TIMELINEc. 25000 B.C. Sandia people leave earliest evidence of human existence in what is now New Mexico.c. 10000-9000 B.C. Clovis hunters roam area in search of mammoth, bison and other game.c. 10000-500 B.C. Cochise people are first inhabitants to cultivate corn, squash and beans, the earliestevidence of agriculture in the Southwest.A.D. 300-1400 Mogollon culture introduces highly artistic pottery and early architecture in the form ofpit houses.A.D. 1-700 Anasazi basketmakers elevate weaving to a high art, creating baskets, clothing, sandals andutensils.A.D. 700-1300 Anasazi culture culminates in the highly developed Chaco Civilization (also MesaVerde).A.D. 1200-1500s Pueblo Indians establish villages along the Rio Grande and its tributaries.1536 Cabeza de Vaca, Estevan the Moor and two others reach Culiacdn, Mexico, after possiblycrossing what is now southern New Mexico, and begin rumors of the Seven Cities of Cibola.1540-42 Francisco Vasquez de Coronado explores area from Gulf of California to present-day Kansas,discovers the Grand Canyon.1598 Juan de Onate establishes the first Spanish capital of San Juan de los Caballeros at the Tewavillage of Ohke north of present-day Espanola1599 Battle at Aroma between natives and Spaniards; seeds of Pueblo Revolt
1600 San Gabriel, second capital of New Mexico, is founded at the confluence of the Rio Grande and the Chama River.1601 Mass desertion of San Gabriel by colonists; new recruits front Spain and Mexico sent to reinforce colony.1605 Onate expedition to the Colorado River; visits El Morro, leaves message on Inscription Rock.1608 Onate removed as governor and sent to Mexico City to be tried for mistreatment of the Indians and abuse of power.Decision made by Spanish Crown to continue settlement of New Mexico as a royal province.1609-10 Gov. Pedro de Peralta establishes a new capital at Santa Fe. Construction begins on the Palace of theGovernors. Gaspar de Villagra publishes epic history on the founding of New Mexico, the first book printed about anyarea in the modern United States.1626 Spanish Inquisition established in New Mexico.1641 Gov. Luis de Rosas assassinated by colonists during conflict between the church and state.1680 Pueblo Indian Revolt. Spanish survivors flee to El Paso del Norte.Late 1600s Navajos, Apaches and Comanches begin raids against Pueblo Indians.1692-93 Don Diego de Vargas recolonizes Santa Fe. Spanish civilization returns to New Mexico.1696 Second Pueblo Revolt; efforts thwarted by Gov. De Vargas.1706 Villa de Albuquerque founded.1743 French trappers reach Santa Fe and begin limited trade with the Spanish.1776 Franciscan friars Dominguez and Escalante explore route from out New Mexico to California.1786 Gov. Juan Bautista de Anza makes peace with the Comanches.1793 First school text printed in New Mexico by Padre Antonio Jose Morales
1807 Zebulon Pike leads first Anglo American expedition into New Mexico. Publishes account of way of life in NewMexico upon return to U.S.1821 Mexico declares independence from Spain. Santa Fe Trail opened to international trade.1837 Chimayo Revolt against Mexican taxation leads to the assassination of Gov. Albino Perez and top officials.1841 Texas soldiers invade New Mexico and claim all land east of the Rio Grande. Efforts thwarted by Gov. ManuelArmijo.1846 Mexican-American War begins. Stephen Watts Kearny annexes New Mexico to the United States.1847 Taos Rebellion against the U.S. military. Gov. Chat Charles Bent killed.1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends Mexican-American War.1850 New Mexico (which included present-day Arizona, southern Colorado, southern Utah, and southern Nevada) isdesignated a territory but denied statehood.1854 The Gadsden Purchase front Mexico adds 45,000 square miles to the territory1861 Confederates invade New Mexico front Texas. The Confederate Territory of Arizona is declared with the capital at LaMesilla. Territory of Colorado is created. New Mexico loses extreme northern-most section to the new territory1863-68 Known as the "Long Walk," Navajos and Apaches are relocated to Bosque Redondo: finally allowed to return totheir homelands after thousands die of disease and starvation.1863 New Mexico is partitioned in half. Territory of Arizona is created.1878 The railroad arrives in New Mexico, opening full-scale trade and migration from the east and midwest. LincolnCounty War erupts in southeast New Mexico1886 Geronimo surrenders; Indian hostilities cease in the Southwest.1898 First movie filmed in New Mexico, Indian Day School by Thomas Edison
