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The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland

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This is our powerpoint presentation about the Hypothalamus, its function, what hormones it secretes and its main role in our body. This also has info about the Pituitary Gland, the hormones it releases and its function in our body.

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The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland

  1. 1. HYPOTHALAMUS PITUITARY Nuniala. Rojas. Aranjuez. Lara. Malimban. Villedo 10 - Einstein
  2. 2. HYPOTHALAMUS
  3. 3. • Almond-sized and can be found just above the brainstem • Main goal: maintain HOMEOSTASIS • Structure in the forebrain HYPOTHALAMUS
  4. 4. • Receives neuron signals from brain and PNS • Channels signals to pituitary gland • Secretes hormones to the pituitary gland for later usage HYPOTHALAMUS
  5. 5. PITUITARY GLAND • Pea-sized, reddish-gray body • Stores hormones from the hypothalamus and releases
  6. 6. PITUITARY GLAND • Controls other endocrine glands and body’s hormonal response to environment • Has 2 parts: anterior and posterior
  7. 7. PITUITARY GLAND 1. Anterior Lobe (Adenohypophysis) • Secretes hormones that regulate wide variety of bodily functions
  8. 8. PITUITARY GLAND Somatotrophs • Secrete humangrowth hormone(hGH), aka somatotropin, whichstimulates tissues to secrete hormones that stimulate bodygrowth and regulate metabolism.
  9. 9. PITUITARY GLAND Gonadotrophs • Secrete follicle-stimulatinghormone (FSH)and luteinizing hormone (LH), whichbothact on the gonads. They stimulatethe secretionof estrogen and progesterone, maturationof egg cells in the ovaries, and stimulatesperm productionandsecretion of testosterone in thetestes.
  10. 10. PITUITARY GLAND Lactotrophs • Secreteprolactin(PRL),which initiatesmilk productionin the mammaryglands.
  11. 11. PITUITARY GLAND Corticotrophs • Secreteadrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids (like cortisol). Also secretes melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH).
  12. 12. PITUITARY GLAND thyrotrophs • Secretethyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH), which controlssecretionsof the thyroid gland.
  13. 13. HORMONES SECRETED IN THE ANTERIOR LOBE • Human-growth hormone (hGH) - Tissues - Stimulates tissue growth in the liver, muscles, bones, as well as protein synthesis, tissue repair, and elevation of blood glucose levels. • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) - Thyroid gland - Stimulates thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormones.
  14. 14. HORMONES SECRETED IN THE ANTERIOR LOBE • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) - Ovaries and testes (gonads) - Stimulates development of oocytes (immature egg cells) and secretion of estrogen in females; stimulates sperm production in the testes in males.
  15. 15. HORMONES SECRETED IN THE ANTERIOR LOBE • Luteinizing hormone (LH) - Ovaries and testes (gonads) - Stimulates secretion of estrogen and progesterone, including during ovulation, in females; stimulates testes to produce testosterone in males.
  16. 16. HORMONES SECRETED IN THE ANTERIOR LOBE • Prolactin (PRL) - Mammary glands - Stimulates milk production. • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) - Adrenal cortex - Stimulates secretion of glucocorticoids (cortisol) by the adrenal cortex during the body’s response to stress.
  17. 17. HORMONES SECRETED IN THE ANTERIOR LOBE • Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) - Brain - When in excess, can cause darkening of the skin; may influence brain activity (its exact role unknown—there is very little MSH in humans).
  18. 18. 2. Posterior Lobe (Neurohypophysis) •This lobestores and releases only two hormones
  19. 19. Oxytocin (OT), aka the "love" drug • Secretes in response to uterine distention and stimulation of the nipples. • Stimulates smooth musclecontractions of the uterus during childbirth, as well as milk ejectionin the mammary glands.
  20. 20. Antidiuretic hormone(ADH), or vasopressin • Secretesinresponsetodehydration, bloodloss,pain,stress; inhibitors ofADHsecretion includehigh blood volumeand alcohol. • Decreasesurinevolume toconserve water,decreases waterloss through sweating,raises bloodpressure by constrictingarterioles
  21. 21. Pituitary disorders • most common disorder: benign tumors • two kind of pituitary tumors: secretory and non-secretory • can be removed, monitored, and controlled with proper medication.
  22. 22. Pituitary disorders Problems caused by tumors fall into certain categories: • Hyposecretion: Too little of a hormone is produced, interfering in normal function. • Hypersecretion: Too much of a hormone is produced, interfering in normal function. • Mass effects: The tumor presses on the pituitary or other areas of the brain, causing pain, vision

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