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Iccana 2011


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Iccana 2011

  1. 1. 04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  2. 2. Presentation Outline . <ul><li>Objective of the paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed Methodology. </li></ul><ul><li>Results. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>References . </li></ul>04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  3. 3. Objective of the paper . <ul><li>This research work presents a new IPv4/IPv6 transition method based on the Comparison and Contrast between Stateless BD-SIIT and Stateful NAT-PT Translators in Transition of IPv4 to IPv6 new technology . </li></ul><ul><li>BD-SIIT and NAT-PT Translators are Powerful Translators in IPv4 to IPv6 Transition . </li></ul><ul><li>BD-SIIT Performance is really good as compared to NAT-PT Translator . </li></ul>04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  4. 4. Presentation Outline . 1.Objective of the Paper . 2 .Introduction to the Problem . 3.Proposed Methodology. 5.Results. 6.Conclusions. 7.References . 04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  5. 5. Introduction to the Problem . <ul><li>The concept of IPv4/IPv6 transitioning is one of the hot vigorous topic in Computer Networks. </li></ul><ul><li>The transition between IPv4 and IPv6 internet will be a very long process as they are completely incompatible two protocols . </li></ul>04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  6. 6. Definition of IP . <ul><li>An IP address is an Identifier that is applied to each device connected to an IP network . </li></ul>04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  7. 7. 04/20/11 IPv6 Address ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  8. 8. IPv6: Distinctive Features . <ul><li>Larger address space. </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded routing and addressing capabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved support for extensions and options. </li></ul><ul><li>Flow labeling(QoS) capability. </li></ul><ul><li>Server-less Auto-configuration(Plug and Play). Reconfiguration and Neighbor discovery(ND). </li></ul><ul><li>Authentication and privacy capabilities. </li></ul>04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  9. 9. <ul><li>Simple transition from IPv4. </li></ul><ul><li>Built in Strong IP-layer Encryption,Decryption and Authentication . </li></ul><ul><li>Real time applications like Video & Audio. </li></ul><ul><li>More efficient and Robust mobility mechanisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved support for options and extensions. </li></ul><ul><li>Streamed Header format simplification . </li></ul>04/20/11 Continued………………… ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  10. 10. 04/20/11 IPv6 Header Format Traffic Class Flow Label Vers Payload Length Next Header Hop Limit Source Address Destination Address 0 4 12 16 24 31 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  11. 11. Transition to IPv6: Design Goal . <ul><li>No “flag” day. </li></ul><ul><li>Incremental upgrade and deployment. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum upgrade dependencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability of IPv4 and IPv6 nodes. </li></ul><ul><li>Let sites transition at their own pace. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic migration tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual stack and tunneling. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation. </li></ul></ul>04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  12. 12. 04/20/11 Transition Scenario. <ul><li>IPv6 has been designed with a long transition period in mind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No “D-Day” for deployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coexistence of IPv4 and IPv6 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IPv6 has many transition mechanisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tunneling (static, automatic, brokers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSTM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6to4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISATAP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toredo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual-stack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NAT-PT. </li></ul></ul>ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  13. 13. Transition Mechanisms : Dual Stack . <ul><li>New nodes support both IPv4 and IPv6. </li></ul><ul><li>Upgrading from IPv4 to v4/v6 does not break anything. </li></ul><ul><li>Same transport layer and application above both. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides complete interoperability with IPv4 nodes . </li></ul>04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  14. 14. Figure-2:Dual Stack . Block Diagram of IPv6 Dual Stack. 04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  15. 15. <ul><li>Tunnel IPv6 packets across IPv4 topology. </li></ul><ul><li>Configured tunnels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicitly configured tunnel endpoints. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Router to router, host to router. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Automatic tunnels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic address resolution using embedded IPv4 address (like IPv4-compatible address). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Host to host, router to host. </li></ul></ul>04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  16. 16. Figure-3:Automatic Tunneling . Figure-4: Configured Tunneling . 04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  17. 