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Icemc22010[1].bd siitdstm

  1. 1. Evaluating DSTM IPv4-in-IPv6 tunneled Header vs. BD-SIIT IPv6-to-IPv4 Header in IPv4/IPv6 Transition Mechanisms. . Mr. Hanumanthappa.J 1 , Dr.Manjaiah.D.H 2 &Aravinda.C.V 3 . 1 DoS in CS,Manasagangothri,University of Mysore, Mysore -06 [email_address] . 2 Dept.of.Computer Science, Mangalagangothri, Mangalore University Mangalore,INDIA [email_address] . 3 M.Tech.,K.S.O.U.,Manasagangotri,Mysore,INDIA [email_address]
  2. 2. Abstract <ul><li>This paper clearly specifies comparative and behavior analysis carried out on the two major IPv6 interoperation mechanisms : BD-SIIT and DSTM for the high level compatibility smooth transition, and interoperation between IPv4 and IPv6. </li></ul><ul><li>This paper proposes the performance analysis of the difference between the BD-SIIT and DSTM. </li></ul><ul><li>We Implement the BD-SIIT and DSTM in order to Study their behaviour using various evaluation metrics such as Throughput,End-to-End delay(EED),RTT. </li></ul><ul><li>The Simulation results of our experiment shows that DSTM RTT,EED, and Throughput performance metrics are better than BD-SIIT when we are using Large size IPv6 packet. </li></ul>July 23-27 ICEMC2-2010,Kuppam,AP,INDIA.
  3. 3. Contents <ul><li>Limitations of IPv4. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of IPv6. </li></ul><ul><li>-IPv6 : Distinctive Features. </li></ul><ul><li>-IPv6 Header Format. </li></ul><ul><li>Back Ground </li></ul><ul><li>-Transition techniques from IPv4 to IPv6. </li></ul><ul><li>Related Work. </li></ul><ul><li>-Literature review about BD-SIIT and DSTM. </li></ul><ul><li>-Comparison between BD-SIIT and DSTM in 4G Mobile nets. </li></ul><ul><li>Performance evaluation metrics and Simulation parameters of BD-SIIT and DSTM. </li></ul><ul><li>- Simulation results and Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>References . </li></ul>July 23-27 ICEMC2-2010,Kuppam,AP,INDIA.
  4. 4. Problems with IPv4 : Limited Address Space <ul><li>IPv4 has 32 bit addresses. </li></ul><ul><li>Flat addressing (only netid + hostid with “fixed” boundaries) </li></ul><ul><li>Results in inefficient use of address space. </li></ul><ul><li>Class B addresses are almost over. </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses will exhaust in the next 5 years. </li></ul><ul><li>IPv4 is victim of its own success . </li></ul>July 23-27 ICEMC2-2010,Kuppam,AP,INDIA.
  5. 5. Problems with IPv4 : Routing Table Explosion <ul><li>IP does not permit route aggregation </li></ul><ul><li>(limited supernetting possible with new routers) </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly only class C addresses remain </li></ul><ul><li>Number of networks is increasing very fast </li></ul><ul><li>(number of routes to be advertised goes up) </li></ul><ul><li>Very high routing overhead </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lot more memory needed for routing table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lot more bandwidth to pass routing information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lot more processing needed to compute routes </li></ul></ul>July 23-27 ICEMC2-2010,Kuppam,AP,INDIA.
  6. 6. Problems with IPv4 : Header Limitations <ul><li>Maximum header length is 60 octets. </li></ul><ul><li>(Restricts options) </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum packet length is 64K octets. </li></ul><ul><li>(Do we need more than that ?) </li></ul><ul><li>ID for fragments is 16 bits. Repeats every 65537th packet. </li></ul><ul><li> (Will two packets in the network have same ID?) </li></ul><ul><li>Variable size header. </li></ul><ul><li>(Slower processing at routers.) </li></ul><ul><li>No ordering of options. </li></ul><ul><li>(All routers need to look at all options.) </li></ul>July 23-27 ICEMC2-2010,Kuppam,AP,INDIA.
  7. 7. Problems with IPv4 : Other Limitations <ul><li>Lack of quality-of-service support. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only an 8-bit ToS field, which is hardly used. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem for multimedia services. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No support for security at IP layer. </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility support is limited . </li></ul>July 23-27 ICEMC2-2010,Kuppam,AP,INDIA.
