Welcome to     Nalanda Institute               Malaysia    Department of Buddhist & Pāli Studies    BPS271 Satipatthana Su...
Pāli Scriptures                      BuddhaVacana   DHAMMA               DHAMMAVINAYA                 VINAYA    Doctrine  ...
Pāli Scriptures       First Choral Chanting (Saṅgīti)                                VINAYA    Bhikkhu                    ...
Pāli Scriptures              Third Saṅgīti (or later)                            TIPIṬAKA                          Three B...
Location of Kuru        Sāvatthi                                Vesālī                   Bārānasī                         ...
Ajahn Sujāto’s     Five Nikāyas             Scrutiny of          Four                                  Āgamas          Sat...
Based on●   Concordance of the 7 main texts●   Internal coherence of material●   Intertextual relationship with the rest o...
SuggestsThat the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta (MN 10)● is not an authentic discourse of the Buddha,● but a padded up discourse,● wit...
Details       A History of     MindfulnessHow insight worsted tranquility in     the Satipatthana Sutta       By Bhikkhu S...
Mindfulness   in Early Buddhism      New approaches throughpsychology and textual analysis ofPali, Chinese and Sanskrit so...
Further suggestsThat the Buddha● initially introduced kāyagatā sati or  kāyasati ( 念身 ) as a general principle  of introsp...
Coming in Part 2      Comparing contents of          Satipaṭṭhāna        in the 7 major textsVibhaṅga Dharmaskandha Śāripu...
Overview of    Satipaṭṭhāna    Sutta MN 10Establishments of Mindfulness          Discourse
Proclamation“Monks, this is the one-way path● for the purification of beings,● for the surmounting of sorrow & lamentation...
Definition         Repeated contemplation of...   body as body ● feelings as feelings     ●● mind as mind ● dhammas as dha...
Structure of Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta    abstract proclamationbody definition     ●   breathing                     refrain     ...
Refrain● Contemplates          ● Is mindful that thereinternally, exter-      is/are a body, feelings,nally, both inter-  ...
Structure of Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta      abstract proclamation conclusion      definition            prediction         dhamma...
Prediction“Monks, if anyone should develop these four satipaṭṭhānas in such a way for seven years … seven days, one of two...
Proclamation“Monks, this is the one-way path● for the purification of beings,● for the surmounting of sorrow & lamentation...
Structure of Satipaṭṭhāna Mūla  Based on Bhikkhu Sujāto’s “A History of Mindfulness”  abstract proclamation   definition  ...
Definition in Mūla      Repeated contemplation of...  ●  body as body ● feelings as feelings● mind as mind ● dhammas as dh...
Structure of Satipaṭṭhāna Mūla     Based on Bhikkhu Sujāto’s “A History of Mindfulness”    abstract proclamation     defin...
Refrain in Mūla ●   Is mindful for the sake of     knowledge & vision that     there is/are a body,     feelings, mind, dh...
Structure of Satipaṭṭhāna Mūla     Based on Bhikkhu Sujāto’s “A History of Mindfulness”    abstract proclamation conclusio...
Mindfulness = Sati     Awareness of past objectRemember     while collecting info &             listening to instructions....
What is      “Experiencing the        whole body”?     Definitions in the Suttas       and CommentariesĀnāpānassati Sutta ...
What is “the whole body”?1. kāyesu                Among bodies, monks,   kāyaññatarāhaṃ,       this is a body, I say,   bh...
What is “the whole body”?  When mindfulnesss of breathing is not yet  accomplished, one observes in-and-out-breath as  ent...
What is  “Calming thebodily formation”?Definitions in the SuttasCūḷavedalla Sutta MN 44, DutiyaKāmabhū Sutta SN 41.6, Raho...
What Is Bodily Formation?1. Assāsapassāsā kho,   In-breath & out-breath,   āvuso visākha,       friend Visākha, is bodily ...
What is “the whole body”?‘citta·saṅkhāra·paṭi·saṃ·        “Experiencing the mental forma-vedī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati,    ...
How Is Bodily Formation Calmed?1. catutthaṃ jhānaṃ    For one who has attained   samāpannassa        the fourth jhāna, in-...
Paṭippassaddhā & PassambhayaṃPaṭippassaddhā ispast participle ofpaṭippassambhati        Pati + pa + sambhati (from        ...
Satipaṭṭhāna SuttaStudy with Meditation  Workshop Part 1.1Summary & Conclusion               ●Preamble●   Background & Str...
Preamble1) Good first step to have micro-view of the   suttas to check the claims of various teachers2) Macro-view also im...
Preamble5) The primary aim of Buddhist education is to   get the right information for effective   practice to reduce the ...
Background & Structure of the Sutta  1) No background story in the Sutta itself, but     the commentary filled it in  2) A...
Abstract & Definition1) Ekāyano = “one-way” and not “only way”2) Sati = awareness of past object, although   popularly tra...
Breathing1) The Buddha did not specify where to focus   attention while being mindful of breathing2) “Experiencing the who...
Postures & Clear Knowing1) Labelling during meditation is an expedient   tool recommended even in the Sutta2) The BARR tes...
Body Parts           &        Elementsin Dhātuvibhaṅga Sutta (MN 140)
Earth Element… head hairs, body hairs … feaces, or anythingelse internal, within oneself, that’s hard, solid,and sustained...
Water Element… bile, phlegm … urine, or anything else internal,within oneself, that’s water, watery, & sustained[by cravin...
Fire Element… that by which [the body] is warmed, aged, &consumed with fever; and that by which what iseaten, drunk, consu...
Wind Element… up-going winds, down-going winds, winds in thestomach, winds in the intestines, winds that coursethrough the...
Pāli Canonical Terms Related to Mind         Citta    Mano         Viññāṇa         Mind    Intellect   Consciousness      ...
Pāli Canonical Terms Related to Mind                     Citta   Mano Viññāṇa Developed                    Defiled      ...
Pāli Canonical Terms Related to Mind                                 Citta     Mano Viññāṇa Aggregate                     ...
Satipaṭṭhāna SuttaStudy with Meditation  Workshop Part 1.2Summary & Conclusion  ●   Body Parts, Elements & Corpses       ●...
Body Parts, Elements & Corpses1) The idea that vipassanā objects must only be   “ultimate realities” contradicts the vipas...
Contemplation of Vedanā1) Vedanā is the very basic experience of pain,   pleasure or neither pain nor pleasure2) Emotions ...
Contemplation of Citta1) Citta here refers to the mental state2) Citta in other contexts may have different   connotations...
How to PreventThe Hindrances     from arisingaccording to the commentary
Conditions for Prevention of      Sensual Desire   1.   Learning asubha meditation   2.   Practising asubha meditation   3...
Conditions for Prevention of          Ill-will   1.   Learning mettā meditation   2.   Practising mettā meditation   3.   ...
How to Remove      Ill-will (AN 5:161)1.   Develop mettā for that person2.   Develop compassion...3.   Develop equanimity....
Conditions for Prevention of     Sloth & Torpor 1.   Grasping the sign of over-eating 2.   Changing postures 3.   Attentio...
Conditions for Prevention of  Restlessness & Worry 1.   Being learned or knowledgeable 2.   Clarification through question...
Conditions for Prevention of          Doubts 1.   Being learned or knowledgeable 2.   Clarification through questioning 3....
The Mechanics of   Perceptionat the 6 Sense Doors      according toMadhupiṇḍika Sutta (MN 18)
Eye + Forms  Eye-consciousness               Contact                            Feeling  Perception                    ...
Mind + Dhammas  Mind-consciousness                 Contact                               Feeling  Perception           ...
Relevance to Dhammānupassanā     Proliferation   Papañca     Craving         Taṇhā     Conceit         Māna     Wrong View...
Range of     Awakening      Factorsaccording to Bhojjaṅga Saṃyutta
MindfulnessWhenever a monk dwelling thuswithdrawn recollects thatDhamma and thinks it over,on that occasion the mindfulnes...
MindfulnessWhatever mindfulness there is● of things internal● or of things externalthat is also the awakening factorof min...
Investigation of DhammaWhenever a monk dwelling thuswithdrawn discriminates that Dhammawith wisdom, examines it, makes ani...
Investigation of DhammaWhenever one discriminates dhammas● internally● or externallywith wisdom, examines them, makesan in...
All Awakening FactorsA bhikkhu develops the awakeningfactor of ... accompanied bymettā ... karuṇā ... muditā ... equanimit...
All Awakening FactorsA bhikkhu develops the awakening factorof ... accompanied by the perceptionof a skeleton ... of a wor...
All Awakening FactorsA bhikkhu develops the awakening factorof ... accompanied by the perception ofimpermanence ... of suf...
All Awakening FactorsA bhikkhu develops the awakening factorof ... accompanied by the perception ofabandonment ... of disp...