17. Translators in IPv6 . <ul><li>Network Level Translators . </li></ul><ul><li>SIIT(Stateless IP/ICMP Translator). </li></ul><ul><li>NAT-PT(Network Address Translator-Protocol Translation). </li></ul><ul><li>BIS(Bump in the Stack)/MBIS(multiple extensions to BIS). </li></ul><ul><li>Transport Level Translators . </li></ul><ul><li>Transport relay Translators(TRT ). </li></ul><ul><li>Application Level Translators . </li></ul><ul><li>SOCKS 64. </li></ul><ul><li>BIA(Bump in the Stack). </li></ul>04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  18. 18. Operation of BD-SIIT <ul><li>V4-V6 DNS(DNS46) server determines two public IPv4 and IPv6 addresses which are statistically or dynamically exist for IPv4/IPv6 communication system. </li></ul><ul><li>V4-V6 Enabled Gateway which performs address mapping between IPv4 and IPv6 addresses as well as IPv4 and IPv6 header conversion . </li></ul>04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  19. 19. Figure-5: BD-SIIT Translation Process. Overall Architecture of BD-SIIT . 04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  20. 20. Why BD-SIIT Transition Mechanism <ul><li>To reduce the packet size compared with Tunneling Algorithms, in turn, reducing traffic overhead. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the cost of IPv6 Network by avoiding the need to upgrade all the edge nodes that support both the IPv4 and IPv6 as found in Dual Stack mechanisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a new address mapping that depends on identifying two Public addresses (IPv4 and IPv6) instead of IPv4 mapped IPv6 address method . </li></ul>04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  21. 21. Stages in BD-SIIT Translation . <ul><li>Stage 1: IPv6 Packet Transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2: IPv6-to-IPv4 mapping calculation and address mapping. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3: IPv6-to-IPv4 Header Translation. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 4: IPv4 packet Transmission . </li></ul>04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  22. 22. 04/20/11 Figure-7: BD-SIIT Data packet Transmission Process. ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  23. 23. 04/20/11 Figure-6: Translation of IPv6 to IPv4 Header. Translation of IPv4 to IPv6 Header . ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  24. 24. Presentation Outline 1.Objective of the Paper. 2.Introduction to the Problem . 3 . Proposed Methodology. 4.Results. 5.Conclusions. 6.References 04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  25. 25. Proposed Methodology BD-SIIT Algorithms. 1.IPv4 to IPv6 Header Translation or Vice versa Algorithms. 2.IPv4 to IPv6 Protocol Translation Algorithms . 04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  26. 26. 04/20/11 Proposed Methodology. . ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  27. 27. 04/20/11 The IPv6 to IPv4 header conversion. ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  28. 28. 04/20/11 BD-SIIT Protocol Translation . 1: Forward address mapping Flowchart . ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  29. 29. 04/20/11 Forward operation BD-SIIT with UDP . BD-SIIT Forward Flowchart . ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  30. 30. BD-SIIT Translation . 04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  31. 31. 04/20/11 IPv6->IPv4: Feedback operation(BD-SIIT with TCP) ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  32. 32. 04/20/11 Drawbacks of BD-SIIT(Bi Directional Stateless IP/ICMP Translator ) . <ul><li>SIIT does not translate </li></ul><ul><li>- Hop-by-hop options. </li></ul><ul><li>-Routing headers. </li></ul><ul><li>-Destination options. </li></ul><ul><li>-End-to-End AH header . </li></ul><ul><li>ESP encryption transport mode is supported. </li></ul><ul><li>In Some cases IPv4 and IPv6 Translation may result in IPv6 Fragmentation . </li></ul>ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  33. 33. <ul><li>NAT-PT stands for Network Address Translation-Protocol Translation . </li></ul><ul><li>NAT refers to the Translation of IPv4 addresses IPv6 Addresses and vice versa . </li></ul><ul><li>PT Stands for Translation of IPv4 packet into a semantically equivalent IPv6 packet and vice versa . </li></ul><ul><li>NAT-PT allows the native IPv6 hosts and applications to communicate with native IPv4 hosts and applications and vice-versa . </li></ul>04/20/11 NAT-PT ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  34. 34. <ul><li>NAT-PT device reside at the Boundary between IPv6 and IPv4 Network . </li></ul>04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  35. 35. 04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  36. 36. <ul><li>- It uses BD-SIIT for Protocol Translation . </li></ul><ul><li>State full Operation . </li></ul><ul><li>Once an association between addresses is established it is Kept for a given time. </li></ul><ul><li>Session traffic must traverse the same NAT-PT . </li></ul><ul><li>Address Translation is sometimes required at Application Level. </li></ul><ul><li>For application that transport addresses :DNS,FTP. </li></ul><ul><li>-Required DNS-ALG,FTP,……………-ALG . </li></ul>04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  37. 37. Components of NAT-PT 04/20/11 NAT-PT Engine . Header Translation Address Allocation Address Translation lookup Tables Routing Message Translation ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  38. 38. NAT-PT Steps <ul><li>Setting up and Configuring IPv4 and IPv6 Networks. </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up IPv4-only and IPv6-only DNS servers. </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up and configuring Border-Routers(NAT-PT Server) . </li></ul>04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  39. 