  8. 8. <ul><li>IPv6 quadruples the size of an IPv4 address from 32 bits to 128 bits.The IPv6 address is so large that it cannot be exhausted in the foreseeable future. </li></ul><ul><li>IPv6 addressing : An IPv6 address consists of 16 bytes. It is 128 bits long.28 bits are divided into 8 sections, size of each section is 2 bytes. Each section of IPv6 is represented by 4 Hexadecimal digits. Therefore it is totally represented by 32 Hexadecimal digits with every four digits separated by a colon. </li></ul>Overview of IPv6
  9. 9. July 23-27 ICEMC2-2010,Kuppam,AP,INDIA. IPv6 Address Fig-1 .
  10. 10. IPv6: Distinctive Features <ul><li>Larger address space. </li></ul><ul><li>Header format simplification </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded routing and addressing capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Improved support for extensions and options </li></ul><ul><li>Flow labeling (for QoS) capability </li></ul><ul><li>Auto-configuration and Neighbour discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Authentication and privacy capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Simple transition from IPv4. </li></ul><ul><li>Encryption and Decryption. </li></ul><ul><li>Real time applications like Video & Audio . </li></ul>July 23-27 ICEMC2-2010,Kuppam,AP,INDIA.
  11. 11. IPv6 Header Format July 23-27 ICEMC2-2010,Kuppam,AP,INDIA. Traffic Class Flow Label Vers Payload Length Next Header Hop Limit Source Address Destination Address 0 4 12 16 24 31
  12. 12. Transition to IPv6: Design Goal <ul><li>No “flag”day. </li></ul><ul><li>Incremental upgrade and deployment. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum upgrade dependencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability of IPv4 and IPv6 nodes. </li></ul><ul><li>Let sites transition at their own pace. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic migration tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual stack and tunneling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation </li></ul></ul>July 23-27 ICEMC2-2010,Kuppam,AP,INDIA.
  13. 13. Transition Mechanisms: Dual Stack <ul><li>New nodes support both IPv4 and IPv6. </li></ul><ul><li>Upgrading from IPv4 to v4/v6 does not break anything. </li></ul><ul><li>Same transport layer and application above both. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides complete interoperability with IPv4 nodes . </li></ul>July 23-27 ICEMC2-2010,Kuppam,AP,INDIA.
  14. 14. July 23-27 ICEMC2-2010,Kuppam,AP,INDIA. Fig.2.Dual Stack .
  15. 15. Transition Mechanism: Tunnels <ul><li>Tunnel IPv6 packets across IPv4 topology. </li></ul><ul><li>Configured tunnels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicitly configured tunnel endpoints. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Router to router, host to router. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Automatic tunnels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic address resolution using embedded IPv4 address (like IPv4-compatible address). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Host to host, router to host </li></ul></ul>July 23-27 ICEMC2-2010,Kuppam,AP,INDIA.
  16. 16. July 23-27 ICEMC2-2010,Kuppam,AP,INDIA. Fig.3.Automatic Tunneling . Fig.4. C onfigured Tunneling .
  17. 17. Transition mechanism: Translation <ul><li>This will allow communication between IPv6 only hosts and IPv4 only hosts. </li></ul><ul><li>A typical translator consists of two components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>translation between IPv4 and IPv6 packets. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address mapping between IPv4 and IPv6 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For translation, three technologies are available: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>header conversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transport relay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>application proxy </li></ul></ul>July 23-27 ICEMC2-2010,Kuppam,AP,INDIA.
  18. 18. July 23-27 ICEMC2-2010,Kuppam,AP,INDIA. Fig.6.Header Translation .
  19. 19. <ul><li>In this paper we propose a new BD-SIIT Transition Algorithm. </li></ul><ul><li>BD- SIIT is said to be a stateless IP/ICMP translation, which means that the translator is able to process each conversion individually without any reference to previously translated packets . </li></ul>Literature review of BD-SIIT .
  20. 20. July 23-27 ICEMC2-2010,Kuppam,AP,INDIA. Fig.1.BD-SIIT Translation process
  21. 21. July 23-27 ICEMC2-2010,Kuppam,AP,INDIA. Fig.2.Translation of IPv6 to IPv4 Header .
