Algorithms,graph theory and combinatorics


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Algorithms,graph theory and combinatorics

  1. 1. Appeared in the Proceedings of Conference on Algorithms,Computing,Graph Theory and Combinatorics-April-2011). Mr.Hanumanthappa.J. Dr.Manjaiah.D.H. Dr.Ashok JhunJhunwala. Mr.Ramesh.K. Presented by Mr.Ramesh.K. At KU Conference on Algorithms,Computing,Graph Theory and Combinatorics-April-2011) 20 th April,VTU Campus,Belgaum . 4/20/2011 A Simulation study on the performance of Divide- and-Conquer based IPv6 Address Longest Prefix Matching using a Novel Reduced Segment Table(RST) algorithm in BD-SIIT Translator.
  2. 2. 4/20/2011 About the Authors About the Authors Mr.Hanumanthappa.J. DoS in Computer Science,University of Mysore,Manasagangotri Mysore. Dr.Manjaiah.D.H. Dept of Computer Science,Mangalore University,Mangalagangotri Mangalore. [email_address] . Dr.Ashok Jhunjhunwala Professor,Dept of Electrical Engg,Indian Institute of Technology(IITM). Chennai-600036 . Email: [email_address] Mr.Ramesh.K. Asst.Professor,Dept of Computer Science,Karnatak University,Dharwad. Email:
  3. 3. 4/20/2011 Purpose of This Paper <ul><li>A new divide and Conquer based IPv6 Address Longest Prefix matching using reduced segment table in BD-SIIT Transition of IPv4 to IPv6. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide the Simulative evaluation of a Performance Analysis of Divide and Conquer based IPv6 Address Longest Prefix matching using novel RST Algorithm . </li></ul><ul><li>Divide and conquer based IPv6 based address longest prefix matching using a novel reduced segment table algorithm is a challenging domain for the innovative and creative research scholars due to </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing routing table size, </li></ul><ul><li>the increasing link speed, and </li></ul><ul><li>the increasing network traffic with reduced packet size. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Outline <ul><li>Objective. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to Divide and Conquer. </li></ul><ul><li>- IPv6 Forwarding Table. </li></ul><ul><li>-Def:IPv6. </li></ul><ul><li>-Features of IPv6 </li></ul><ul><li>-IPv6 Header Format. </li></ul><ul><li>-IPv6 Transition Mechanisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed Methodology. </li></ul><ul><li>- BD-SIIT Translator . </li></ul><ul><li>- IPv4 to IPv6 Compatible Address. </li></ul><ul><li>- IPv4 to IPv6 Mapped Address. </li></ul><ul><li>- Classification of IPv6 Packets based on Recursive Flow. </li></ul><ul><li>-RST based on Divide and Conquer Method. </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation Results. </li></ul><ul><li>Performance evaluation metrics. </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>4/20/2011 Table of Contents
  5. 5. Objective <ul><li>In this paper we proposed a new algorithm called BD-SIIT RST which depicts the structure of the algorithm called reduction tree designed based on the entries in the routing table using portion(section)division using an algorithm . </li></ul><ul><li>As a challenge for future simulations we have identified the design of a Novel reduced segment table using BD-SIIT Divide-and-Conquer based IPv6 Address Longest Prefix Matching . </li></ul>4/20/2011 Objective
  6. 6. 4/20/2011 Background Divide and Conquer <ul><li>Divide and Conquer is a New Data structure concept similar to modularization concept to divide the larger address into several modules and again smaller modules are solved separately. </li></ul><ul><li>Fig.1.Divide and Conquer in IPv6 Address format. </li></ul><ul><li>it is also expressed by recursive algorithm. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 4/20/2011 IPv6 Forwarding Table . <ul><li>Address Lookup. </li></ul><ul><li>Switching . </li></ul>Destination address prefix Next-hop Output interface 56.40.32/40 2 45.87/16 6 112.12.16/20 4
  8. 8. 4/20/2011 Def:IPv6 . <ul><li>IPv6 is the Internet’s next-generation Protocol. </li></ul><ul><li>The First name of IPv6 is IPng . </li></ul><ul><li>The IETF developed the basic Specification’s during the 1990’s to support a </li></ul><ul><li>migration to a new development . </li></ul><ul><li>IPv6 is defined in RFC 2460 Internet Protocol version 6 Specification by S. </li></ul><ul><li>Deering and R.Hinden(December 1998). </li></ul><ul><li>IPv6 is a 128 bit Address represented by 32 Hexadecimal digits. </li></ul><ul><li>Supports for Wireless Mobile nodes and Wired Nodes. </li></ul><ul><li>IPv6 is mainly used to identify the resources connected to the typical </li></ul><ul><li>networks like </li></ul><ul><li>WAN,LAN and MAN. </li></ul><ul><li>IPv6 Addresses are broadly divided into </li></ul><ul><li>-Anycast </li></ul><ul><li>- Multicast </li></ul><ul><li>- Site specific </li></ul>Def:IPv6
  9. 9. Features :IPv6 <ul><li>Larger address space. </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded routing and addressing capabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved support for extensions and options. </li></ul><ul><li>Flow labeling(QoS) capability. </li></ul><ul><li>Server-less Auto-configuration(Plug and Play). </li></ul><ul><li>Reconfiguration and Neighbor discovery(ND). </li></ul><ul><li>Authentication and privacy capabilities . </li></ul><ul><li>Simple transition from IPv4. </li></ul><ul><li>Built in Strong IP-layer Encryption, Decryption and Authentication . </li></ul><ul><li>Real time applications like Video & Audio. </li></ul><ul><li>More efficient and Robust mobility mechanisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved support for options and extensions. </li></ul><ul><li>Streamed Header format simplification. </li></ul>4/20/2011 Features : IPv6
  10. 10. IPv6 Header Format Traffic Class Flow Label Vers Payload Length Next Header Hop Limit Source Address Destination Address 0 4 12 16 24 31 4/20/2011
  11. 11. Types of IPv6 Transition Mechanisms . Fig.1.The IPv6 Transition types . 4/20/2011
  12. 12. 4/20/2011 IPv6:Transition Scenarios.