All Awakening FactorsWhen, bhikkhus, a noble disciple listensto the Dhamma with eager ears,attending to it as a matter of ...
Satipaṭṭhāna SuttaStudy with Meditation  Workshop Part 2.1Summary & Conclusion     ●  Contemplation of Dhammas            ...
Contemplation of Dhammas1) Dhammas are special mental objects   classified according to the Buddha and to be   investigate...
5 Hindrances1) The hindrances can be dealt with according to   the instructions only if the mind is composed2) Otherwise o...
5 Aggregates1) The 5 aggregates comprise the subjective   aspects of experience of a sentient being2) They are arranged in...
6 Internal & External Sense-bases1) The objects for vipassanā are saṅkhāras =   conditioned conditioners2) Saṅkhāras inclu...
Awakening Factors (1 – 4)1) The range of application for the awakening   factors are not just limited to the exercises in ...
Awakening Factors (1 – 4)4) Intently listening to a Dhamma   discourse can also bring about   the 7 awakening factors and ...
Comparison of      Kāyānupassanā    Contemplation of the Body               &Kāyagatāsati Sutta (MN 119) Mindfulness of th...
Kāyagatāsati Sutta      Proclamation“   And how, monks, is mindful-    ness of the body developed    and cultivated so tha...
Structure of Kāyagatāsati Sutta proclamation   ●   breathing                   refrain                             3
Kāyagatāsati Sutta       Samatha Refrain●   As he abides thus    ●   internally his mind stills,    heedful, ardent,      ...
Structure of Kāyagatāsati Sutta proclamation          ●   breathing                              refrain              ●   ...
Kāyagatāsati SuttaJhāna & Mindfulness of the Body He pervades his whole body ●   with the rapture &   ●   with the pleasur...
Kāyagatāsati Sutta       Samatha Refrain●   As he abides thus    ●   internally his mind stills,    heedful, ardent,      ...
Structure of Kāyagatāsati Sutta proclamation                           conclusion: ten benefits          ●   breathing    ...
Structure of Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta    abstract proclamationbody definition     ●   breathing                     refrain     ...
Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta        Vipassanā Refrain●    Contemplates           ●    Is mindful that there    internally, exter-   ...
Structure of Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta      abstract proclamation      conclusion      definition            prediction         d...
Mindfulness   in Early Buddhism      New approaches throughpsychology and textual analysis ofPali, Chinese and Sanskrit so...
Further suggests●   The 4 satipaṭṭhānas and kāyagatāsati    are just 2 different formulations of the    same teaching with...
Satipaṭṭhāna Leads to Samādhi Having said this, Bhante, Brahmā Sanaṅkumāra addressed the Devas of Tāvatiṃsa thus: “   ... ...
Satipaṭṭhāna Leads to Samādhi  contemplating feelings as feelings internally  ... mind as mind internally ... dhammas as  ...
Satipaṭṭhāna Leads to Samādhi“   Friend Visākha, the ‘one place-ness’    (ekaggatā) of the mind—this is samādhi;    the fo...
Translation of EkaggatāWord Analysisekaggatā        eka +       agga    +     tā                (one)                   (-...
Definition of “Focus” & “Focused”focus verb1. to give attention, effort, etc. to one particular   subject, situation or pe...
Definition of SamādhiDefinition in PāliYā cittassa ekaggatā—ayaṃ samādhiPopular Translation The mind’s one-pointedness—thi...
Definition of “Composure”composure nounthe state of being calm and in control of yourfeelings or behaviour       The Oxfor...
4 Types of Samādhi·bhāvanāType                          GoalFour Jhānas                   Comfortable dwell-              ...
Bhante Henepola Gunaratana’s   RadicalChange of View about Jhāna
Translation of “Jhāna”“   ... The Pāli word jhāna has been rendered    by translators into English in various    ways... T...
Right Jhāna“   ... when we become absorbed into our object    of focus, what we are practicing is “wrong”    Jhāna. When w...
What is     Samatha &     Vipassanā?Buddha’s Definition         according toTatiya·samādhi Sutta (AN 4:94)   1
What Is Samatha?1. kathaṁ cittaṁ      How is the citta to be ‘made   saṇṭhapetabbaṁ?    to stand properly’ (steadied)?2. k...
What Is Vipassanā?  1. kathaṁ saṅkhārā              How are saṅkhārā     daṭṭhabbā?                   to be seen?  2. kath...
Samatha vs VipassanāSamatha is about how to still the mind(citta). It is not about objects of focus—whether conceptual obj...
What is “Saṅkhārā”?Handa dāni, bhikkhave,    Now, monks,āmantayāmi vo             let me address you:“vayadhammā saṅkhārā;...
What is “Saṅkhārā”?“kiñca, bhikkhave,         “And what, monks,saṅkhāre vadetha?          do you call ‘saṅkhārā’? Becauses...
How to “See” Saṅkhārā“sabbe saṅkhārā aniccā”ti,   “All saṅkhārā are impermanent”—yadā paññāya passati.        when one see...
How to “See” Saṅkhārā“...yadaniccaṃ taṃ            “...what is impermanent—that isdukkhaṃ; yaṃ dukkhaṃ          suffering;...
Paññā & Viññāṇa“...Yā cāvuso, paññā yañca   “...paññā and viññāṇa—viññāṇaṃ—ime dhammā          these states aresaṃsaṭṭhā, ...
Knowing the       4      Noble              Truths  as they have occurredaccording to Dhammacakkapavattana          Sutta ...
4 Noble Truths1.   Suffering2.   Origin of Suffering3.   Cessation of Suffering4.   Way Leading to the Cessation     of Su...
4 Noble Truths1. Suffering—to be fully known2. Origin of Suffering—to be   abandoned3. Cessation of Suffering—to be   real...
4 Noble Truths1. Suffering—has been fully known2. Origin of Suffering—has been   abandoned3. Cessation of Suffering—has be...
1. Suffering●   Birth, aging, illness, death●   Association with the unbeloved●   Separation from the loved●   Not to obta...
2. Origin of SufferingCravingwhich brings renewal of being,accompanied by delight and lust,and delights in this and that—●...
3. Cessation of SufferingThe remainderless detachmentfrom and cessation of that verycraving—● the renunciation● relinquish...
4. Way to Cessation of Suffering The Noble Eightfold Path—  1. Right view      5. Right livelihood  2. Right thought   6. ...
Way to Develop SatipaṭṭhānaThe Noble Eightfold Path—1. Right view          5. Right livelihood2. Right thought       6. Ri...
Linear Development of N8P  10 Right Liberation              9 RK 1 RV                8 RC2 RT                    7 RM     ...
Complex Development of N8P                           Liberation                      Detachment  1RV1      1RV2     Wearin...
Pāli Terms for the 3 Timesatīta         ati        +    ita              (beyond)        (has gone)               has gone...
Mindfulness = Sati     Awareness of past objectRemember     while collecting info &             listening to instructions....
Ajahn Sujāto’s     Five Nikāyas             Scrutiny of          Four                                  Āgamas          Sat...
Based on●   Concordance of the 7 main texts●   Internal coherence of material●   Intertextual relationship with the rest o...
SuggestsThat the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta (MN 10)● is not an authentic discourse of the Buddha,● but a padded up discourse,● wit...
Details       A History of     MindfulnessHow insight worsted tranquility in     the Satipatthana Sutta       By Bhikkhu S...
Comparing contents of       Satipaṭṭhāna     in the 7 major textsVibhaṅga Dharmaskandha Śāriputrābhidharma  Satipaṭṭhāna S...
Intro to Texts & SchoolsText                             SchoolVi Vibhaṅga                 Pāli TraditionDh Dharmaskandha ...
1a. Contemplation of Body                      Vi Dh Śā PS SS Ek Pr4 postures                  1   2   1   1Clear knowing ...
1b. Contemplation of Body                     Vi Dh Śā PS SS Ek PrBasis of reviewing                           6Parts of b...
2. Contemplation of Feelings                    Vi Dh Śā PS SS Ek PrPleasant/painful/   1   1   1   1   1   1neutralBodily...
3a. Contemplation of Mind                      Vi Dh Śā PS SS Ek PrWith/w/o lust         1   1   1   1   1   1With/w/o ang...
3b. Contemplation of Mind                     Vi Dh Śā PS SS Ek PrContracted/scattered 4   4   4   4   4   4Slothful/energ...
3c. Contemplation of Mind                  Vi Dh Śā PS SS Ek PrDeveloped/not         10           7Distracted /not       7...
4. Contemplation of Dhammas                 Vi Dh Śā PS SS Ek Pr5 Hindrances     1   1   1   1   1   15 Aggregates        ...
5. Refrain                      Vi Dh Śā PS SS Ek PrInternal/external      1   1   1   1   1   1*   1Tribulations         ...