  22. 22. 1. IPv4-mapped address (0: FFFF: v4):-This is an IPv6 address simply created by including the IPv4 address of the IPv4 host (v4) with the prefix shown. The BD-SIIT mainly uses this type of address for the conversion of IPv4 host addresses to IPv6 addresses. 2.IPv4 translated addresses (0::FFFF:v4):- According to IETF specifications this address is created by IPv4 address temporarily assigned to the IPv6-only host and allows for the mapping of the IPv4-translated address of the IPv6 host to an IPv4 address. As the number of globally unique IPv4 addresses becomes scarce, there is a need to take advantage of IP Header Translation. July 23-27 ICEMC2-2010,Kuppam,AP,INDIA.
  23. 23. <ul><li>To Reduce the Packet Size compared with Tunneling Algorithms, in turn, reducing Traffic overhead. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the Cost of IPv6 Network by avoiding the need to upgrade all the edge nodes that support both the IPv4 and IPv6 as found in Dual Stack mechanisms . </li></ul><ul><li>Use a New address mapping that depends on identifying two Public addresses(IPv4 and IPv6) instead of IPv4 –mapped IPv6 address method. </li></ul>Why BD-SIIT Transition Mechanism .
  24. 24. BD-SIIT Data Packet Transmission Process Fig.3. BD-SIIT Data packet Transmission Process.
  25. 25. <ul><li>Stage-1: IPv6 Packet Transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage-2:IPv6-to-IPv4 mapping calculation and Address mapping. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage-3:IPv6-in-IPv4 Header Translation </li></ul><ul><li>Stage-4:IPv4 Packet Transmission </li></ul>BD-SIIT Translation mainly occurs due to following Stages
  26. 26. Comparison and Contrast between BD-SIIT and DSTM Transition Mechanism. BD-SIIT DSTM 1.It does not for tunneling technique . 1. A tunneling technique needs to be configured. 2. Two IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are assumed to be globally unique. 2.Only IPv4 addresses are assumed to be globally unique . 3.It Uses two types of global IP addresses that are assigned by DNS46 server for each communication system. 3. Uses only a pool of IPv4 addresses in order to assign Global IPv4 address for each communication system. 4.Applicable for Bi-Directional commn between IPv6 only nodes and IPv4 nodes. 4.Not applicable to IPv6 only nodes that want to communicate with IPv4 only node. 5.Less cost 5.High Cost 6.Does not require upgrading or extra software to be used at end user nodes. 6.Requires modifications or extra software to support the dual stack on the end user nodes. 7.Transition from IPv4 to IPv6 and Vice versa is needed. 7.Encapsulation and Decapsulation methods are needed.
  27. 27. Comparison and Performance evaluation metrics of a Novel IPv4/IPv6 Transition Mechs :BD-SIIT and DSTM. Fig.5.BD-SIIT Network model .
  28. 28. July 23-27 ICEMC2-2010,Kuppam,AP,INDIA. Fig.7.DSTM Network model .
  29. 29. In this Paper we have calculated three performance evaluation metrics . 1.End to End delay 2.Throughput 3.Round trip time(RTT) N rec 1.Mean End to End delay= ∑ i=1 EEDi/Nrec where EEDi = Tdi- Tsi where EEDi is the end to end delay of ith packet. Tsi is the Source packet i created and Tdi is the Destination packet which is created at Destination. Nrec is the total number of packets received at Dest host and Mean EED is the mean value of each communication session. Performance evaluation metrics and Simulation Parameters.
  30. 30. The mean throughput for a sequence of packets of specific size is calculated by using equations 1 and 2. MeanThr = Σ N j =1 Thrj /N -------------(1) where Thr=Packetsreceived(Pr)/Packets generated(Pg)*100%.--------------(2) Where Thrj is the value of the throughput when the packet j is received at intermediate device like DSTM gateway,BD-SIIT Gateway,v4/v6 Router and N is the number of received packets at intermediate device,Pr is the no of packets received at intermediate device and Pg is the number of packets created by source host .
  31. 31. July 23-27 ICEMC2-2010,Kuppam,AP,INDIA. Simulation Parameters Value 1.Buffer Size 500 Packets 2. Propogation Delay 10ms 3.payload size 200 Bytes 4.Very traffic Load 6~240 Nodes. 5.Queue Management Scheme Drop tail.
  32. 32. <ul><li>The End to End Delay session of V6-to-V4 Communication is very large as compared to EED of other communication systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Throughput of V6-to-V4 communication is Very small as compared to other sessions. </li></ul>Conclusions .