1906 People of New Mexico and Arizona vote on issue of joint statehood, New Mexico voting in favor and Arizonaagainst.1912 New Mexico admitted to the Union as the 47th state.1916 Pancho Villa raids Columbus, N.M.1923-24 Oil is discovered on the Navajo Reservation.1930-43 Great Depression. Federal New Deal funds provide employment for many and causes numerous publicbuildings to be constructed.1942-45 New Mexico soldiers serving in the 200th Coast Artillery during World War II are captured by the Japaneseand forced to endure the Bataan Death March. Navajo "Codetalkers" are influential in helping end the war. Secretatomic laboratories established at Los Alamos.1945 Worlds first atomic bomb detonated at Trinity Site in southern New Mexico after its development at LosAlamos.1948 Native Americans win the right to vote in state elections.195O Uranium discovered near Grants.1957 Buddy Holly records Peggy Sue at Norman Petty Studio in Clovis.1966 New state capitol, the "Roundhouse," is dedicated.1969 Proposed new state constitution is rejected by voters.1982 Space shuttle Columbia lands at White Sands Space Harbor oil Holloman Air Force Base near Alamogordo.1992 New Mexico observes Columbus Quincentenary, welcomes Cristobal Colon XX, direct descendent ofChristopher Columbus.1998 New Mexico celebrates its cuartocentenario, commemorating its 1598 founding by Juan de Onate
Chaco Canyon National Historic Park ca. 850--1150C.E.
Anasazi:The Ancient OnesClassic Pueblo Period (1100-1300 C.E.)
Ancestral Puebloans of the Southwesthttp:/www.thefurtrapper.com/anas
The Pueblo Peoplehttp://www.sacred-texts.com/nam/sw/dg/dg
San Juan PuebloJuan de Oñate established the first Spanish capital city in New Mexico near San Juan Pueblo in1598. Traditionally, San Juan (Oke in Tewa) was the center of an Indian meeting ground, itspeople so powerful that only an Oke native could declare war for the Pueblo Indians. Althoughcalled a Taoseño, Pueblo Revolt leader Popé actually was a San Juan native.San Juan lies 25 miles (40 km) north of Santa Fe on U.S. 84/285 and five miles north ofEspañola off N.M. 68. It is one of the largest Tewa-speaking pueblos with a population of 6,748according to the Census in 2000. Today, the pueblo is the headquarters of the Eight NorthernIndian Pueblos Council and home to the Oke-Oweenge Crafts Cooperative, (505) 852-2372,which exhibits the art of the eight northern pueblos. The main art focus of this Tewa village isredware pottery, weaving and painting
San Juan Pueblo DemographicsAs of the census GR2 of 2000, there were 592 people, 193 households, and 152 familiesresiding in the CDP. The population density was 401.0/km² (1,035.8/mi² ). There were227 housing units at an average density of 153.8/km² (397.2/mi² ). The racial makeup ofthe CDP was 4.05% White, 0.34% African American, 84.97% Native American, 0.17%Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 7.60% from other races, and 2.87% from two or moreraces. 27.03% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.There were 193households out of which 39.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.9%were married couples living together, 27.5% had a female householder with no husbandpresent, and 21.2% were non-families. 19.2% of all households were made up ofindividuals and 6.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. Theaverage household size was 3.06 and the average family size was 3.39.In the CDP thepopulation was spread out with 31.4% under the age of 18, 8.6% from 18 to 24, 29.7%from 25 to 44, 19.4% from 45 to 64, and 10.8% who were 65 years of age or older. Themedian age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 86.8 males. For every 100females age 18 and over, there were 76.5 males.The median income for a household inthe CDP was $26,667, and the median income for a family was $27,500. Males had amedian income of $22,721 versus $19,250 for females. The per capita income for theCDP was $10,568. 25.6% of the population and 19.3% of families were below thepoverty line. 40.4% of those under the age of 18 and 14.9% of those 65 and older wereliving below the poverty line.
San Juan Pueblo historyhttp://www.newmexicohistory.org/f iledetails.php?fileID=510
Dances of the Rio Grande Pueblos http://www.sacred- texts.com/nam/sw/dg/dg04.htm
Tewa Pueblo dancesWinter Buffalodance Deer dance