Tribulations       At the end of each anupassanāObserves and contemplates all their many tribu-lations, namely: this body ...
Structure of Satipaṭṭhāna Mūla  Based on Bhikkhu Sujāto’s “A History of Mindfulness”  abstract proclamation   definition  ...
Definition in Mūla      Repeated contemplation of...  ●  body as body ● feelings as feelings● mind as mind ● dhammas as dh...
Structure of Satipaṭṭhāna Mūla     Based on Bhikkhu Sujāto’s “A History of Mindfulness”    abstract proclamation     defin...
Refrain in Mūla ●   Is mindful for the sake of     knowledge & vision that     there is/are a body,     feelings, mind, dh...
Structure of Satipaṭṭhāna Mūla      Based on Bhikkhu Sujāto’s “A History of Mindfulness”    abstract proclamation conclusi...
Satipaṭṭhāna SuttaStudy with Meditation  Workshop Part 2.2Summary & Conclusion         ●Samādhi & Satipaṭṭhāna            ...
Samādhi & Satipaṭṭhāna1) Kāyagatāsati Sutta (MN 119) states that all   the 14 exercises in kāyānupassanā together   with t...
Samādhi & Satipaṭṭhāna5) Vitakka·saṇṭhāna Sutta (MN 20) shows that all   the 5 methods of stilling distracting thoughts   ...
Samādhi & Satipaṭṭhāna8) The Visuddhimagga’s definition of worldly   jhāna as “absorption in a conceptual object   oblivio...
4 Noble Truths1) Suffering (=1st NT) is to be fully known by   developing the 4th NT = Noble Eightfold Path2) Fully knowin...
Comparison of Satipaṭṭhāna Contents 1) The variations in the 7 major texts are very    obvious in kāyānupassanā & dhammānu...
For Final Discussion What are the significantinsights for understandingand practice resulting from      this workshop?    ...
Satipaṭṭhāna SuttaStudy with Meditation      WorkshopSummary & Conclusion ●   Comparison with Satipaṭṭhāna Mūla      ● Int...
Comparison with Satipaṭṭhāna Mūla   1) Many additional exercises in Pāli      kāyānupassanā and dhammānupassanā   2) 1st p...
Internal coherence of material1) How to contemplate arising and vanishing of   body parts and corpses?2) Redundancy of ref...
Comparison with other suttas1) Sati has a broad range of applications   based on its root meaning: “awareness of   a past ...
Comparison with other suttas4) Sati brings the composed mind to be aware of   an object that has just arisen so that paññā...
Comparison with other suttas7) Clear knowing is to be applied to all 4   satipaṭṭhānas, not just bodily activities8) In th...
The Gradual Training Template 1. Virtuous in the moral precepts 2. Guarding the doors of the sense faculties 3. Moderation...
Comparison with other suttas10) According to Kāyagatāsati Sutta (MN 119),    the 14 exercises in kāyānupassanā lead to    ...
Comparison with other suttas13) According to Vibhaṅga Sutta (SN 47.40),    (a) the establishment of mindfulness        = t...
Grand Conclusion1)   Practice of 4 satipaṭṭhānas supported by     Factors 1-6 of N8P leads to Right Samādhi2)   Based on t...
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Satipatthana workshop July 26-29, 2012

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This set of slides is from the Satipatthana Workshop conducted by Venerable Aggacitta at Sasanarakkha Buddhist Sanctuary between July 26-29, 2012.

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  • Thank you Bhante Aggacitta, Bro Lee Hanxue, Sis Lay Hoon and every one who have made this workshop successful. Sadhu, Sadhu, Sadhu
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Satipatthana workshop July 26-29, 2012

  1. 1. Welcome to Nalanda Institute Malaysia Department of Buddhist & Pāli Studies BPS271 Satipatthana Sutta Study with Meditation Workshop by Aggacitta Bhikkhu Kindly ensure your mobile-telephones have been switched off or put to silent mode. Thank you.Sāsanārakkha Buddhist Sanctuary 1
  2. 2. Pāli Scriptures BuddhaVacana DHAMMA DHAMMAVINAYA VINAYA Doctrine Doctrine & Discipline Discipline BRAHMACARIYA Holy (Celibate) Life1. Sutta 4. Gāthā 7. JātakaDiscourse Verses What had happened2. Geyya 5. Udāna 8. AbbhutadhammaMixed Prose & Verse Inspired Utterances Marvellous Things3. Veyyakaraṇa 6. Itivuttaka 9. VedallaExpositions Thus-was-said Catechism 2
  3. 3. Pāli Scriptures First Choral Chanting (Saṅgīti) VINAYA Bhikkhu Bhikkhunī Vibhaṅga UbhatoVibhaṅga Vibhaṅga Analysis of Both Analyses Analysis of Monks’ Rules Nuns’ Rules DHAMMA PañcaNikāya Five Collections1. Dīgha Nikāya 2. Majjhima Nikāya 3. Saṃyutta NikāyaLong Collection Middle Collection Connected Collection 4. Aṅguttara Nikāya 5. Khuddaka Nikāya Numerical Collection Minor Collection 3
  4. 4. Pāli Scriptures Third Saṅgīti (or later) TIPIṬAKA Three Baskets Vinaya Piṭaka Sutta Piṭaka Abhidhamma Piṭaka Discipline Discourses Metaphysics1. Dīgha Nikāya 2. Majjhima Nikāya 3. Saṃyutta NikāyaLong Collection Middle Collection Connected Collection 4. Aṅguttara Nikāya 5. Khuddaka Nikāya Numerical Collection Minor Collection 4
  5. 5. Location of Kuru Sāvatthi Vesālī Bārānasī Gāyā
  6. 6. Ajahn Sujāto’s Five Nikāyas Scrutiny of Four Āgamas SatipaṭṭhānaPre-Buddhist Other Buddhist Sources Materials SourcesVibhaṅga Dharmaskandha Śāriputrābhidharma Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta Smṛtyupasthāna Sūtra Ekāyana Sūtra Prajñāpāramita Sūtra
  7. 7. Based on● Concordance of the 7 main texts● Internal coherence of material● Intertextual relationship with the rest of the scriptures● Cultural & philosophical contexts at the Buddha’s time● Evolution of sectarian positions 3
  8. 8. SuggestsThat the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta (MN 10)● is not an authentic discourse of the Buddha,● but a padded up discourse,● with passages “copied and pasted” from other discourses,● showing a sectarian bias towards pure vipassanā practice. 4
  9. 9. Details A History of MindfulnessHow insight worsted tranquility in the Satipatthana Sutta By Bhikkhu Sujato 5
  10. 10. Mindfulness in Early Buddhism New approaches throughpsychology and textual analysis ofPali, Chinese and Sanskrit sources By Tse-fu Kuan Routledge Critical Studies in Buddhism 6
  11. 11. Further suggestsThat the Buddha● initially introduced kāyagatā sati or kāyasati ( 念身 ) as a general principle of introspective self-awareness● developed it into the 4 satipaṭṭhānas at a late stage of his teaching career● particularly emphasized the 4 satipaṭṭhānas as his final teaching 7
  12. 12. Coming in Part 2 Comparing contents of Satipaṭṭhāna in the 7 major textsVibhaṅga Dharmaskandha Śāriputrābhidharma Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta Smṛtyupasthāna Sūtra Ekāyana Sūtra Prajñāpāramita Sūtra 8
  13. 13. Overview of Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta MN 10Establishments of Mindfulness Discourse
  14. 14. Proclamation“Monks, this is the one-way path● for the purification of beings,● for the surmounting of sorrow & lamentation,● for the disappearance of pain & dejection,● for the acquiring of the true method,● for the realisation of Nibbāna, namely the four satipaṭṭhānas.” 2
  15. 15. Definition Repeated contemplation of... body as body ● feelings as feelings ●● mind as mind ● dhammas as dhammas while ● being ardent ● having subdued ● clearly knowing longing & dejection ● being mindful in (regard to) the world 3
  16. 16. Structure of Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta abstract proclamationbody definition ● breathing refrain 4
  17. 17. Refrain● Contemplates ● Is mindful that thereinternally, exter- is/are a body, feelings,nally, both inter- mind, dhammas—just fornally & externally knowledge & repeated sati●Contemplates ●Is independent, &nature of arising, of does not cling tovanishing, of both anything in the world.arising & vanishing 5
  18. 18. Structure of Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta abstract proclamation conclusion definition prediction dhammasbody refrain breathing ● ● 4 Noble Truths refrain postures ● ● 7 awakening factors refrain ● clear knowing ● 6 int & ext sense bases refrain ●31 body parts ● 5 aggregates refrain 4 elements ● ● 5 hindrances refrain 9 corpses ● mind refrain feelings 6
  19. 19. Prediction“Monks, if anyone should develop these four satipaṭṭhānas in such a way for seven years … seven days, one of two fruits could be expected of him: ● either final knowledge in this very life, ● or, if there is a trace of clinging left, non-returning.” 7
  20. 20. Proclamation“Monks, this is the one-way path● for the purification of beings,● for the surmounting of sorrow & lamentation,● for the disappearance of pain & dejection,● for the acquiring of the true method,● for the realisation of Nibbāna, namely the four satipaṭṭhānas.” 8