  13. 13. 4/20/2011 Proposed Methodology . Fig.1.BD-SIIT Translator.
  14. 14. 4/20/2011 Fig.2.Translation of IPv6 to IPv4 Header .
  15. 15. 4/20/2011 BD-SIIT Translators in IPv4/IPv6 Transition Scenarios .
  16. 16. 4/20/2011 BD-SIIT Translation process . <ul><li>IPv6 Packet Transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>IPv6-to-IPv4 mapping calculation and Address mapping. </li></ul><ul><li>IPv6-in-IPv4 Header Translation. </li></ul><ul><li>IPv4 Packet Transmission. </li></ul>
  17. 17. 4/20/2011 BD-SIIT Data Packet Transmission Process Fig.3.BD-SIIT Data packet Transmission Process .
  18. 18. 4/20/2011 Types of IPv6 Addresses in BD-SIIT Translators . <ul><li>IPv4 to IPv6 Compatible Address. </li></ul><ul><li>IPv4 to IPv6 Mapped Address. </li></ul>
  19. 19. 4/20/2011 IPv4-Compatible-IPv6 Address . 0 96 <ul><li>127 </li></ul>96- bits of zero 32 bits (IPv4 address
  20. 20. 4/20/2011 IPv4-mapped -IPv6 Address . 0 79 80 95 <ul><li>127 </li></ul>80- bits of zero FFFF(16 bits ) 32 bits (IPv4 address
  21. 21. 4/20/2011 Classification of IPv6 Packets based on Recursive Flow. Fig.4.Recursive Flow Classification .
  22. 22. 4/20/2011 Reduced Segment Table based on Divide and Conquer in BD-SIIT . Fig.5.Reduced Segment Table(RST) using Chunk based divide-and-conquer technique .
  23. 23. 4/20/2011 Proposed Methodology Chunk Division Algorithm:IPv6 BD-SIIT Translator based on Divide and Conquer. 4/13/2011
  24. 24. 4/20/2011 Fig.6.The Basic Flowchart of Divide and Conquer based chunk division in BD-SIIT Translator .
  25. 25. 4/20/2011 Address Mapping Techniques in BD-SIIT IPv4/IPv6 Transition Algorithm .
