Leben in der Arbeit- German Cohart Study on Work, Age and Health


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Eduprof Expertmeeting 14-15 April 2011 Groningen

Workshop Applied Sports Sciences

Presentation by Angela Rauch, Anita Tisch, Silke Tophoven and Stefan Bender of the Institute für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung, Germany

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Leben in der Arbeit- German Cohart Study on Work, Age and Health

  1. 1. „lidA– leben in der Arbeit“<br />German Cohort Study<br />on Work, Age and Health<br />Angela Rauch, Anita Tisch, <br />Silke Tophoven and<br />Stefan Bender (IAB)<br />Groningen <br />April 14, 2011<br />
  2. 2. Outline<br />Motivation I and II<br />Main Questions<br />The lidA-cohorts<br />Facts about lidA (Content, Sampling Design)<br />Linkage with Administrative Data<br />Related German surveys<br />Conclusion<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Motivation I<br />Estimation of job displacement on Mortality (Sullivan/von Wachter 2010)<br />Admin Data of male Pennsylvanian workers in 70s/80s matched to Social Security Administration death records 1980-2006.<br />For high-seniority male workers, mortality rates in the year after displacement are 50-100% higher.<br /> The effect declines sharply over time, but even 20 years later still 10-15% increase in annual death hazards.<br />A loss in life expectancy of 1.0-1.5 years for a worker displaced at age 40. <br />Workers with larger losses in earnings tend to suffer greater increases in mortality (no causal effect). <br />3<br />
  4. 4. Motivation II<br />The working life of tomorrow will be characterised by <br />higher intensity of work, <br />much faster rate of change (technology and organisation), <br />flexible working hours and arrangements, <br />more interpersonal work/group work, <br />higher proportion of immigrant workers etc. <br />4<br />
  5. 5. Motivation II<br />5<br />Older work force as demographic changes prohibit early labour exit possibilities and incentives. <br />Effective average retirement age may rise from just under 60 (2005) to almost 65 by 2050 (Börsch-Supan 2005).<br />Source: Federal Statistical Office (2009). Results of the 12th coordinated population projection. Variant: “Medium“ population, lower limit .<br />
  6. 6. Main questions<br />Participation in the labour force among elderly persons depends on two main factors:<br /> Can the person work? (work ability). Functional ability (health)<br /> Does the person want to (continue to) work? (motivation, willingness). Psychological factors and positive qualities of work (may connected with health)<br />Work affects health and health effects work!!!<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Main Questions<br />Main question:<br /><ul><li>How does work affect health and vice versa in higher working age?</li></ul>Basic research models:<br /><ul><li>The influence of different work exposures on health under the control of individual factors and socioeconomic status
  8. 8. The influence of socioeconomic status on health under the control of individual and work related factors
  9. 9. Gender-specific aspects of the relationship between work and health (different diseases, specific work aspects, non-work setting)</li></ul>7<br />
  10. 10. Main factsandideas<br />Deterioration of health begins after the age of 45 – especially among women and people with low educational levels <br /> The influences of age, cohort and time need to be separable in order to detect and forecast real developments. <br />The application of a cohort-sequential design (known as Schaie's “Most Efficient Design”) allows for a tri-factor model isolating the impact of the factors age, cohort and time on work-related health. <br />8<br />
  11. 11. German Baby Boomers<br />9<br />Births – Germany (West)<br />Births – Germany (Total)<br />Total fertility rate East<br />Total fertility rate West<br />Source: Federal Statistical Office 2010, BiB 2010; compiledbytheauthors.<br />
  12. 12. Framework conditionsoflabourmarketentry – overalleconomicdevelopment<br />10<br />1959 cohortage 25<br />1965 cohortage 25<br />1965 cohortage 16<br />1959 cohortage16<br />Unemployment rate (ofdependentcilivianworkingpopulation - percentage)<br />Gross domesticproduct (priceadjusted, GDP - yeartoyearpercentchange)<br />Source: Federal Statistical Office 2011, compiledbytheauthors.<br />