  21. 21. Structure of Satipaṭṭhāna Mūla Based on Bhikkhu Sujāto’s “A History of Mindfulness” abstract proclamation definition 9
  22. 22. Definition in Mūla Repeated contemplation of... ● body as body ● feelings as feelings● mind as mind ● dhammas as dhammas ● internally, externally, both internally & externally while ● being ardent ● having subdued ● clearly knowing longing & dejection ● being mindful in (regard to) the world 10
  23. 23. Structure of Satipaṭṭhāna Mūla Based on Bhikkhu Sujāto’s “A History of Mindfulness” abstract proclamation definitionbody ● 31 body parts refrain 11
  24. 24. Refrain in Mūla ● Is mindful for the sake of knowledge & vision that there is/are a body, feelings, mind, dhammas ● Is independent, & does not cling to anything in the world. 12
  25. 25. Structure of Satipaṭṭhāna Mūla Based on Bhikkhu Sujāto’s “A History of Mindfulness” abstract proclamation conclusion definition predictionbody ● 31 body parts dhammas refrain 7 awakening factors ● feelings refrain 5 hindrances ● mind 13
  26. 26. Mindfulness = Sati Awareness of past objectRemember while collecting info & listening to instructions.Recollect info collected and the teachers instructions.Remind yourself to practise info collected and teachers instructions.Retrospect (look back) at how the mind relates to the 6 senses. 1
  27. 27. What is “Experiencing the whole body”? Definitions in the Suttas and CommentariesĀnāpānassati Sutta MN 118, Visuddhimagga, [ 阿毘達 磨 ] 大毘婆沙論 Abhidharma-mahāvibhāṣā-śāstra 1
  28. 28. What is “the whole body”?1. kāyesu Among bodies, monks, kāyaññatarāhaṃ, this is a body, I say, bhikkhave, evaṃ namely, in-breath & vadāmi yadidaṃ — out-breath. assāsapassāsā. Ānāpānassati Sutta MN 118He trains: “I shall breathe in making known, makingclear, the beginning, middle and end of the entirebody of in-breath...” Visuddhimagga (circa 430 CE)
  29. 29. What is “the whole body”? When mindfulnesss of breathing is not yet accomplished, one observes in-and-out-breath as entering and getting out by the nose. When mindfulnesss of breathing is accomplished, one observes breath as entering and getting out through all the pores of the body, which is like a lotus root.[ 阿毘達磨 ] 大毘婆沙論 Abhidharma-mahāvibhāṣā-śāstra (circa 150 CE)
  30. 30. What is “Calming thebodily formation”?Definitions in the SuttasCūḷavedalla Sutta MN 44, DutiyaKāmabhū Sutta SN 41.6, Rahogata Sutta SN 36.11 4
  31. 31. What Is Bodily Formation?1. Assāsapassāsā kho, In-breath & out-breath, āvuso visākha, friend Visākha, is bodily kāyasaṅkhāro... formation... Cūḷavedalla Sutta MN 442. Assāsapassāsā kho, In-breath & out-breath, gahapati, householder, is bodily kāyasaṅkhāro... formation... DutiyaKāmabhū Sutta SN 41.6
  32. 32. What is “the whole body”?‘citta·saṅkhāra·paṭi·saṃ· “Experiencing the mental forma-vedī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, tion I shall breathe in,” he trains;‘citta·saṅkhāra·paṭi·saṃ· “Experiencing the mental forma-vedī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati; tion I shall breathe out,” he trains;‘passambhayaṃ citta· “Calming the mental formation Isaṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ti shall breathe in,” he trains;sikkhati,‘passambhayaṃ citta· “Calming the mental formation Isaṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ti shall breathe out,” he trains.sikkhati. Ānāpānassati Sutta MN 118
  33. 33. How Is Bodily Formation Calmed?1. catutthaṃ jhānaṃ For one who has attained samāpannassa the fourth jhāna, in-breath assāsapassāsā & out-breath have ceased... niruddhā honti...2. catutthaṃ jhānaṃ For one who has attained samāpannassa the fourth jhāna, in-breath & assāsapassāsā out-breath have calmed paṭippassaddhā down... honti... Rahogata Sutta SN 36.11
  34. 34. Paṭippassaddhā & PassambhayaṃPaṭippassaddhā ispast participle ofpaṭippassambhati Pati + pa + sambhati (from √sambhū) = to calm downPassambhayaṃ = pa + sambhati (from √sambhū)passambhayanto is = to calmpresent participle ofcausative of pa + sambhayati (frompassambhati √sambhū + ṇe) = to make calm
  35. 35. Satipaṭṭhāna SuttaStudy with Meditation Workshop Part 1.1Summary & Conclusion ●Preamble● Background & Structure of the Sutta ● Abstract & Definition ● Breathing ● Postures & Clear Knowing 1
  36. 36. Preamble1) Good first step to have micro-view of the suttas to check the claims of various teachers2) Macro-view also important to prevent development of fanatical partisan mindset3) Our extant sets of scriptures took many centuries to be compiled & recorded because of poor communication and also because the Buddha preached in many dialects4) No sutta can be 100% authentic but elements common to all schools and traditions have the highest chances of authenticity 2
  37. 37. Preamble5) The primary aim of Buddhist education is to get the right information for effective practice to reduce the influence of defilements and eventually liberate the mind from them completely6) Right practice should result in a postive transformation of character reflected in such attitudes as being more patient, forgiving, understanding, open-minded, accepting, humble, selfless, etc. 3
  38. 38. Background & Structure of the Sutta 1) No background story in the Sutta itself, but the commentary filled it in 2) Ajahn Sujāto’s research suggests that it is not authentic but is a composite of extracts from other suttas plus other added materials 3) The “backbone” of the Sutta is the vipassanā refrain 4) Ajahn Sujāto’s reconstructed “Satipaṭṭhāna Mūla” has very few exercises and does not have a vipassanā refrain 4
  39. 39. Abstract & Definition1) Ekāyano = “one-way” and not “only way”2) Sati = awareness of past object, although popularly translated as “mindfulness” and equated with “present-moment awareness”3) Sampajāno = “clear knowing” is applicable to all 4 satipaṭṭhānas, not just to kāyānupassanā4) Although worldly longing and dejection need not be totally removed, one must be able to subdue them in order to step back and observe them objectively 5
  40. 40. Breathing1) The Buddha did not specify where to focus attention while being mindful of breathing2) “Experiencing the whole body” can be interpreted and practised in 2 ways which are both reasonable3) Nothing is mentioned about shifting attention from the breath to a nimitta (“reflex image”)4) There are 2 ways of interpreting “internal” and “external” 6
  41. 41. Postures & Clear Knowing1) Labelling during meditation is an expedient tool recommended even in the Sutta2) The BARR test to process intentions is useful under all circumstances3) It is a myth that “one should not think during meditation” because proper/wise/thorough reflection & deliberation (yoniso manasikāra) are often encouraged in the suttas 7
  42. 42. Body Parts & Elementsin Dhātuvibhaṅga Sutta (MN 140)
  43. 43. Earth Element… head hairs, body hairs … feaces, or anythingelse internal, within oneself, that’s hard, solid,and sustained [by craving]: This is called theinternal earth element. Now both the internalearth element & the external earth element aresimply earth element. And that should be seen asit has occurred with right paññā: ‘This is notmine, this is not me, this is not my self.’ 2
  44. 44. Water Element… bile, phlegm … urine, or anything else internal,within oneself, that’s water, watery, & sustained[by craving]: This is called the internal waterelement. Now both the internal water element &the external water element are simply waterelement. And that should be seen as it hasoccurred with right paññā: ‘This is not mine, thisis not me, this is not my self.’ 3
  45. 45. Fire Element… that by which [the body] is warmed, aged, &consumed with fever; and that by which what iseaten, drunk, consumed & tasted gets properlydigested; or anything else internal, withinoneself, that’s fire, fiery, & sustained [bycraving]: This is called the internal fire element.Now both the internal fire element & the externalfire element are simply fire element. And thatshould be seen as it has occurred with rightpaññā: ‘This is not mine, this is not me, this is notmy self.’ 4
