SPACE STATION Is a spacecraft capable of supporting a crewwhich is designed to remain in space for anextended period of time, and to which otherspacecraft can dock. Are used to study the effects of long-termspace flight on the human body as well as toprovide platforms for greater number andlength of scientific studies than available onother space vehicles. A large artificial satellite designed to beoccupied for long periods and to serve as abase (as for scientific observation).
SALYUT 1/SALUTE 1It was the first space station of anykind, launched by the Soviet Unionon April 19, 1971.At launch, the announced purpose ofSalyut was to test the elements ofthe systems of a space station andto conduct scientific research andexperiments.
SALYUT 1/SALUTE 1Structure:20m in length, 4m in maximum diameter, 99m³ in interior space with an on-orbitdry mass of 18,425 kg. Of its several compartments, threewere pressurized and two could beentered by the crew.Buffer chemical batteries Reserve supplies of oxygen andwater, and regeneration systems.Externally mounted were two doublesets of solar cell panels that extendedlike wings from the smallercompartments at each end.The heat regulation systems radiatorsOrientation and control devicesEquipped with the Orion Space IObservatory.
COMPARTMENTSTransfer Compartment It was equipped with the only docking port of Salyut 1,which allowed one Soyuz 7K-OKS spacecraft to dock.Main Compartment The second, and main, compartment was about 4m indiameter. Televised views showed enough space foreight big chairs, several control panels, and 20portholes.
AUXILIARY COMPARTMENTS The third pressurized compartment contained thecontrol and communications equipment, the powersupply, the life support system, and other auxiliaryequipment. The fourth, and final, unpressurized compartmentwas about 2 m in diameter and contained theengine installations and associated controlequipment.
SOYUZ 10 Soyuz 10 was launched 22 April 1971 with the planto dock to Salyut 1. The spacecraft was the first of the upgraded Soyuz7K-OKS, featuring the new "probe and drogue"docking mechanism with internal crew transfer,intended for visits of space stations.
Position CosmonautCommander Vladimir ShatalovFlight Engineer Aleksei YeliseyevTest Engineer Nikolai Rukanishkov
SOYUZ 10 The cosmonauts were able to navigate their Soyuz10 spacecraft to the Salyut 1 station, yet duringdocking they ran into problems. While the Soyuzcrew was able to achieve "soft dock" with Salyutthough the "probe and drogue" dockingmechanism, it failed to achieve "hard dock" bysecuring the docking collar – it was not possible forthe crew to enter the station safely.
SOYUZ 11 Soyuz 11 required 3 h 19 min on June 7 to completedocking. The crew transferred to Salyut and their mission wasannounced as: Checking the design, units, onboard systems, andequipment of the orbital piloted station. Testing the stations manual and autonomousprocedures for orientation and navigation, as well asthe control systems for maneuvering the spacecomplex in orbit. Studying Earths surface geology and geography,meteorology, and snow and ice cover. Studying physical characteristics, processes, andphenomena in the atmosphere and outer space invarious regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Conducting medico-biological studies to determinethe feasibility of having cosmonauts in the stationperform various tasks, and studying the influence ofspace flight on the human organism. Soyuz 11 crew: Georgi Dobrovolski Viktor Patsayev Vladislav Volkov
ALMAZ STATIONS Salyut 2 was a Soviet space station which waslaunched in 1973 as part of the Salyut programme. Salyut 2 was an Almaz military space station. It was the first Almaz military space station to fly. It was designated part of the Salyut programme inorder to conceal the existence of the two separatespace station programmes. Within two weeks of launch the station had lostattitude control and depressurised, leaving itunusable. It decayed from orbit by 28 May 1973, without anycrews having visited it.
SALYUT 2 Structure: Salyut 2 was 14.55 meters (47.7 ft with adiameter of 4.15 meters (13.6 ft) an internal habitable volume of 90 cubicmeters (3,200 cu ft). At launch it had a mass of 18,950kilograms (41,800 lb). A single aft-mounted docking port wasintended for use by Soyuz spacecraftcarrying cosmonauts to work aboard thestation. Two solar arrays mounted at the aft end ofthe station near the docking port providedpower to the station, generating a total of3,120 watts of electricity. The station was equipped with 32 attitudecontrol thrusters, as well as two RD-0225engines, each capable of generating 3.9kilonewtons (880 lbf) of thrust, for orbitalmaneuvers.
