Organizational Structure & Behaviour


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  • Early in the twentieth century, Henry Ford became rich and famous by building automobiles on an assembly line. Every Ford worker was assigned a specific, repetitive task. For instance, one person would just put on the right-front wheel and someone else would install the right-front door. By breaking jobs up into small standardized tasks, which could be performed over and over again, Ford was able to produce cars at the rate of one every 10 seconds, using employees who had relatively limited skills.
  • Functional departmentalization - Grouping activities by functions performed. Activities can be grouped according to function (work being done) to pursue economies of scale by placing employees with shared skills and knowledge into departments for example human resources, IT, accounting, manufacturing, logistics, and engineering. Functional departmentalization can be used in all types of organizations.Product departmentalization - Grouping activities by product line. Tasks can also be grouped according to a specific product or service, thus placing all activities related to the product or the service under one manager. Each major product area in the corporation is under the authority of a senior manager who is specialist in, and is responsible for, everything related to the product line. LA Gear is an example of company that uses product departmentalization. Its structure is based on its varied product lines which include women’s footwear, children’s footwear and men’s’ footwear.Customer departmentalization - Grouping activities on the basis of common customers or types of customers. Jobs may be grouped according to the type of customer served by the organization. The assumption is that customers in each department have a common set of problems and needs that can best be met by specialists. The sales activities in an office supply firm can be broken down into three departments that serve retail, wholesale and government accounts.Geographic departmentalization - Grouping activities on the basis of territory. If an organization's customers are geographically dispersed, it can group jobs based on geography. For example, the organization structure of Coca-Cola has reflected the company’s operation in two broad geographic areas – the North American sector and the international sector, which includes the Pacific Rim, the European Community, Northeast Europe, Africa and Latin America groups.
  • Advantages, disadvantages.
  • Advantages, disadvantages.
  • Smile.Few people want to be around someone who is always down in the dumps. Do your best to be friendly and upbeat with your coworkers. Maintain a positive, cheerful attitude about work and about life. Smile often. The positive energy you radiate will draw others to you.Be appreciative.Find one positive thing about everyone you work with and let them hear it. Be generous with praise and kind words of encouragement. Say thank you when someone helps you. Make colleagues feel welcome when they call or stop by your office. If you let others know that they are appreciated, they’ll want to give you their best. Pay attention to others.Observe what’s going on in other people’s lives. Acknowledge their happy milestones, and express concern and sympathy for difficult situations such as an illness or death. Make eye contact and address people by their first names. Ask others for their opinions. Practice active listening.To actively listen is to demonstrate that you intend to hear and understand another’s point of view. It means restating, in your own words, what the other person has said. In this way, you know that you understood their meaning and they know that your responses are more than lip service. Your coworkers will appreciate knowing that you really do listen to what they have to say. Bring people together.Create an environment that encourages others to work together. Treat everyone equally, and don't play favorites. Avoid talking about others behind their backs. Follow up on other people's suggestions or requests. When you make a statement or announcement, check to see that you have been understood. If folks see you as someone solid and fair, they will grow to trust you. Resolve conflicts.Take a step beyond simply bringing people together, and become someone who resolves conflicts when they arise. Learn how to be an effective mediator. If coworkers bicker over personal or professional disagreements, arrange to sit down with both parties and help sort out their differences. By taking on such a leadership role, you will garner respect and admiration from those around you. Communicate clearly.Pay close attention to both what you say and how you say it. A clear and effective communicator avoids misunderstandings with coworkers, collegues, and associates. Verbal eloquence projects an image of intelligence and maturity, no matter what your age. If you tend to blurt out anything that comes to mind, people won’t put much weight on your words or opinions. Humor them.Don’t be afraid to be funny or clever. Most people are drawn to a person that can make them laugh. Use your sense of humor as an effective tool to lower barriers and gain people’s affection. Don't complain.There is nothing worse than a chronic complainer or whiner. If you simply have to vent about something, save it for your diary. If you must verbalize your grievances, vent to your personal friends and family, and keep it short. Spare those around you, or else you’ll get a bad reputation.See it from their side.Empathy means being able to put yourself in someone else’s shoes and understand how they feel. Try to view situations and responses from another person’s perspective. This can be accomplished through staying in touch with your own emotions; those who are cut off from their own feelings are often unable to empathize with others.
  • Technology's transformation of the workplace not only places a premium on technical abilities, also puts employees' interpersonal skills to their greatest test. Ironically, the more advanced technology becomes, the more a worker's interpersonal skills are showcased. The reverse is also true -- people who are lacking in them will expose these shortcomings to widening audiences as the technological tools used in business result in more frequent information exchange. E-mail memos, for example, place writing skills in plain view of many different people simultaneously. Moreover, these are often forwarded to others. The pervasiveness of both audio and video teleconferencing will reveal verbal and diplomacy skills as well as negotiation and persuasion. In the final analysis, people skills may be even more difficult to acquire and master than technical expertise, since they are intangible.Research has shown that more people lose their jobs because they can't get along with others, i.e. have poor interpersonal skills, than those who are fired because they lack technical savvy. In fact, companies are now selecting new hires based on how they present themselves in writing, conduct themselves face-to-face, handle questions and ambiguity, analyze work styles, describe how they'd deal with selected scenarios -- past and future, connect with the interviewer, and in general, how well they communicate. Employers have found that you can train sharp people and teach them new skills they will need for the job. But, it is much more difficult (and in some cases impossible) to infuse individuals with a caring attitude, empathy, and all the other skills that make one a great communicator. In today's office, everything revolves around not good, but GREAT communication. In addition, administrative professionals often serve as communications hubs within their organizations. They work with internal customers (the managers they support and everyone who is part of the workflow - both up and down the organizational ladder) and external customers (clients, vendors, and business partners, to name a few). Admins must have a command of all forms of communication - written, verbal, presentations, e-mail, telephone etiquette, online interactions, listening skills, participation in workgroup meetings, and one-on-one interactions. It takes a master communicator to develop all these skills and continue to hone them for every situation.This means that you need to keep perfecting your successful interaction repertoire throughout your entire career.