  46. 46. Wind Element… up-going winds, down-going winds, winds in thestomach, winds in the intestines, winds that coursethrough the body, in-and-out breathing, or anythingelse internal, within oneself, that’s wind, windy, &sustained [by craving]: This is called the internalwind element. Now both the internal wind element& the external wind element are simply windelement. And that should be seen as it has occurredwith right paññā: ‘This is not mine, this is not me,this is not my self.’ 5
  47. 47. Pāli Canonical Terms Related to Mind Citta Mano Viññāṇa Mind Intellect Consciousness 5 Sense Consciousness Mind Consciousness Stream ofDefilements Consciousness linking rebirth
  48. 48. Pāli Canonical Terms Related to Mind Citta Mano Viññāṇa Developed   Defiled   Purified   Restrained   Liberated  Conditioned    3 Characteristics   
  49. 49. Pāli Canonical Terms Related to Mind Citta Mano Viññāṇa Aggregate  Sense Organ  Thinking   Personality   Sentience   Coordinator of 5 senses  Rebirth Process  Based on Rune E. A. Johansson’s “Citta, Mano, Viññāṇa—a Psychosemantic Investigation”
  50. 50. Satipaṭṭhāna SuttaStudy with Meditation Workshop Part 1.2Summary & Conclusion ● Body Parts, Elements & Corpses ● Contemplation of Vedanā ● Contemplation of Citta 1
  51. 51. Body Parts, Elements & Corpses1) The idea that vipassanā objects must only be “ultimate realities” contradicts the vipassanā refrain for body parts and corpses2) Contemplation of elements can be either conceptual or experiential as “ultimate realities”3) Contemplation of body parts & corpses can help to reduce lust4) Contemplation of corpses can also reduce conceit and give a sense of urgency 2
  52. 52. Contemplation of Vedanā1) Vedanā is the very basic experience of pain, pleasure or neither pain nor pleasure2) Emotions are composite feelings involving thoughts, mental states and bodily sensations3) Vedanā can be mental or bodily and occurs in all types of consciousness (viññāṇa)4) According to the Abhidhamma, the 4 sense consciousness has only neutral feeling, that of the body has either pain or pleasure and that of the mind has any one of the three 3
  53. 53. Contemplation of Citta1) Citta here refers to the mental state2) Citta in other contexts may have different connotations3) Citta, mano and viññāṇa are three Pāli terms used to refer to the mind, intellect/mind-organ and consciousness respectively4) Contemplation of citta is to be differentiated from contemplation of mano and viññāṇa mentioned in dhammānupassanā 4
  54. 54. How to PreventThe Hindrances from arisingaccording to the commentary
  55. 55. Conditions for Prevention of Sensual Desire 1. Learning asubha meditation 2. Practising asubha meditation 3. Guarding the sense doors 4. Moderation in eating 5. Good spiritual friendship 6. Suitable conversation
  56. 56. Conditions for Prevention of Ill-will 1. Learning mettā meditation 2. Practising mettā meditation 3. Reflection on kammic ownership 4. Much wise consideration 5. Good spiritual friendship 6. Suitable conversation
  57. 57. How to Remove Ill-will (AN 5:161)1. Develop mettā for that person2. Develop compassion...3. Develop equanimity...4. Forget that person5. Resolve on kammic ownership
  58. 58. Conditions for Prevention of Sloth & Torpor 1. Grasping the sign of over-eating 2. Changing postures 3. Attention to the perception of light 4. Staying outdoors 5. Good spiritual friendship 6. Suitable conversation
  59. 59. Conditions for Prevention of Restlessness & Worry 1. Being learned or knowledgeable 2. Clarification through questioning 3. Skilfullness in the Vinaya 4. Associating with (exemplary) elders 5. Good spiritual friendship 6. Suitable conversation
  60. 60. Conditions for Prevention of Doubts 1. Being learned or knowledgeable 2. Clarification through questioning 3. Skilfullness in the Vinaya 4. Much faith/confidence 5. Good spiritual friendship 6. Suitable conversation
  61. 61. The Mechanics of Perceptionat the 6 Sense Doors according toMadhupiṇḍika Sutta (MN 18)
  62. 62. Eye + Forms  Eye-consciousness Contact  Feeling  Perception  Proliferation  ThinkingReckonings basedon proliferations &perceptions ofpast, future and Obsessjust arisen forms
  63. 63. Mind + Dhammas  Mind-consciousness Contact  Feeling  Perception  Proliferation  Thinking Reckonings based on proliferations & perceptions of past, future & just arisen dhammas Obsess
  64. 64. Relevance to Dhammānupassanā Proliferation Papañca Craving Taṇhā Conceit Māna Wrong View Diṭṭhi
  65. 65. Range of Awakening Factorsaccording to Bhojjaṅga Saṃyutta
  66. 66. MindfulnessWhenever a monk dwelling thuswithdrawn recollects thatDhamma and thinks it over,on that occasion the mindfulnessawakening factor is aroused ... isbeing developed ... comes tofulfilment by development. SN 46:3
  67. 67. MindfulnessWhatever mindfulness there is● of things internal● or of things externalthat is also the awakening factorof mindfulness SN 46:52
  68. 68. Investigation of DhammaWhenever a monk dwelling thuswithdrawn discriminates that Dhammawith wisdom, examines it, makes aninvestigation of it,on that occasion the investigation ofdhamma awakening factor of the monkis aroused ... is being developed ...comes to fulfilment by development. SN 46:3
  69. 69. Investigation of DhammaWhenever one discriminates dhammas● internally● or externallywith wisdom, examines them, makesan investigation of them, that is theawakening factor of investigation ofstates. SN 46:52
  70. 70. All Awakening FactorsA bhikkhu develops the awakeningfactor of ... accompanied bymettā ... karuṇā ... muditā ... equanimity... mindfulness of breathing ...based upon seclusion, dispassion, andcessation, maturing in release. SN 46:54, 62-66
  71. 71. All Awakening FactorsA bhikkhu develops the awakening factorof ... accompanied by the perceptionof a skeleton ... of a worm-infestedcorpse ... of a livid corpse ... of a fissuredcorpse ... of a bloated corpsebased upon seclusion, dispassion, andcessation, maturing in release. SN 46:57-61
  72. 72. All Awakening FactorsA bhikkhu develops the awakening factorof ... accompanied by the perception ofimpermanence ... of suffering in theimpermanent ... of non-self in what issufferingbased upon seclusion, dispassion, andcessation, maturing in release. SN 46:71-73
  73. 73. All Awakening FactorsA bhikkhu develops the awakening factorof ... accompanied by the perception ofabandonment ... of dispassion ... ofcessationbased upon seclusion, dispassion, andcessation, maturing in release. SN 46:74-76
  74. 74. All Awakening FactorsWhen, bhikkhus, a noble disciple listensto the Dhamma with eager ears,attending to it as a matter of vitalconcern, directing his whole mind to it,on that occasion the five hindrances arenot present in him; on that occasion theseven factors of enlightenment go tofulfilment by development.... Āvaraṇanīvaraṇa Sutta (SN 46:38)
  75. 75. Satipaṭṭhāna SuttaStudy with Meditation Workshop Part 2.1Summary & Conclusion ● Contemplation of Dhammas ● 5 Hindrances ● 5 Aggregates ● 6 Internal & External Sense-bases ● Awakening Factors (1 – 4) 1
  76. 76. Contemplation of Dhammas1) Dhammas are special mental objects classified according to the Buddha and to be investigated in terms of conditionality2) Instructions to observe the nature of arising and vanishing are explicitly given in each exercise3) This shows that the vipassanā refrain is redundant for this satipaṭṭhāna 2
  77. 77. 5 Hindrances1) The hindrances can be dealt with according to the instructions only if the mind is composed2) Otherwise other methods, such as those found in Vitakkasaṇṭhāna Sutta (MN 20) and those recommended by the commentary, have to be resorted to3) It is essential for the hindrances to be subdued before any form of mental development can be done 3
  78. 78. 5 Aggregates1) The 5 aggregates comprise the subjective aspects of experience of a sentient being2) They are arranged in the order of subtlety experienced during the course of meditation3) The mind must be quite composed (i.e. have good samādhi) in order to clearly distinguish each aggregate4) After identifying each aggregate, one must contemplate how it arises and disappears 4
  79. 79. 6 Internal & External Sense-bases1) The objects for vipassanā are saṅkhāras = conditioned conditioners2) Saṅkhāras include sense-objects, citta and cetasikas, as well as thoughts, ideas, beliefs, expectations, etc.3) Keeping a close watch on how the mind responds or reacts to the six senses is the key to both spiritual and worldly success4) This constitutes the basis and rationale for the continual daily practice of open-awareness 5