  33. 33. July 23-27 ICEMC2-2010,Kuppam,AP,INDIA. References [1].Hanumanthappa.J.,Manjaiah.D.H.,Vinayak.B.Joshi.,” A Study on IPv6 in IPv4 Static Tunneling threat issues in 4G Networks using OOAD Class and Instance Diagrams” ,Proceedings of the International Conference on Emerging Trends in Computer Science,Communication and Information Technology,(CSCIT2010)organized by Dept of CS and Information Technology,Yeshwanth Mahavidyalaya,Nanded,Maharastra,INDIA, January 09-11,2010,[Paper code CSCIT-152][CSCITOP113].   [2].Hanumanthappa.J.,Manjaiah.D.H.,Vinayak.B.Joshi.,” An IPv4-to-IPv6 threat reviews with dual stack transition mechanism considerations a transitional threat model in 4G Wireless networks ”Proceedings of the International Conference on Emerging Trends in Computer Science,Communication and Information Technology,(CSCIT2010)organized by Dept of CS and Information Technology,Yeshwanth Mahavidyalaya,Nanded,Maharastra,INDIA,January 09-11,2010,[Paper code CSCIT-157] [CSCITOP115].   [3].Hanumanthappa.J.,Manjaiah.D.H.,Vinayak.B.Joshi.,” Implementation,Comparative and Performance Analysis of IPv6 over IPv4 QoS metrics in 4G Networks:Single-source-destination paths Delay,Packet Loss Performance and Tunnel Discovery Mechanisms” ,Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Science and Applications(ICISA-2010)organized by Dept. of Master of Computer Applications,Panimalar Engineering College,Chennai-600 123,Tamilnadu,India.,February-06-2010,[Paper code ICISA-293(with serial no-101)].   [4].Hanumanthappa.J.,Manjaiah.D.H,Vinayak.B.Joshi ,”High Performance evaluation of Multimedia Video Streaming over IP networks” ,Proceedings of the National conference on Computing communications and Information systems(NCCCIS-2010)organized by Department of Information Technology Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology,Kuniamuthur,Coimbatore-641008,INDIA,February-12-13,2010,[Paper id NCCCIS-MM-03],pp-88-92.  
  34. 34. [5].Aravinda.C.V.,Hanumanthappa.J.,Manjaiah.D.H,” IPv6 Tunneling Algorithms in 4G Networks ”,Proceedings of the National conference on KNOWLEDGE,KNOWLEDGE BANKS AND INFORMATION NETWORKING(KKBNET-2010),organized by National Institute of Technology(NIT),Karnataka,Surathkal,INDIA,April,8 th and 9 th 2010.   [6].Sridevi.,Hanumanthappa.J.,Manjaiah.D.H,” A Novel IPv4/IPv6 Transition scenarios in 4G Networks ”,Proceedings of the National conference on KNOWLEDGE,KNOWLEDGE BANKS AND INFORMATION NETWORKING(KKBNET-2010),organized by National Institute of Technology(NIT),Karnataka,Surathkal,INDIA,April,8 th and 9 th 2010.   [7].Aravinda.C.V.,Hanumanthappa.J.,Manjaiah.D.H,” A Comparison of Performance evaluation metrics and Simulation parameters ”,Proceedings of the National conference on KNOWLEDGE,KNOWLEDGE BANKS AND INFORMATIONNETWORKING(KKBNET-2010),organized by National Institute of Technology(NIT),Karnataka,Surathkal,INDIA,April,8 th and 9 th 2010. [8].Hanumanthappa.J.,Manjaiah.D.H.,Tippeswamy.K .,“Comparison and Contrast between Bellman ford and Dijkstra’s algorithms” ,Proc.of. the National Conference on Wireless Networks-09(NCOWN-2010),organized by RLJIT,Kodigehalli,Doddaballapur,Kerala,INDIA,February ,2010,[Paper code 05].   [9].Hanumanthappa.J.,Manjaiah.D.H,Vinayak.B.Joshi,” Emerging technologies for the 4G Wireless communications ”,Proceedings of the National conference on KNOWLEDGE,KNOWLEDGE BANKS AND INFORMATIONNETWORKING(KKBNET-2010),organized by National Institute of Technology(NIT),Karnataka,Surathkal,INDIA,April,8 th and 9 th 2010.   [10].Hanumanthappa.J.,Manjaiah.D.H .,”IPv6 and IPv4 Threat reviews with Automatic Tunneling and Configuration Tunneling Considerations Transitional Model: A Case Study for University of Mysore Network”, International Journal of Computer Science and Information(IJCSIS)Vol.3.,No.1,July-2009,ISSN 1947-5500,Paper ID: 12060915]