39. 04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  40. 40. NAT-PT Packet Flow . 04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  41. 41. Working Methodology of NAT-PT . Fig.3.Communication between IPv4/IPv6 and IPv6/IPv6. 04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  42. 42. <ul><li>Node IPv6-A is situated on the IPv6 network with an IPv6 address of FEDC:BA98::7654:3210 . </li></ul><ul><li>Node IPv6-A is situated on the IPv6 network with an IPv6 address of FEDC:BA98::7654:3211 . </li></ul><ul><li>Node IPv4-C is located on the IPv4 network with address of . </li></ul>04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  43. 43. 04/20/11 04/20/11 Types of NAT-PT . <ul><li>Traditional NAT-PT : Communication initiated by IPv6 Host. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic NAT-PT. </li></ul><ul><li>NAPT-PT: Port Translation. </li></ul><ul><li>Bidirectional NAT-PT :allows IPv4 initiated communication . </li></ul>ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  44. 44. Limitations of NAT-PT . 1.NAT-PT is the lack of end-to-end security . 2.NAT-PT performs address translation , applications that carry the IP addresses in the higher layers will not work . 3.NAT-PT supports the communication between IPv4 networks and IPv6 networks with in a same network . 04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  45. 45. Comparison and Contrast between BD-SIIT and NAT-PT . 04/20/11 BD-SIIT Network model . ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  46. 46. Performance evaluation Metrics In this Paper we have calculated three performance evaluation metrics. 1.End to End delay 2.Throughput 3.Round trip time(RTT) N rec 1.Mean End to End delay= ∑ i=1 EEDi/Nrec where EEDi = Tdi- Tsi where EEDi is the end to end delay of ith packet. Tsi is the Source packet i created and Tdi is the Destination packet which is created at Destination. Nrec is the total number of packets received at Dest host and Mean EED is the mean value of each communication session 04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  47. 47. The mean throughput for a sequence of packets of specific size is calculated by using equations 1 and 2. MeanThr = Σ N j =1 Thrj /N -------------(1) where Thr=Packetsreceived(Pr)/Packets generated(Pg)*100%.--------------(2) Where Thrj is the value of the throughput when the packet j is received at intermediate device like DSTM gateway,BD-SIIT Gateway,v4/v6 Router and N is the number of received packets at intermediate device,Pr is the no of packets received at intermediate device and Pg is the number of packets created by source host . 04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  48. 48. 04/20/11 NS-2 Simulation parameters . ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India. Simulation Parameters Value 1.Buffer Size 500 Packets 2. Propogation Delay 10ms 3.payload size 200 Bytes 4.Very traffic Load 6~240 Nodes. 5.Queue Management Scheme Drop tail.
  49. 49. RESULTS 04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  50. 50. 04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  51. 51. Summary <ul><li>The transition to IPv6 is possible today. </li></ul><ul><li>NAT-PT enables stateful,application transparent translation between IPv4/IPv6. </li></ul><ul><li>Demand IPv6 support for all new network hardware and software. </li></ul><ul><li>NAT-PT replaces NAT . </li></ul><ul><li>NAT-PT share most of the benefits/Constraints of NAT . </li></ul><ul><li>Easy IPv6 / IPv4 co-existence mechanism. </li></ul><ul><li>Enable applications to cross the protocol barrier. </li></ul>04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  52. 52. 04/20/11 Questions? “ The difference between theory and practice is even larger in practice than in theory [...]” ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  53. 53. References [ 1].S.Deering and R. Hinden “Internet Protocol Version 6(IPv6) Specification”, RFC 2460,December 1998 . [2].S.Tanenbaum,“Computer Networks”,Third Edition, Prentice Hall Inc.,1996, pp. 686,413- 436,437-449 . [3].Behrouz A.Forouzan,Third Edition,“TCP/IP Protocol Suite” . [4].Kurose.J. & Ross.K.(2005) Computer Networking:A top-down approach featuring the Internet.3 rd ed,(Addison Wesley). [5].Gilligan.&Nodmar.E.(1996)Transition Mechanisms for IPv6 Hosts and Routers.RFC 1933,APRIL 1996 . [6].E.Nordmark,”Stateless IP/ICMP Translator (SIIT)”.RFC 2765,Feb2000 . 04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  54. 54. [7].C.Huitema ,R.Austein,S.Satapati,R.Van der Pol,“Evaluation of IPv6 transition mechanisms for unmanaged networks “,RFC 3904,September 2004 . [8].Okazaki,A Desai,“NAT-PT Security Considerations”(June2003),at Security-00.txt . [ 9].Carpenter, B. and K.Moore,&quot;Connection of IPv6 Domains via IPv4 Clouds&quot;,RFC 3056,February 2001 . [10].Thomson,S. and T.Narten,&quot;IPv6 Stateless Address Auto configuration&quot;,RFC 2462,December 1998 . [11].J.Bound .Assignment of IPv4 Global Addresses to IPv6 Hosts(AIIH) . [12].An overview of the introduction of IPv6 in the Internet”, W.Biemolt et al .Trabajo en curso . [13].RFC 2765.”Stateless IP/ICMP Translation algorithm(SIIT) “,E.Nordmark.Febrero 2000 . [ 14].RFC2766.“Network Address Translation–Protocol Translation(NAT-PT)”,Tsirtsis,P.Srisuresh,February 2000 . 04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  55. 55. 04/20/11 Thank you for listening <ul><ul><li>Presented by Hanumanthappa.J. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BE.,M.Tech.,(Ph.D)., </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul>ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.
  56. 56. 04/20/11 ICCANA-2011,Jan 7-8th ,NAMAIT,Nitte,DK,India.