  13. 13. 11<br />The lidA-cohortsIn general<br />German Baby Boomers<br />1959: 1.24 millionbirths (GDR +FRG)<br />1965: 1.33 millionbirths (GDR +FRG)<br />Profiteers oftheeducationalexpansion in Germany<br />Labour marketentryduringeconomiccrises<br />Now: Atthethresholdtoolderworkingage<br />2008: 932,358 employeescoveredbysocialsecurityborn 1959; <br />1,048,788 employeescoveredbysocialsecurityborn 1965;<br />aboutthe same proportionofmenandwomen<br />In thefuture: A challengeforthesocialsecuritysystems<br />
  14. 14. Study DesignSequential Cohort Design<br />46<br />2011<br />2013<br />2016<br />2019<br />1959 cohort<br />1965 cohort<br />1971 cohort<br />cohort effects<br />age effects<br />period effects<br />52<br />48<br />54<br />51<br />45<br />57<br />48<br />54<br />60<br />12<br />
  15. 15. Facts aboutthesurvey<br /> 6,000 randomly chosen persons in two cohorts: <br />approx. 2,700 of the 59-cohort<br />approx. 3,300 of the 65-cohort<br />Duration of the questionaire: approx. 1 hour <br />CAPI-interviews<br />Follow-up after 3 years (panel design)<br />13<br />
  16. 16. Work: Physical exposure and psychosocial work exposure <br />Professional aspects: Work history, job satisfaction, work-home interference, employment status, retirement expectations, work ability <br />Subjective health and health indicators: Interviewee’s own rating of physical and psychological health, health behaviour, restrictions in activity, cognitive functioning, anxiety, depression, fatigue, addictive behaviour<br />Objective health indicators: Hand grip strength test<br />Personal aspects: Lifestyle factors, activities of daily living, life satisfaction, self confidence, motivation <br />Socio-demographic background: Age, gender, marital status, education level, occupational position, occupational biography <br />14<br />
  17. 17. Sampling Design<br />15<br /><ul><li>sample drawn from the employment history data (BeH) of the federal employment agency
  18. 18. two-stage sampling design:
  19. 19. first stage: 222 sample points, drawn proportionately to the population
  20. 20. big cities are represented by more than one sample point
  21. 21. second stage: random selection of respondents within the sample points
  22. 22. the same amount of interviews in each sample point
  23. 23. disproportional distribution of the two cohorts (oversampling of the 1965s cohort)</li></li></ul><li>Linkage with Administrative Data<br />Survey Data<br /> (CAPI)<br />Health insurance <br />data<br />Administrative <br />Datasets of the <br />Federal Employment Agency<br />16<br />‘Administrative data are computerized records that are gathered for some administrative purpose, but contain information that can be used for other purposes as well.’ (John Billings)<br />‘Administrative data describes information collected by persons, organizations or departments of government for their own purposes.’ (Statistics Canada)<br />
  24. 24. Linkage with Administrative Data I<br />Health Insurance Data<br />Health insurance data*<br />health insurance master data <br />data on inpatient care<br />data on outpatient care<br />disablement data<br />Work-Health-Matrix<br />(aggregated data)<br />* Preliminary information as of September 2010<br />17<br />
  25. 25. Datasets of the Federal Employment Agency<br />Establishment History Panel (BHP)<br />Integrated employment Biographies (IEB)<br />18<br />Linkage with Administrative Data II <br />Administrative Datasets of the Federal Employment Agency<br /><ul><li> total number of employees
  26. 26. number of full-time employees
  27. 27. number of female employees 
  28. 28. employee age structure
  29. 29. wage structure
  30. 30.
  31. 31. cross sectional data </li></ul> (time reference 30 June)<br /><ul><li> times of employment
  32. 32. times of unemployment
  33. 33. information on job search
  34. 34. participation in employment and </li></ul> training measures<br /><ul><li> …
  35. 35. longitudinal data on a daily basis</li></ul> (west: 1975-2009; east: 1990-2009)<br />
  36. 36. 19<br />The lidA-cohortsEmployment Status<br />Men<br />Employmentstatus<br />byage, born 1959<br />Women<br />Employmentstatus<br />byage, born 1959<br />
  37. 37. 20<br />The lidA-cohortsEmployment Status<br />Men<br />Employmentstatus<br />byage, born 1965<br />Women<br />Employmentstatus<br />byage, born 1965<br />
  38. 38. Maybetheother (short) presentation?<br />21<br />
  39. 39. 22<br />Linkage with Administrative Data III <br />First results of the pretest 2010 (n=200)<br />Linkage between survey data and administrative data:<br />1. Agreement rates:<br />
  40. 40. 23<br />Linkage with Administrative Data IV <br />Health insurance data<br />Difficulties record linkage health insurance data:<br />Individual level:<br /><ul><li> health data = sensitive data
