer  ⁄  Thereʹs   either. ⁄  Anyone  who  claims  to  specialize  in  one  or  the  other  is  a  fool   or  a  liar.” ⁄  What  remains?
  33. ⁄ UX  covers all  aspects  of  the  end-­‐‑userʹs  interaction  1.    with  the  company,  its  services,   and  its  products.   2.  In  order  to  achieve  high-­‐‑quality  user  experience  in  a   companyʹs  offerings  there  must  be  a  seamless   merging  of  the  services  of   multiple   disciplines,  including  engineering,   marketing,  graphical  and  industrial  design,  and   interface  design.
  34. Credits!
  35. ⁄  IAI,  IxDA,  NN/g ⁄  Special  thanks  to:  Alan  Dix,  Ben  Shneiderman,   Christina  Wodtke,  Dan  Brown,  Don  Norman,  Erin   Malone,  George  Olsen,  Jan  Borchers,  Jesse  James   Garreb,  Jess  McMullin,  Olga  Howard,  Peter  Morville,   Theo  Mandel,  Todd  Warfel ⁄  As  always:  Wikipedia,  Boxes  and  Arrows ⁄  Images:,   /liewcf/894035077/,  /nypl/3109284623/     ⁄  To  be  continued  ... ⁄  What‘s  missing?  Jef  Raskin,  more  of  Don  Norman  (visibility  and  affordances),  Bill  Moggridge,   Bill  Buxton,  CMN,  Fibs,  Gestalt  laws,  mappings,  constraints,  storyboards,  the  usual  suspects   (sitemap,  persona,  wireframe).  What  else?
  36. ant  to  read  more?
  37. ⁄  &  the  Red  Fez ⁄  A  spectrum  of  inspirations,   from  international  marketing   to  IT ⁄