SALYUT 3 Salyut 3 was a Soviet space station launched onJune 25, 1974. It was the second Almaz military space station andthe first such station to be launched successfully. It was included in the Salyut program to disguise itstrue military nature. Due to the military nature of the station, the SovietUnion was reluctant to release information about itsdesign, and about the missions relating to thestation.
SALYUT 3Description:Earth-Observation Cameras The work compartment was dominatedby the Agat-1 Earth-observationtelescope. The telescope was used in conjunctionwith a wide-film camera, and was usedprimarily for military reconnaissancepurposes. The cosmonauts are said to haveobserved targets set out on the groundat Baikonur. Secondary objectives included study ofwater pollution, agricultural land,possible ore-bearing landforms, andDescription:On-board Guns The Salyut 3 station was equippedwith a"self-defence" gun, whichhad been designed for use aboardthe station, and whose design isattributed to Nudelman. Due to potential shaking of thestation, in-orbit tests of the weaponwith cosmonauts in the stationwere ruled out. The gun was fixed to the station insuch a way that the only way toaim would have been to changethe orientation of the entire station.
SALYUT 5 Salyut 5 also known as OPS-3, was a Soviet space station.Launched in 1976 as part of the Salyut programme, it was thethird and last Almaz space station to be launched for theSoviet military. Two Soyuz missions visited the station, each manned by twocosmonauts. A third Soyuz mission attempted to visit the station, but failedto dock, whilst a fourth mission was planned but neverlaunched. The primary objective of the Soyuz 21 mission aboard Salyut5 was to conduct military experiments, however scientificresearch was also conducted, which included studyingaquarium fish in microgravity and observing the sun.
SALYUT 6 Was a Soviet orbital space station Launched on 29 September 1977 by a Protonrocket the station was the first of the second-generation type of space station These crews were responsible for carrying out theprimary missions of Salyut 6, including astronomy,Earth-resources observations and the study of theeffect of spaceflight on the human body.
SALYUT 7 Salyut 7 was the back-up vehicle forSalyut 6 and very similar in equipmentand capabilities. Aside from the many experiments andobservations made on Salyut 7, thestation also tested the docking and useof large modules with an orbiting spacestation. The modules were called "HeavyKosmos modules" though in reality werevariants of the TKS spacecraft intendedfor the cancelled Almaz military spacestation. They helped engineers developtechnology necessary to build Mir. There were also four visiting missions,crews which came to bring supplies andmake shorter duration visits with theresident crews. Salyut 7 photographed following theundocking of Soyuz T-13, 25 September
SKYLAB Skylab was a space station launched and operated byNASA and was the U.S.s first space station. Skylab included the Apollo Telescope Mount, which wasa multi-spectral solar observatory, Multiple DockingAdapter (with two docking ports), Airlock Module withEVA hatches, and the Orbital Workshop, the mainhabitable volume. Electrical power came from solararrays, as well as fuel cells in the docked Apollo CSM. The rear of the station included a large waste tank,propellant tanks for maneuvering jets, and a heatradiator.
Skylab was also equipped with two docking ports,like second-generation stations, but the extra portwas never utilized. The presence of a second port on the new stationsallowed Progress supply vehicles to be docked tothe station, meaning that fresh supplies could bebrought to aid long-duration missions.
SKYLABSkylab as photographed by its departing finalcrew.
MIR (1986 – 1998) A space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, at firstby the Soviet Union and then by Russia. The first modular space station and had a greater mass than that of anyprevious spacecraft, holding the record for the largest artificial satelliteorbiting the Earth until its deorbit on 21 March 2001 Served as a microgravity research laboratory in which crews conductedexperiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorologyand spacecraft systems in order to develop technologies required for thepermanent occupation of space. The station was launched as part of the Soviet Unions mannedspaceflight programme effort to maintain a long-term research outpost inspace. Was authorised in a decree made on 17 February 1976 to design animproved model of the SalyutDOS-17K space stations.