  26. 26. 4/20/2011 4/13/2011 Table-1: Address Mapping IPv6/IPv4 . Sl.No IPv6 Address IPv4 Address Address mapping value 1 ABC2::4321 1 2 ABC2::4321 2 3 ABC2::4321 37
  27. 27. 4/20/2011 Table-2: DNS46 corresponding to IPv4 and IPv6 . 4/13/2011 Sl.No IPv4 Address IPv6 Address DNS Address mapping value 1 ---- B 4 2` 1C::DACF Y 37
  28. 28. 4/20/2011 Table-3: Address mapping IPv4/IPv6 . 4/13/2011 Sl.No IPv4 Address IPv6 Address Address mapping value 1 ABC2::4321 1 2 ABC2::4321 2 3 ABC2::4321 37
  29. 29. 4/20/2011 Table-4: V4-V6 enabled Gateway . 4/13/2011 IPv4 IPv6 P_IPv4 P_IPv6 TTL M_ value-1 M value- 2 1C::DACF IPv4-1 IPv6-1 60s G1 F1
  30. 30. 4/20/2011 Table-5: IPv4 mapped IPv6 Address . 4/13/2011 Sl.No IPv4 Address IPv6 Address Address mapping value 1 ABC2::4321 1 2 ABC2::4321 2 3 ABC2::4321 37
  31. 31. 4/20/2011 Simulation Environment . <ul><li>7 nodes in a 500 Meters * 500 Meters space. </li></ul><ul><li>ns-2 network simulator with modifications. </li></ul>
  32. 32. 4/20/2011 4/13/2011 4/13/2011 NS-2 Simulation parameters . Table-5: Simulations Parameters in NS-2 environment. Sl.No Description Name/Values 1 IFQ Length 50 Packets. 2 Number of Nodes 7 3 Grid Size 500 Meters * 500 Meters. 4 Very traffic Loads 6~240 Nodes. 5 IFQ Drop tail 6 Simulation Time 200 Seconds. 7 Propagation Model TwoRayGround
  33. 33. 4/20/2011 Performance Evaluation metrics and Simulation parameters of BD-SIIT. In this Paper we have calculated three performance evaluation metrics. 1.End to End delay 2.Throughput 3.Round trip time(RTT) N rec 1.Mean End to End delay= ∑ i=1 EEDi/Nrec where EEDi = Tdi- Tsi where EEDi is the end to end delay of ith packet. Tsi is the Source packet i created and Tdi is the Destination packet which is created at Destination. Nrec is the total number of packets received at Dest host and Mean EED is the mean value of each communication session
  34. 34. 4/20/2011 The mean throughput for a sequence of packets of specific size is calculated by using equations 1 and 2. MeanThr = Σ N j =1 Thrj /N -------------(1) where Thr=Packetsreceived(Pr)/Packets generated(Pg)*100%.--------------(2) Where Thrj is the value of the throughput when the packet j is received at intermediate device like DSTM gateway,BD-SIIT Gateway,v4/v6 Router and N is the number of received packets at intermediate device,Pr is the no of packets received at intermediate device and Pg is the number of packets created by source host .
  35. 35. 4/20/2011 4/13/2011 Graph-1: The comparison between EED of v4-to-v4 and v6-to-v6 communication sessions. Simulation Results .
  36. 36. 4/20/2011 Graph-2: A Comparison between the throughput (v4-to-v4, and v6-to-v6) communication sessions .
  37. 37. 4/20/2011 Summary <ul><li>We have Implemented IPv6 based Divide and Conquer Longest Prefix matching in BD-SIIT Translator. </li></ul><ul><li>This paper also illustrates how to Simulate the BD-SIIT Translator in NS-2 by using Mobi wan patch. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Conclusions <ul><li>It is also possible to prove the divide and conquer based IPv6 address Longest prefix matching using a novel reduced segment table is a innovative,challenging and qualitative research problem for innovative researchers . </li></ul><ul><li>We have also calculated round trip time,delay(latency),packet loss for BD-SIIT Protocol translator etc . </li></ul>4/20/2011
  39. 39. References 1.L.C Wnn,K.M.Chen and T.J.Liu,“A Longest Prefix First Search Tree for IP Lookup” in ICC’05,pp..989-993,May.16-20,2005.   2.H.Lu,S.Sahni,“A B-Tree Dynamic Router-Table Design”,IEEE Trans.Computers,vol.54,pp.813-823,2005.   3.S.Nilsson and G.Karlsson,“IP-address Lookup using LC-Trie”,IEEE J.on Sel.Area in Comm,Vol.17,pp.1083-1092,June.2001.   4.M.Waldvogel,”First longest prefix matching:Algorithms,Analysis and Applications,”Ph.D.Thesis,Swiss Federal Institute of Technology,Zurich,2000.   5.S.Deering and R.Hinden,“Internet Protocol Version 6 specification”,RFC 2460,Dec.1998.   6.P.Gupta and N.McKeown,”Packet Classification on Multiple Fields,”ACM SIGCOMM1999.   7.Y.Rekhter and T.Li,“An Architecture for IP address Allocation with CIDR,”RFC 1518,Sept.1993.   8.V.Srinivasan and G.Varghese,“Fast Address Lookups Using Controlled Prefix Expansion,”ACM Transactions on Computer Systems,Vol.17,No.1,February 1999,pp.1-40.   9.S.Tanenbaum,“Computer Networks”,Third Edition, Prentice Hall Inc.,1996, pp.686,413- 436,437-449.   4/20/2011
  40. 40. 10.Behrouz A.Forouzan,Third Edition,“TCP/IP Protocol Suite ” . 11.Atul Kahate,“Cryptography and Network Security “,Tata McGraw-Hill, 2003, pp-8-10. 12.B.Carpenter and K.Moore,“Connection of IPv6 Domains via IPv4 Clouds“,RFC3056,Feb 200. 13.Kurose.J. & Ross .K.(2005) Computer Networking: A top- down approach featuring the Internet.3 rd ed, (Addison Wesley).   14.Ra’ed AlJa’afreh,John mellor,Mumtaz Kamala,”A Novel IPv4/IPv6 transition mechanism which support transparent connections”.   15.Jivika Govil,Jivesh Govil, Navkeerat Kaur,Harkeerat Kaur,An examination of IPv4 and IPv6 Networks: constraints,and various transition mechanisms . 4/20/2011
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