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Epidemiology lecture 1 introduction


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An introduction to, Definition, Approach and Aims

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Epidemiology lecture 1 introduction

  1. 1. EPIDEMIOLOGY Lecture 1: Introduction
  2. 2. Lecture Objectives By the end of this lecture, the student will be able to: 1. Understand the importance of epidemiology in medical sciences by knowing some of its achievements. 2. Define epidemiology. 3. Describe the epidemiologic approach. 4. Enumerate the aims of epidemiology.
  3. 3. JohnSnow Cholera
  4. 4. The contribution of John Snow Cholera is spread by contaminated water (1850) Vibrio cholerae hadn’t yet been discovered Many years before Louis Pasteur’s “Germ theory of disease” (1873)
  5. 5. How was Snow able to conclude that Cholera is spread by contaminated water?
  6. 6. Some important achievements in Epidemiology
  7. 7. 1. Smallpox Eradication
  8. 8. 2. Methyl Mercury poisoning
  9. 9. 3. Rheumatic fever and RHD Penicillin Poverty Poor housing Overcrowding
  10. 10. 4. Tobacco use, Asbestos and Lung cancer
  11. 11. 5. The HIV/AIDS Epidemic
  12. 12. The definition of epidemiology The study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to the prevention and control of health problems Observation, Surveillance, Hypothesis testing, Experiment Time, Place, Person Biological, Chemical, Social, Economic, Behavioural etc. Entire populations, Groups of populations (Occupation, Residence, Gender, Education etc.)
  13. 13. The Epidemiological Approach 1 Asking Questions WHAT? WHERE? WHEN? WH0? HOW? WHY? 2 Making Comparisons
  14. 14. Aims of Epidemiology • Describe distribution and magnitude of health and disease problems in human populations. • Identify etiological factors in disease pathogenesis. • Provide data essential to planning, implementation and evaluation of services for the prevention, control and treatment of disease and to the setting up of priorities among those services.
  15. 15. Sir Richard Doll (1912-2005)