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Social and Political Stratification Definition
Systems of Stratification
Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification
Social Mobility and Inequality


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I'm a graduating STEM student of Senior High School in Makati Science High School (2018).

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Ucsp presentation

  1. 1. SOCIAL AND POLITICAL STRATIFICATION SOCIAL AND POLITICAL STRATIFICATION
  2. 2. The Concept of Social Stratification Social Stratification refers to the division of large social groups into smaller groups based on categories determined by economics. Members of society are arranged in hierarchy based on their access to or control over basic economic resources. GIVES RISE TO INEQUALITY“SOCIAL STANDING”
  3. 3. The Concept of Social Stratification Common Basis of social stratification: Wealth Property Gender Access to political power Race and Religion Access to material and cultural goods
  4. 4. The Concept of Social Stratification SOCIAL EXCLUSION Process by which individuals are cut off from full involvement in the wider circles of society. May be due to poor housing, lack of employment, inferior schools, or limited transportations. Leads to lack of opportunities for self-improvement.
  5. 5. SYSTEMS OF STRATIFICATION  Closed • Impose rigid boundaries between social groups • Limit interactions between members who belong to different social groups or occupy different levels in social hierarchy. • Resistant to change in social roles  Open • Mainly based on achievement, allowing more flexibility in social roles, increased social mobility, and better interaction
  6. 6. Caste Systems Are closed stratification systems because people are unable to change their social standing. Caste systems promote belief in fate, destiny, and the will of higher spiritual power rather than promotion of individual freedom. People born into caste society are socialized to accept their standing for the rest of their lives.There are no oppurtunities to improve one’s social position. SYSTEMS OF STRATIFICATION
  7. 7. Class system stratification system based on ownership of resources and the individual’s occupation or profession. A social class is composed of people who share the same background and characteristics (income, education & occupation). SYSTEMS OF STRATIFICATION
  8. 8. Class system People are free to move from one social class to another and achieve higher status in life through education and employment. Openness in class systems results in prevalence of exogamous marriages. SYSTEMS OF STRATIFICATION
  9. 9. exogamous marriages Marriages between people from different social classes endogamous marriages Marriages between people from same social class SYSTEMS OF STRATIFICATION
  10. 10. SYSTEMS OF STRATIFICATION MERITOCRACY System of stratification that is determined by personal effort and merit. Social standing advancements are determined by how well a person performs his or her social role. However it remains an ideal and is only implemented in business or industry.
  11. 11. SYSTEMS OF STRATIFICATION SOCIETY IN GENERAL, STILL REMAINS STRONGLY INFLUENCED BY OTHER FACTORS SUCH AS INHERITANCE AND PRESSURE TO CONFORM.
  12. 12. Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification FUNCTIONALISM CONFLICT THEORY SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM
  13. 13. Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification FUNCTIONALISM • Examines how the different aspects of society contribute to ensuring its stability and continued function. • Each part or aspect of society serves an important purpose • Stratification is based on intrinsic value of social activities or roles
  14. 14. Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification FUNCTIONALISM • Davis-Moore Thesis - Social role that has greater functional purpose will result in greater reward. - Certain tasks in society are more valued than others, and those who perform highly valued work are rewarded with greater income, prestige and power.
  15. 15. Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification FUNCTIONALISM CONFLICT THEORY SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM
  16. 16. Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification CONFLICT THEORY • Takes critical view of social stratification • Considers society as benefitting only a small segment • Stratification causes inequality • Drawn from ideas of Karl Marx
  17. 17. Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification CONFLICT THEORY • Karl Marx - social stratification is influences by economic forces and relationships in society are defined by factors of production. - Two groups: • Bourgeois (capitalists) – own factors of production ( land, resources, business and ploretariat ); UPPERCLASS • Ploretariat – workers who provide manual labor; LOWERCLASS
  18. 18. Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification CONFLICT THEORY • Karl Marx - INEQUALITY CAUSES WORKERS TO EXPERIENCE ALIENATION, ISOLATION, AND GREAT MISERY DUE TO POWERLESS STATUS. THIS LEADS TO CLASS CONFLICT.
  19. 19. Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification FUNCTIONALISM CONFLICT THEORY SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM
  20. 20. Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM • Microlevel perspective • Attempts to explain how people’s social standing affects their everyday interactions • Leads to interaction within the same class. • Stratification becomes a System that GROUPS people (interests, background, way of life)
  21. 21. Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM • People’s appearance reflects their perceived social standing • Theory of Conspicuous Consumption - Buying certain products to make a social statement about a status
  22. 22. Social MobilitySocial Mobility • Ability of individuals or groups to change their positions within a social stratification system • How individuals progress from a lower to a higher class, or how they lose their status and occupy much lower position in society • Major factor: Economic status (accumulation of wealth)
  23. 23. Social MobilitySocial Mobility • TWO MAIN TYPES: a) Upward Mobility – upward movement in social class. May be through education, employment or marriage. a) Downward Mobility – lowering of social class. Brought by economic setbacks, unemployment, illness and dropping out of school.
  24. 24. Social MobilitySocial Mobility • Classification based on GENERATION: a) Intragenerational - focuses on experiences of people who belong to same generation. - changes in mobility throughout the person’s lifetime a) Downward Mobility - Changes in individuals belonging to different generations
  25. 25. Social MobilitySocial Mobility • STRUCTURAL MOBILITY - large-scale changes resulting in improvement or decline of the conditions and status of a large group of people. - Main example: Industrial Age
  26. 26. Social Inequality Societies are usually characterized by divisions that reflect unequal distribution of status, wealth, and power within society. SOCIAL INEQUALITY AND POVERTY

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