  80. 80. Awakening Factors (1 – 4)1) The range of application for the awakening factors are not just limited to the exercises in the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta2) This range includes reflection on a Dhamma discourse and the arising of the ensuing awakening factors3) It also includes other meditations based on seclusion, dispassion and cessation, and maturing in release, e.g. 4 brahmavihāras, asubha, and various perceptions 6
  81. 81. Awakening Factors (1 – 4)4) Intently listening to a Dhamma discourse can also bring about the 7 awakening factors and their development to fulfilment 7
  82. 82. Comparison of Kāyānupassanā Contemplation of the Body &Kāyagatāsati Sutta (MN 119) Mindfulness of the Body Discourse
  83. 83. Kāyagatāsati Sutta Proclamation“ And how, monks, is mindful- ness of the body developed and cultivated so that it is of great fruit and great benefit? ” 2
  84. 84. Structure of Kāyagatāsati Sutta proclamation ● breathing refrain 3
  85. 85. Kāyagatāsati Sutta Samatha Refrain● As he abides thus ● internally his mind stills, heedful, ardent, settles, and becomes and resolute unified and composed.● memories and ● That is how a bhikkhu thoughts based on develops mindfulness the household life of the body. are abandoned 4
  86. 86. Structure of Kāyagatāsati Sutta proclamation ● breathing refrain ● postures refrain ● clear knowing refrain ● 31 body parts refrain ● 4 elements refrain ● 9 corpses refrain first jhāna 5
  87. 87. Kāyagatāsati SuttaJhāna & Mindfulness of the Body He pervades his whole body ● with the rapture & ● with the pleasure pleasure born of divested of rapture seclusion (1st) (3rd) ● with the rapture & ● with a pure bright pleasure born of mind (4th) composure (2nd) 6
  88. 88. Kāyagatāsati Sutta Samatha Refrain● As he abides thus ● internally his mind stills, heedful, ardent, settles, and becomes and resolute unified and composed.● memories and ● That is how a bhikkhu thoughts based on develops mindfulness the household life of the body. are abandoned 7
  89. 89. Structure of Kāyagatāsati Sutta proclamation conclusion: ten benefits ● breathing ready for direct knowledge refrain ● postures gone beyond Māra refrain ● clear knowing cultivated wholesome states refrain ● 31 body parts fourth jhāna refrain ● 4 elements third jhāna refrain ● 9 corpses second jhāna refrain first jhāna 8
  90. 90. Structure of Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta abstract proclamationbody definition ● breathing refrain 9
  91. 91. Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta Vipassanā Refrain● Contemplates ● Is mindful that there internally, exter- is/are a body, feelings, nally, both inter- mind, dhammas—just for nally & externally knowledge & repeated sati● Contemplates ● Is independent, & nature of arising, of does not cling to vanishing, of both anything in the world. arising & vanishing 10
  92. 92. Structure of Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta abstract proclamation conclusion definition prediction dhammasbody refrain breathing ● ● 4 Noble Truths refrain postures ● ● 7 awakening factors refrain ● clear knowing ● 6 int & ext sense bases refrain ●31 body parts ● 5 aggregates refrain 4 elements ● ● 5 hindrances refrain 9 corpses ● mind refrain feelings 11
  93. 93. Mindfulness in Early Buddhism New approaches throughpsychology and textual analysis ofPali, Chinese and Sanskrit sources By Tse-fu Kuan Routledge Critical Studies in Buddhism 12
  94. 94. Further suggests● The 4 satipaṭṭhānas and kāyagatāsati are just 2 different formulations of the same teaching with different emphasis● The tendency to dissociate satipaṭṭhāna from samatha is aparently a rather late development 13
  95. 95. Satipaṭṭhāna Leads to Samādhi Having said this, Bhante, Brahmā Sanaṅkumāra addressed the Devas of Tāvatiṃsa thus: “ ... As he thus dwells contemplating the body as body internally, he becomes perfectly composed and perfectly serene. Being thus perfectly composed and serene, he produces knowledge and vision externally in respect of another body ... Janavasabha Sutta (DN 18) 1
  96. 96. Satipaṭṭhāna Leads to Samādhi contemplating feelings as feelings internally ... mind as mind internally ... dhammas as dhammas internally, he becomes perfectly composed and perfectly serene. Being thus perfectly composed and serene, he produces knowledge and vision externally in respect of other dhammas. ” Janavasabha Sutta (DN 18) 2
  97. 97. Satipaṭṭhāna Leads to Samādhi“ Friend Visākha, the ‘one place-ness’ (ekaggatā) of the mind—this is samādhi; the four satipaṭṭhānas are the basis (nimitta) of samādhi; the four right kinds of strivings are the equipment of samādhi; the repetition, development, and cultivation of these same dhammas is the development of samādhi therein. ” Cūḷavedalla Sutta (MN 44) 3
  98. 98. Translation of EkaggatāWord Analysisekaggatā eka + agga + tā (one) (-ness)agga tip, point, topmost, foremost, beginning, best; placeTranslationPopular one-pointed-nessPreferred one place-ness = focused state 4
  99. 99. Definition of “Focus” & “Focused”focus verb1. to give attention, effort, etc. to one particular subject, situation or person rather than another2. to adapt or be adjusted so that things can be seen clearly; to adjust sth so that you can see things clearlyfocused adjectivewith your attention directed to what you want todo; with very clear aims The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, 7th Edition 5
  100. 100. Definition of SamādhiDefinition in PāliYā cittassa ekaggatā—ayaṃ samādhiPopular Translation The mind’s one-pointedness—this is concentrationPreferred Translation The mind’s focused state—this is composure 6
  101. 101. Definition of “Composure”composure nounthe state of being calm and in control of yourfeelings or behaviour The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, 7th Edition Word Analysis of “Samādhi”samādhi is a noun derived from sam (together;thoroughly) + ā (bring) + √dhā (to put, place)which has a verb in passive voice samādhīyati (tobe thoroughly brought together and put/placed) 7
  102. 102. 4 Types of Samādhi·bhāvanāType GoalFour Jhānas Comfortable dwell- ing here and nowPerception of Light Knowledge and visionAwareness of Feelings, Mindfulness andPerceptions and Thoughts clear knowingContemplating Rise and Destruction of allFall of the 5 Aggregates mental defilements Samādhi·bhāvanā Sutta (AN 4:41) 8
  103. 103. Bhante Henepola Gunaratana’s RadicalChange of View about Jhāna
  104. 104. Translation of “Jhāna”“ ... The Pāli word jhāna has been rendered by translators into English in various ways... The word “absorption”... is the most suitable of the lot... The jhānas themselves are states of deep mental unification characterised by a total immersion of the mind in its object. A Critical Analysis of the Jhānas ” in Therāvāda Buddhist Meditation Phd thesis submitted in 1980 and published in 1999 10
  105. 105. Right Jhāna“ ... when we become absorbed into our object of focus, what we are practicing is “wrong” Jhāna. When we practice “right” Jhāna we will be able to see things as they really are. ... If you are absorbed in the subject you will not understand, nor remember anything. ”“Should we come out of Jhāna to practice Vipassanā?” 2007 paper in Buddhist Studies in Honour of Venerable Kirindigalle Dhammaratana 11
  106. 106. What is Samatha & Vipassanā?Buddha’s Definition according toTatiya·samādhi Sutta (AN 4:94) 1
  107. 107. What Is Samatha?1. kathaṁ cittaṁ How is the citta to be ‘made saṇṭhapetabbaṁ? to stand properly’ (steadied)?2. kathaṁ cittaṁ How is the citta to be ‘made sannisādetabbaṁ? to sit properly’ (settle down)?3. kathaṁ cittaṁ How is the citta to be ekodi kātabbaṁ? made unified ?4. kathaṁ cittaṁ How is the citta to be brought samādahātabbaṁ? together & placed (composed)? SAMATHA = STILLING
  108. 108. What Is Vipassanā? 1. kathaṁ saṅkhārā How are saṅkhārā daṭṭhabbā? to be seen? 2. kathaṁ saṅkhārā How are saṅkhārā sammasitabbā? to be investigated? 3. kathaṁ saṅkhārā How are saṅkhārā vipassitabbā? to be seen distinctly?vi = clear, distinct; distinguish, separate; special; various passanā = seeing VIPASSANĀ = DISTINCT SEEING
  109. 109. Samatha vs VipassanāSamatha is about how to still the mind(citta). It is not about objects of focus—whether conceptual objects (paññatti) orultimate realities (paramattha dhammā).Vipassanā is about the object of focus—which is saṅkhārā—and how to regard them,investigate them, and develop insightfulunderstanding about them.
