West African tribal rootsAshanti        YorubaHausa          IboBini           FantiEfik           AkanMalinke        EweW...
Village scene, Iddah, Nigeria,    mid-nineteenth century
Village of Gourcy, Burkina Faso, West Africa,              late 20th century
7 dimensions of West African music          performance      1- community context      2- musical performers      3- instr...
Community Context• Occasional – functions as indispensable ingredient of  religious or social activity. Gives meaning to r...
African American music• What happens to a tribal music when  the conditions of life are rapidly and  radically changed thr...
Musical Performers• Music makers include both men and women, both  soloist and ensemble. Soloist is often leader in call  ...
Instruments (including voice)• Intimate relationship between tonal language and  musical sound in performance of African i...
Rhythm• Metrical structure with regular beats complemented  by emphasis on syncopation, playing off the beats.• Additive s...
Melodic material• Melodic contour related to language intonation. Less  emphasis on fixed pitch and more attention to pitc...
Form and texture• Call and response forms. Socially oriented music  often improvised for special occasions. Often cyclical...
Ruins of Fort on St. James Island    Where Slaves Were Held
Cell Where Slaves Were Held onSt. James Island, Gambia, important slave-trade port
West African Slave Trade
Nineteenth century lithograph of a French ship             transporting slaves
Loading slaves aboard slave ship,       mid-19th century
Enslaved Africans in Hold of Slave Ship,                 1827
Slave Advertisements, Virginia 1712
Planting Rice, U.S. South, 1859
Weeding Rice Field, U.S. South, 19th cent.
Planting Sweet Potatoes, Edisto Island,         South Carolina, 1862
Slave group singing, Virginia, 1840s
Nat Turners Rebellion, Virginia 1831
Bessie Jones,Brunswick, GAGeorgia Sea Island Singers
Paul Robeson
Azusa Street Mission, Los Angeles 1907
Azusa Street Mission, 1910
Pentecostal congregation
Thomas Dorsey, 1939
Thomas Dorsey
Roberta Martin
The Soul Stirrers
Golden Gate Quartet
The Dixie Hummingbirds
Mahalia Jackson
Mahalia Jackson
Marion Williams
Reverend James Cleveland
Aretha Franklin
Inez Andrews
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Black Gospel Music Powerpoint

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Black Gospel Music Powerpoint

  1. 1. West African tribal rootsAshanti YorubaHausa IboBini FantiEfik AkanMalinke EweWolof Bambara
  2. 2. Village scene, Iddah, Nigeria, mid-nineteenth century
  3. 3. Village of Gourcy, Burkina Faso, West Africa, late 20th century
  4. 4. 7 dimensions of West African music performance 1- community context 2- musical performers 3- instruments (including voice) 4- rhythm 5- melodic material 6- form 7- texture
  5. 5. Community Context• Occasional – functions as indispensable ingredient of religious or social activity. Gives meaning to ritual.• Music is “a primary vehicle for man’s communication with the supernatural, symbolizing a person’s identity with a group, reflecting and reinforcing the dominant characteristics, values and directions of a culture.” What happens to the music when a society is moved, changed and not permitted to pursue its old religion(s)?
  6. 6. African American music• What happens to a tribal music when the conditions of life are rapidly and radically changed through geographical displacement, enslavement, and infusion of non-tribal, Western musical and cultural elements?
  7. 7. Musical Performers• Music makers include both men and women, both soloist and ensemble. Soloist is often leader in call and response ceremonial song, which underscores social integration (expert is socially integrated into a community/group)• Cross-fertilization between music and dance – John Miller Chernoff remarks that for an African, “understanding” a certain type of music means, in its most fundamental sense, knowing what dance it accompanies
  8. 8. Instruments (including voice)• Intimate relationship between tonal language and musical sound in performance of African instruments. Use of instruments to emulate human voice, extending to percussion instruments, most notably the kalangu, talking drum of west Africa• Value of “dirty” tones, non-pitch specific sounds which add to richness of sound.
  9. 9. Rhythm• Metrical structure with regular beats complemented by emphasis on syncopation, playing off the beats.• Additive structure of short repeated rhythmic patterns. Prolonged steady tempo gives music cohesiveness and propulsion. Unchaning steady beat called”hot” in Africa and in jazz/blues/rhythm and blues• Rhythmic polyphony displays superimposition of many varying meters over basic pulse pattern. Complex pattern combinations create rhythmic variety.
  10. 10. Melodic material• Melodic contour related to language intonation. Less emphasis on fixed pitch and more attention to pitch relationships. Melodic ideas connected to speech patterns. Pentatonic/heptatonic pitch systems related to blues scales (notes “in-between the keys”)• Tendency to use short phrases or motives to build larger patterns. Additive nature of melodies combine with additive nature of rhythms
  11. 11. Form and texture• Call and response forms. Socially oriented music often improvised for special occasions. Often cyclical structure. Improvisation celebrates special unique nature of the moment, not to be mechanically reproduced. Also characteristic of non-literate societies…• Variety of simultaneous sounds (solo vs. response), variety of melodic phrases (improvised variation, melismas, swoops, growls, timbral changes)
  12. 12. Ruins of Fort on St. James Island Where Slaves Were Held
  13. 13. Cell Where Slaves Were Held onSt. James Island, Gambia, important slave-trade port
  14. 14. West African Slave Trade
  15. 15. Nineteenth century lithograph of a French ship transporting slaves
  16. 16. Loading slaves aboard slave ship, mid-19th century
  17. 17. Enslaved Africans in Hold of Slave Ship, 1827
  18. 18. Slave Advertisements, Virginia 1712
  19. 19. Planting Rice, U.S. South, 1859
  20. 20. Weeding Rice Field, U.S. South, 19th cent.
  21. 21. Planting Sweet Potatoes, Edisto Island, South Carolina, 1862
  22. 22. Slave group singing, Virginia, 1840s
  23. 23. Nat Turners Rebellion, Virginia 1831
  24. 24. Bessie Jones,Brunswick, GAGeorgia Sea Island Singers
  25. 25. Paul Robeson
  26. 26. Azusa Street Mission, Los Angeles 1907
  27. 27. Azusa Street Mission, 1910
  28. 28. Pentecostal congregation
  29. 29. Thomas Dorsey, 1939
  30. 30. Thomas Dorsey
  31. 31. Roberta Martin
  32. 32. The Soul Stirrers
  33. 33. Golden Gate Quartet
  34. 34. The Dixie Hummingbirds
  35. 35. Mahalia Jackson
  36. 36. Mahalia Jackson
  37. 37. Marion Williams
  38. 38. Reverend James Cleveland
  39. 39. Aretha Franklin
  40. 40. Inez Andrews

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