MIR ON 9 FEBRUARY 1998 AS SEEN FROMTHE DEPARTING SPACESHUTTLE ENDEAVOUR DURING STS-89
INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION (ISS) 1998TO PRESENT The International Space Station (ISS) is a habitableartificial satellite in low Earth orbit. It follows the Salyut, Almaz, Skylab and Mir stations asthe ninth space station to be inhabited. The ISS serves as a microgravity and spaceenvironment research laboratory in which crewmembers conduct experiments in biology, humanbiology, physics, astronomy, meteorology and otherfields. The station is suited for the testing of spacecraftsystems and equipment required for missions to theMoon and Mars.
PURPOSE OF ISS According to the original Memorandum ofUnderstanding between NASA and RSA, theInternational Space Station was intended to be alaboratory, observatory and factory in space. It was also planned to provide transportation,maintenance, and act as a staging base forpossible future missions to the Moon, Mars andasteroids. In the 2010 United States National Space Policy,the ISS was given additional roles of servingcommercial, diplomatic and educational purposes.
INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATIONThe International Space Station, as seen fromSpace Shuttle Endeavour in May 2011.
TIANGONG Tiāngōng; literally "Heavenly Palace" Is a space station program of the Peoples Republicof China, with the goal of creating a third generationspace station, comparable to Mir.
SPACE LABORATORY PHASE Chinese efforts to develop LEO space stationcapabilities will begin with a space laboratoryphase, with the launch of three Tiangong spacemodules. Tiangong 1 "target vehicle“ Tiangong 2 "space laboratory“ Tiangong 3 "space station"
TIANGONG 1 “TARGET VEHICLE" The Chinese docking target consists of a propulsion(resource) module and a pressurized module forexperiments, with a docking mechanism at either end. The docking port of the experiment section supportsautomated docking. Its length is 10.5 metres (34 ft), diameter is 3.4 metres(11 ft), with a mass of 8,000 kilograms (18,000 lb). Launched on September 29, 2011, it is intended forshort stays of a crew of three.
TIANGONG 2 “SPACE LABORATORY" The Chinese Space Lab will be launched in 2013. Configuration is as follows: Crew Size: 3, with 20 days of life supportresources. Length: 14.4 metres (47 ft) Maximum Diameter: 4.2 metres (14 ft) Mass: 20,000 kilograms (44,000 lb) Two docking ports
TIANGONG 3 “SPACE STATION" As of March 2011, the Chinese Space Lab isplanned to be launched in the 2015 timeframe. 40 days of living conditions for three astronauts. Evaluate regenerative life-support technology, andverify orbital replenishment of propellant and air.
ARCHITECTURE A space station is a complex systemwith many interrelated subsystems: Structure Electrical power Thermal control Attitude determination and control Orbital navigation and propulsion Automation and robotics Computing and communications Environmental and life support Crew facilities Crew and cargo transportation
LIST OF SPACE STATIONS The Soviet space stations came in two types, the civilian Durable Orbital Station (DOS), and themilitary Almaz stations. (dates refer to periods when stations were inhabited by crews) Salyut space stations (USSR, 1971–1986) Salyut 1 (1971, 1 crew and 1 failed docking) DOS-2 (1972, launch failure) Salyut 2/Almaz (1973, failed shortly after launch) Cosmos 557 (1973, re-entered eleven days after launch) Salyut 3/Almaz (1974, 1 crew and 1 failed docking) Salyut 4 (1975, 2 crews and 1 planned crew failed to achieve orbit) Salyut 5/Almaz (1976–1977, 2 crews and 1 failed docking) Salyut 6 (1977–1981, 16 crews (5 long duration, 11 short duration and 1 failed docking) Salyut 7 (1982–1986, 10 crews (6 long duration, 4 short duration and 1 failed docking) Skylab (USA, 1973–1979, 3 crews) Mir / (USSR/Russia, 1986–2000, 28 long duration crews) International Space Station (ISS) //// (Russia, United States, European Space Agency, Japan,and Canada 2000–ongoing, 30 long duration crews as of April 2012) Tiangong (China, 2011–ongoing) Tiangong 1 (2011–ongoing, 1 crew as of June 2012)