  110. 110. What is “Saṅkhārā”?Handa dāni, bhikkhave, Now, monks,āmantayāmi vo let me address you:“vayadhammā saṅkhārā; “Saṅkhārā have the nature ofappamādena vanishing; with heedfulnesssampādethā”ti. fulfil [your goal].”Aniccā vata saṅkhārā, Impermanent indeed are saṅkhārā,uppādavayadhammino. Their nature is arising & vanishing.uppajjitvā nirujjhanti, Having arisen they cease.tesaṃ vūpasamo sukho. Their appeasement is happiness. Mahāparinibbāna Sutta SN 6:15
  111. 111. What is “Saṅkhārā”?“kiñca, bhikkhave, “And what, monks,saṅkhāre vadetha? do you call ‘saṅkhārā’? Becausesaṅkhatamabhisaṅkharontī they condition the conditioned—ti kho, bhikkhave, tasmā thus they are called ‘conditioned‘saṅkhārā’ti vuccati. conditioners’ Khajjanīya Sutta SN 22:79Used in the context of the 4th khandha
  112. 112. How to “See” Saṅkhārā“sabbe saṅkhārā aniccā”ti, “All saṅkhārā are impermanent”—yadā paññāya passati. when one sees with wisdom,atha nibbindati dukkhe, one wearies of suffering.esa maggo visuddhiyā. This is the path to purification.“sabbe saṅkhārā dukkhā”ti, “All saṅkhārā are suffering”—yadā paññāya passati. when one sees with wisdom,atha nibbindati dukkhe, one wearies of suffering.esa maggo visuddhiyā. This is the path to purification.“sabbe dhammā anattā”ti, “All dhammā are not-self”—yadā paññāya passati. when one sees with wisdom,atha nibbindati dukkhe, one wearies of suffering.esa maggo visuddhiyā. This is the path to purification. Dhammapada (#277 – #279)
  113. 113. How to “See” Saṅkhārā“...yadaniccaṃ taṃ “...what is impermanent—that isdukkhaṃ; yaṃ dukkhaṃ suffering; what is suffering—tadanattā; yadanattā taṃ that is not-self; what is not-self—‘netaṃ mama, ‘this is not mine,nesohamasmi, this is not me,na meso attā’ti evametaṃ this is not my self,’ thus is ityathābhūtaṃ to be seen with right wisdomsammappaññāya as it has occurred.daṭṭhabbaṃ...“evaṃ passaṃ... sutavā Thus seeing... the informed nobleariyasāvako... nibbindati. disciple... wearies of (the 5 Kh).nibbindaṃ virajjati; virāgā Being weary, he detaches; due tovimuccati.... detachment, he is liberated... Yadanicca Sutta SN 22.15
  114. 114. Paññā & Viññāṇa“...Yā cāvuso, paññā yañca “...paññā and viññāṇa—viññāṇaṃ—ime dhammā these states aresaṃsaṭṭhā, no visaṃsaṭṭhā. conjoined, not disjoined.Na ca labbhā imesaṃ It is impossible to separate thesedhammānaṃ vinibbhujitvā states from each othervinibbhujitvā nānākaraṇaṃ in order to describe the differencepaññāpetuṃ....” between them.‘‘...imesaṃ dhammānaṃ ...between these statessaṃsaṭṭhānaṃ no that are conjoined,visaṃsaṭṭhānaṃ paññā not disjoined: paññā is to bebhāvetabbā, viññāṇaṃ developed, viññāṇa is to be fullypariññeyyaṃ. Idaṃ nesaṃ understood. This is the differencenānākaraṇan’’ti between them. Mahāvedalla Sutta MN 43
  115. 115. Knowing the 4 Noble Truths as they have occurredaccording to Dhammacakkapavattana Sutta (SN 56:11)
  116. 116. 4 Noble Truths1. Suffering2. Origin of Suffering3. Cessation of Suffering4. Way Leading to the Cessation of Suffering Step 1: Identify Each Truth
  117. 117. 4 Noble Truths1. Suffering—to be fully known2. Origin of Suffering—to be abandoned3. Cessation of Suffering—to be realised4. Way Leading to the Cessation of Suffering—to be developedStep 2: Understand Each Task
  118. 118. 4 Noble Truths1. Suffering—has been fully known2. Origin of Suffering—has been abandoned3. Cessation of Suffering—has been realised4. Way Leading to the Cessation of Suffering—has been developedStep 3: Acknowledge Completion
  119. 119. 1. Suffering● Birth, aging, illness, death● Association with the unbeloved● Separation from the loved● Not to obtain what one wishes for● In brief, the five aggregates [subject to] clinging is to be fully known
  120. 120. 2. Origin of SufferingCravingwhich brings renewal of being,accompanied by delight and lust,and delights in this and that—● Craving for sensual pleasures● Craving for being● Craving for non-being is to be abandoned
  121. 121. 3. Cessation of SufferingThe remainderless detachmentfrom and cessation of that verycraving—● the renunciation● relinquishment● release● letting go is to be realised
  122. 122. 4. Way to Cessation of Suffering The Noble Eightfold Path— 1. Right view 5. Right livelihood 2. Right thought 6. Right effort 3. Right speech 7. Right mindfulness 4. Right action 8. Right composure is to be developed
  123. 123. Way to Develop SatipaṭṭhānaThe Noble Eightfold Path—1. Right view 5. Right livelihood2. Right thought 6. Right effort3. Right speech 7. Right mindfulness4. Right action 8. Right composureThis is called the way leading to the develop-ment of the establishment of mindfulness. (SN 47:40)
  124. 124. Linear Development of N8P 10 Right Liberation 9 RK 1 RV 8 RC2 RT 7 RM Sīla3 RS 6 RE Samādhi Paññā 4 RA 5 RL
  125. 125. Complex Development of N8P Liberation Detachment 1RV1 1RV2 Weariness6RE 7RM 8RC 1RV1=Info & Intelligence 2RT 1RV2=Insight3RS 5RL Sīla Samādhi Paññā 4RA
  126. 126. Pāli Terms for the 3 Timesatīta ati + ita (beyond) (has gone) has gone beyond = “past”anāgata ana + āgata (not) (has come) has not come = “future”paccuppanna pati + uppanna (emphatic prefix) (has arisen) has just arisen = “present”
  127. 127. Mindfulness = Sati Awareness of past objectRemember while collecting info & listening to instructions.Recollect info collected and the teachers instructions.Remind yourself to practise info collected and teachers instructions.Retrospect (look back) at how the mind relates to the 6 senses. 2
  128. 128. Ajahn Sujāto’s Five Nikāyas Scrutiny of Four Āgamas SatipaṭṭhānaPre-Buddhist Other Buddhist Sources Materials SourcesVibhaṅga Dharmaskandha Śāriputrābhidharma Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta Smṛtyupasthāna Sūtra Ekāyana Sūtra Prajñāpāramita Sūtra
  129. 129. Based on● Concordance of the 7 main texts● Internal coherence of material● Intertextual relationship with the rest of the scriptures● Cultural & philosophical contexts at the Buddha’s time● Evolution of sectarian positions 2
  130. 130. SuggestsThat the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta (MN 10)● is not an authentic discourse of the Buddha,● but a padded up discourse,● with passages “copied and pasted” from other discourses,● showing a sectarian bias towards pure vipassanā practice. 3
  131. 131. Details A History of MindfulnessHow insight worsted tranquility in the Satipatthana Sutta By Bhikkhu Sujato 4
  132. 132. Comparing contents of Satipaṭṭhāna in the 7 major textsVibhaṅga Dharmaskandha Śāriputrābhidharma Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta Smṛtyupasthāna Sūtra Ekāyana Sūtra Prajñāpāramita Sūtra 5
  133. 133. Intro to Texts & SchoolsText SchoolVi Vibhaṅga Pāli TraditionDh Dharmaskandha SarvāstivādaŚā Śāriputrābhidharma DharmaguptakaPS Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta Pāli TraditionSS Smṛtyupasthāna Sūtra SarvāstivādaEk Ekāyana Sūtra MahāsaṅghikaPr Prajñāpāramita Sūtra Mahāsaṅghika 6
  134. 134. 1a. Contemplation of Body Vi Dh Śā PS SS Ek Pr4 postures 1 2 1 1Clear knowing 2 3 2 2Cut off thoughts 3Suppress thoughts 4Breathing 3 1 5 34 jhāna similiesPerception of light 7
  135. 135. 1b. Contemplation of Body Vi Dh Śā PS SS Ek PrBasis of reviewing 6Parts of body 1 1 4 4 7 1 4Elements 2 6 4 5 5 4 8 6 2 4 5 4Food 6Space 7Oozing orifices 8 3Charnel ground 9 6 9 4 8
  136. 136. 2. Contemplation of Feelings Vi Dh Śā PS SS Ek PrPleasant/painful/ 1 1 1 1 1 1neutralBodily/mental 2 2Carnal/spiritual 2 3 2 2 3Sensual/not 4 4No mixed feeling 2 9
  137. 137. 3a. Contemplation of Mind Vi Dh Śā PS SS Ek PrWith/w/o lust 1 1 1 1 1 1With/w/o anger 2 2 2 2 2 2With/w/o delusion 3 3 3 3 3 3Defiled/undefiled 4With/w/o affection 4With/w/o attainment 5With/w/o confusion 6 10
  138. 138. 3b. Contemplation of Mind Vi Dh Śā PS SS Ek PrContracted/scattered 4 4 4 4 4 4Slothful/energetic 5Universal/not 5Exalted/unexalted 5 5 5 6Small/great 6 5Surpassed/not 6 6 7Lower/higher 6 11
  139. 139. 3c. Contemplation of Mind Vi Dh Śā PS SS Ek PrDeveloped/not 10 7Distracted /not 7Quiet/not 8Composed/not 6 9 7 7 8 8Released/not 7 11 8 8 9 9 12