  • Organizational Structure & Behaviour

    1. 1. Organizational Structure<br />&Organizational Behaviour<br />Group members: Ankur, Charmi,<br />Karishma, Raghav, Yamini<br />
    2. 2. Organizational Structure.<br />Formal divisions, grouping, and<br />coordination of job tasks.<br />
    3. 3. Organizational Structure.<br />6 KEY ELEMENTS:<br />Work Specialization<br />Departmentalization<br />Chain of Command<br />Span of Control<br />Centralization / Decentralization<br />Formalization<br />
    4. 4. Work Specialization<br />The degree to which<br />organizational tasks are<br />sub-divided into individual jobs.<br />
    5. 5. Game time <br />
    6. 6.
    7. 7. Henry Ford<br />
    8. 8.
    9. 9. High<br />Impact of<br />human<br />diseconomies<br />Productivity<br />Impact of<br />economies of<br />specialization<br />Work Specialization<br />Low<br />High<br />
    10. 10. Departmentalization<br />The basis on which<br />jobs in an organization<br />are grouped together.<br />
    11. 11. Departmentalization<br />BASES OF DEPARTMENTALIZATION:<br />Functions<br />Product<br />Geography<br />Process<br />Customer<br />
    12. 12. Chain of Command<br />Unbroken line of authority<br />from top to bottom,<br />clarifying who reports to whom.<br />
    13. 13. Chain of Command<br />RELATED CONCEPTS:<br />Authority<br />Unity of Command<br />
    14. 14. Span of Control <br />Number of subordinates a<br />manager can efficiently and<br />effectively direct.<br />
    15. 15.
    16. 16.
    17. 17. Centralization / Decentralization<br />The degree to which<br />decision making is concentrated<br />at a single point or distributed.<br />
    18. 18. Formalization<br />The degree to which jobs<br />within an organization are<br />standardized.<br />
    19. 19. Organizational Designs<br />Simple Structure<br />Bureaucracy <br />Team Structure<br />Virtual Organization<br />
    20. 20. The Simple Structure<br /><ul><li>Not elaborate.
    21. 21. Low degree of departmentalization.
    22. 22. Wide spans of control.
    23. 23. Centralized authority.
    24. 24. Less formalization.</li></li></ul><li>The Simple Structure<br /><ul><li> Widely practiced in small businesses.
    25. 25. Its strength is its simplicity.
    26. 26. Fast, flexible, inexpensive, clear</li></ul> accountability.<br />- Inadequate for large organizations.<br />
    27. 27.
    28. 28. Bureaucracy<br /><ul><li>Standardization.
    29. 29. Specialization.
    30. 30. Formalized rules and regulations.
    31. 31. Departmentalization.
    32. 32. Centralized authority.
    33. 33. Narrow span of control.
    34. 34. Chain of command is followed.</li></li></ul><li>Bureaucracy<br /><ul><li> Perform standardized tasks efficiently.
    35. 35. Economies of scale.
    36. 36. Minimum duplication of personnel and</li></ul> equipment.<br /><ul><li> Optimum use of less skilled mid / low</li></ul>level managers.<br />
    37. 37. Bureaucracy<br /><ul><li> Subunit conflicts may arise.
    38. 38. Obsessive concern with rules.</li></li></ul><li>
    39. 39. Bureaucracy<br />Asian Bureaucracies – top to bottom:<br />Singapore, Hong Kong, Thailand,<br />South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, Taiwan,<br />Vietnam, China, Philippines, Indonesia,<br />India.<br />
    40. 40. Team Structure<br /><ul><li> Breaks down departmental barriers.
    41. 41. Decentralization of decision making.
    42. 42. May complement / supplement a</li></ul> bureaucracy.<br />
    43. 43. Virtual Organization <br /><ul><li> Why own when you can rent?
    44. 44. Small, core organization that outsources</li></ul> major business functions.<br /><ul><li>Highly centralized.
    45. 45. Little or no departmentalization.
    46. 46. High flexibility.
    47. 47. Management has less control.</li></li></ul><li>Organizational Behaviour<br />The study and application of<br />knowledge about how people,<br />individuals, and groups act in<br />organizations.<br />
    48. 48. Interpersonal Skills<br />Skills that a person uses to<br />interact with other people.<br />
    49. 49.
    50. 50.
    51. 51.
    52. 52.
    53. 53. Interpersonal Skills<br />Smile. Be appreciative.<br />Pay attention to others.<br />Practice active listening.<br />Bring people together.<br />Resolve conflicts.<br />Communicate clearly.<br />Humor them. Don't complain.<br />See it from their side.<br />
    54. 54. Interpersonal Skills<br />Smile. Be appreciative.<br />Pay attention to others.<br />Practice active listening.<br />Bring people together.<br />Resolve conflicts.<br />Communicate clearly.<br />Humor them. Don't complain.<br />See it from their side.<br />