  41. 41. written agreement necessary
  42. 42. misspelling insurance number or insurance company’s name</li></li></ul><li>24<br />Linkage with Administrative Data IV <br />Health insurance data<br />Difficulties record linkage health insurance data:<br />Individual level:<br />
  43. 43. 25<br />Linkage with Administrative Data IV <br />Health insurance data<br />Difficulties record linkage health insurance data:<br />Individual level:<br /><ul><li> health data = sensitive data
  44. 44. written agreement necessary
  45. 45. misspelling insurance number or insurance company’s name</li></ul>Insurance company level:<br /><ul><li>only statutory health insurances
  46. 46. large and changing number of insurances in Germany (>160)
  47. 47. many small and regional insurances</li></li></ul><li>26<br />Linkage with Administrative Data IV <br />Health insurance data<br />Difficulties record linkage health insurance data:<br />Pretest 2010:<br /><ul><li>131 persons in 34 different insurance companies</li></li></ul><li>Outlook forthesurvey<br />contact to health insurance companies (ongoing)<br />February to summer 2011: data collection first wave <br />September 2011: linkage to health insurance data and employment histories<br />August/September 2013: start of the second wave of the survey<br />27<br />
  48. 48. SHARE - Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe<br />SHARE is a multidisciplinary and cross-national panel database of micro data on health, socio-economic status and social and family networks of more than 45,000 individuals aged 50 or over.<br />In 2008 was selected as one of the projects to be implemented in the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI).<br />Eleven countries contributed data to the 2004 SHARE baseline study (Denmark, Sweden, Austria, France, Germany, Switzerland, Belgium, the Netherlands, Spain, Italy and Greece). After 2005: Israel, Czech Republic, Poland and Ireland. <br />28<br />
  49. 49. SHARE - content<br />health variables<br />bio-markers (e.g. grip strength, body-mass index, peak flow), <br />psychological variables (e.g. well-being, life satisfaction),<br />economic variables <br />social support variables (e.g. assistance within families, transfers of income and assets, social networks, volunteer activities).<br />For Germany: link between SHARE and administrative data from the German Pension System<br />29<br />
  50. 50. Future data: The National Cohort<br />The National Cohort will be an intensive investigation of the health, lifestyle and genetics of 200,000 people over 10 years.<br />One hour survey and one additional our medical examination (for example biomarkers), follow-up after 5 years (plan: lifelong study).<br />40,000 participants will be scanned with advanced magnetic resonance imaging (early signs of common diseases).<br />Main question: how chronic diseases are conditioned by lifestyle and environmental issues, as well as by genetic.<br />Plan: Linkage to administrative data (agreement of the individuals).<br />30<br />
  51. 51. Conclusion<br />Labour marketandhealth will be a keytopicforresearch in thenextyears<br />Linkageofsurveys, medicaltestdataandadministrateddata (agreementoftheindividuals)<br />lidA will helpto unterstand therelationbetweenhealthandwork (hopeyouagree!) <br />Same design forthe National Cohort<br />Need for cross-national comparison (Share)<br />31<br />
  52. 52. lidA - Konsortium<br />Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung<br />Angela Rauch (Projektleiterin) <br />Stefan Bender <br />Markus Promberger<br />Patrycja Scioch<br />Anita Tisch<br />Silke Tophoven <br />Mark Trappmann<br />Bergische Universität Wuppertal<br />Bernd Hans Müller (Projektleiter)<br />Juliane Hardt<br />Melanie Ebener<br />Mario Iskenius <br />Martin Willner<br />Universität Magdeburg<br />Enno Swart (Projektleiter) <br /> Stefanie March<br />Dorothea Thomas<br />Universität Ulm<br />Richard Peter (Projektleiter) <br /> Jean-Baptist du Prel <br />infas <br />Helmut Schröder (Projektleiter) <br /> Jacob Steinwede<br />Anne Kersting<br />Töres Theorell<br />Tage S. Kristensen<br />associated partner: Hans Martin Hasselhorn, Uwe Rose (BAuA) <br />32<br />
  53. 53. stefan.bender@iab.dewww.iab.dewww.lida-studie.de<br />33<br />
  54. 54. Tage S. Kristensen<br />34<br />Backup<br />
  55. 55. Employmentstatus<br />byage, born 1959<br />35<br />The lidA-cohortsEmployment Status<br />Employmentstatus<br />byage, born 1965<br />
  56. 56. 36<br />The lidA-cohortsEducation<br />Quelle: Statistisches Bundesamt 2009. Eigene Darstellung.<br />