  140. 140. 4. Contemplation of Dhammas Vi Dh Śā PS SS Ek Pr5 Hindrances 1 1 1 1 1 15 Aggregates 26 Sense bases 2 2 3 27 Awakening 2 3 3 4 3 2factors4 Jhānas 34 Noble truths 4 5 13
  141. 141. 5. Refrain Vi Dh Śā PS SS Ek PrInternal/external 1 1 1 1 1 1* 1Tribulations 2 2Arising/vanishing 3 2 2Knowledge 4 3 2 3Independance 5 4 4 2Arahantship 5 14
  142. 142. Tribulations At the end of each anupassanāObserves and contemplates all their many tribu-lations, namely: this body (etc.) is like a sickness,like a boil, like a dart, troublesome, impermanent,suffering, empty, not-self, changing, wearisome,a great entanglement. It is of a nature to be lostand to decay, rapidly and incessantly becomingweak, not enduring. It cannot be relied on ortrusted. It is of a nature to change and decay. Trans. Bhikkhu Sujato 15
  143. 143. Structure of Satipaṭṭhāna Mūla Based on Bhikkhu Sujāto’s “A History of Mindfulness” abstract proclamation definition 16
  144. 144. Definition in Mūla Repeated contemplation of... ● body as body ● feelings as feelings● mind as mind ● dhammas as dhammas ● internally, externally, both internally & externally while ● being ardent ● having subdued ● clearly knowing longing & dejection ● being mindful in (regard to) the world 17
  145. 145. Structure of Satipaṭṭhāna Mūla Based on Bhikkhu Sujāto’s “A History of Mindfulness” abstract proclamation definitionbody ● 31 body parts refrain 18
  146. 146. Refrain in Mūla ● Is mindful for the sake of knowledge & vision that there is/are a body, feelings, mind, dhammas ● Is independent, & does not cling to anything in the world. 19
  147. 147. Structure of Satipaṭṭhāna Mūla Based on Bhikkhu Sujāto’s “A History of Mindfulness” abstract proclamation conclusion definition predictionbody ●31 body parts dhammas refrain 7 awakening factors ● feelings refrain 5 hindrances ● mind 20
  148. 148. Satipaṭṭhāna SuttaStudy with Meditation Workshop Part 2.2Summary & Conclusion ●Samādhi & Satipaṭṭhāna ● 4 Noble Truths 5 ● Comparison of Satipaṭṭhāna Contents 1
  149. 149. Samādhi & Satipaṭṭhāna1) Kāyagatāsati Sutta (MN 119) states that all the 14 exercises in kāyānupassanā together with the 4 jhānas lead to samādhi2) This contrasts with the vipassanā refrain that follows each exercise in Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta3) Extracts from Janavasabha Sutta (DN 18) and Cūḷavedalla Sutta (MN 44) confirm that the 4 satipaṭṭhānas lead to samādhi4) Samādhi·bhāvanā Sutta (AN 4:41) shows that there are 4 types of samādhi 2
  150. 150. Samādhi & Satipaṭṭhāna5) Vitakka·saṇṭhāna Sutta (MN 20) shows that all the 5 methods of stilling distracting thoughts lead to samādhi6) In light of these instances, to translate samādhi as “concentration” or “one-pointed- ness of mind” may be misleading7) Thus, the preferred translation for samādhi is “composure” or “focused state of mind” 3
  151. 151. Samādhi & Satipaṭṭhāna8) The Visuddhimagga’s definition of worldly jhāna as “absorption in a conceptual object oblivious of the 5 senses” contradicts the descriptions of jhānas in the suttas, where the 5 senses, especially the body, have not been transcended9) The Visuddhimagga jhāna is based on a con- ceptual object, but the sutta jhāna is defined according to mental state, not object of focus 4
  152. 152. 4 Noble Truths1) Suffering (=1st NT) is to be fully known by developing the 4th NT = Noble Eightfold Path2) Fully knowing the 1st NT entails discovering its cause, craving (=2nd NT), and simultaneously abandoning it3) With the abandoning of craving, the cessation of suffering (3rd NT) is realised4) Developing N8P is often portrayed as a linear process in the suttas, but in reality it is more complex, involving multiple feedback loops 5
  153. 153. Comparison of Satipaṭṭhāna Contents 1) The variations in the 7 major texts are very obvious in kāyānupassanā & dhammānu- passanā 2) The rule of thumb is to regard the common elements as the more authentic 3) Comparison with the 7 major texts is only one of the criteria for Ajahn Sujāto to make his reconstruction of what the “original (Mūla)” Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta could have been like 6
  154. 154. For Final Discussion What are the significantinsights for understandingand practice resulting from this workshop? 7
  155. 155. Satipaṭṭhāna SuttaStudy with Meditation WorkshopSummary & Conclusion ● Comparison with Satipaṭṭhāna Mūla ● Internal coherence of material ● Comparison with other suttas ● Grand Conclusion 1
  156. 156. Comparison with Satipaṭṭhāna Mūla 1) Many additional exercises in Pāli kāyānupassanā and dhammānupassanā 2) 1st part of Pāli refrain (contemplating internally, externally & both) is in the definition of Mūla 3) No vipassanā in refrain of Mūla 4) Vipassanā only in dhammānupassanā of Mūla 2
  157. 157. Internal coherence of material1) How to contemplate arising and vanishing of body parts and corpses?2) Redundancy of refrain & causal investigation in dhammānupassanā3) No hard and fast line drawn between concept and “ultimate reality”4) For vipassanā contemplation, saṅkhāras are not restricted to form, citta and cetasika, but include anything that has the nature of arising and vanishing 3
  158. 158. Comparison with other suttas1) Sati has a broad range of applications based on its root meaning: “awareness of a past object”2) Sati thus covers: (a) remembering, (b) recollecting, (c) reminding, (d) looking back at an immediate past object3) Sati is not paññā, but is a necessary condition for it, the groundwork for paññā 4
  159. 159. Comparison with other suttas4) Sati brings the composed mind to be aware of an object that has just arisen so that paññā can discern its nature & conditionality5) Pajānāti (=verb of paññā) ranges from just bare acknowledgement of an object to intellectual understanding of and profound insight into the true nature of sensory experience6) According to Poṭṭhapāda Sutta (DN 9), preception (saññā) arises first, followed by knowledge (ñāṇa) 5
  160. 160. Comparison with other suttas7) Clear knowing is to be applied to all 4 satipaṭṭhānas, not just bodily activities8) In the Gradual Training templates, postures & clear knowing precede meditation proper & should not be included in kāyānupassanā9) “Having subdued longing and dejection” is equivalent to sense restraint in the Gradual Training templatesWhat is the Gradual Training Template? 6
  161. 161. The Gradual Training Template 1. Virtuous in the moral precepts 2. Guarding the doors of the sense faculties 3. Moderation in eating 4. Devotion to wakefulness 5. Mindfulness and clear knowing 6. Resorting to seclusion 7. Abandoning the 5 hindrances 8. Developing the jhānas Based on GaṇakaMoggallāna Sutta (MN 107) 7
  162. 162. Comparison with other suttas10) According to Kāyagatāsati Sutta (MN 119), the 14 exercises in kāyānupassanā lead to samādhi11) According to Janavasabha Sutta (DN 18) and Cūlavedalla Sutta (MN 44) the 4 satipaṭṭhānas lead to samādhi12) Although “samatha” & “vipassanā” are not explicitly mentioned in MN 10, their features are there according to other suttas 8
  163. 163. Comparison with other suttas13) According to Vibhaṅga Sutta (SN 47.40), (a) the establishment of mindfulness = the definition (b) the development of the establishment of mindfulness = contemplating the nature of arising, of vanishing & of both (c) the way leading to the development of the establishment of mindfulness = Noble Eightfold Path 9
  164. 164. Grand Conclusion1) Practice of 4 satipaṭṭhānas supported by Factors 1-6 of N8P leads to Right Samādhi2) Based on the samādhi attained, sati and saññā take the lead in contemplating the nature of arising, of vanishing & of both3) This leads to experiential knowledge and vision of saṅkhāras as they had occurred4) When such experiential insight reaches maturity, it develops into weariness and detachment, culminating in Liberation 10

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