  35. 35. [11].Hanumanthappa.J.,Manjaiah.D.H .,”Transition of IPv4 Network Applications to IPv6 Applications”[TIPv4 to TIPv6], Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on emerging trends in computing(ICETiC-2009),Virudhunagar,Tamilnadu 8-10,January 2009,INDIA.[Paper ID 234].   [12].Hanumanthappa.J.,Manjaiah.D.H.,Thippeswamy.K .“IPv6 over Bluetooth: Security Aspects, Issues and its Challenges”, Proceedings of National Conference on,Wireless Communications and Technologies(NCWCT-09)-Theme :Mobile and Pervasive Computing , Nitte,Karnataka,Udupi Dist, Karnataka ,INDIA,February-5-6 , 2009,[ Paper id -104]   [13].Hanumanthappa.J.,Manjaiah.D.H.,Kumar.B.I.D .“Economical and Technical costs for the Transition of IPv4–to-IPv6 Mechanisms[ETCTIPv4 to ETCTIPv6]” ,Proceedings of National Conference on Wireless Communications and Technologies(NCWCT-09)-Theme:Mobile and Pervasive Computing , Nitte ,Karnataka,Udupi Dist,Karnataka,INDIA,February-5-6 , 2009,[ Paper id -103]   [14].Hanumanthappa.J.,Manjaiah.D.H.,Kumar.B.I.D .”Implementation of Codec Driver for network embedded devices ”, Proceedings of the ” IEEE International Advance Computing Conference IACC-2009 on March 6- 8[Paper ID IEEE-ALGO-0205]at patiala. [15].Hanumanthappa.J.,Tippeswamy.K.,Manjaiah.D.H ., “ SOA Approach for information retrieval using web Services” [SOAAFIRUWS ],Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on the IEEE International Advance Computing Conference IACC-2009 on March 5-8 at patiala,Punjab[Paper ID IEEE-DATA-2065].   [16].Hanumanthappa.J.,Manjaiah.D.H ., Tippeswamy.K.“ An Overview of Study on Smooth Porting Process Scenario during IPv6 Transition”[TIPv6] ,Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on the IEEE International Advance Computing Conference IACC-2009 on March 5-8 at patiala,Punjab[Paper ID IEEE-APPL-1278].
  36. 36. [17].Hanumanthappa.J.,Manjaiah.D.H ., Tippeswamy.K .“Generic Query information retrieval System for web 2.0” ,Proceedings of the Seventh International Convention on Automation of libraries in education and Research(CALIBER-2009) organized by Inflibnet centre on February 25-27,2009 at Pondicherry university(A central University),R.Venkat Raman Nagar,Kalapet,Pondicherry-605014,India.[Paper ID C-13].   [18].Hanumanthappa.J.,Manjaiah.D.H.,Tippeswamy.K.“ IPv6 over IPv4 QoS metrics in 4G Networks:Delay, Jitter,Packet Loss Performance,Throughput and Tunnel Discovery Mechanisms”, Proceedings of the National Conference on Wireless Networks-09(NCOWN-2009) organized by RLJIT,Kodigehalli,Doddaballapur,Karnataka, INDIA,November 21-22 nd ,2009,[Paper code NCOWN-19].   [19].Hanumanthappa.J.,Manjaiah.D.H.,“ A Study on Comparison and Contrast between IPv6 and IPv4 Feature Sets” Proceedings of International Conference on Computer Networks and Security(ICCNS-2008),Pune,Sept 27-28 th ,2008,[Paper code CP 15].   [20].Hanumanthappa.J.,Balachandra.C ,“Soft one to One Gateway Protocol”, Proceedings of International Conference on Computer Networks and Security(ICCNS-2008),Pune,Sept 27-28 th ,2008,[Paper code CP 27]. [21].Hanumanthappa.J.,Thippeswamy.K .“Generic Query Retrieval System”[GQRS]”, Proceedings of National Conference on,Recent Trends in Engineering and Technology(RTIET-2008),Doddaballapur,Karnataka,INDIA,November 21-22 nd ,2008,[ Paper code 05]   [22].S.Deering and R.Hinden “Internet Protocol Version 6(IPv6) Specification”, RFC 2460,December 1998.  
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  39. 39. July 23-27 ICEMC2-2010,Kuppam,AP,INDIA. Any Questions ?
  40. 40. July 23-27 ICEMC2-2010,Kuppam,AP,INDIA.
  41. 41. July 23-27 ICEMC2-2010,Kuppam,AP,INDIA.