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Energy Audit and Mgt UNIT 1

Energy scenario and energy conservation

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Energy Audit and Mgt UNIT 1

  1. 1. Energy Audit and Management Prepared by Prof. Jagdale H.D Mechanical Engg. Dept. ICEM
  2. 2. Syllabus • Unit I- General Aspects of Energy Management • Unit II- Energy Auditing • Unit III- Energy Economics • Unit IV- Energy Efficiency in Thermal Utilities • Unit V- Electrical Energy Management and Lighting • Unit VI- Cogeneration and Waste Heat Recovery
  3. 3. UNIT-I General Aspects of Energy Management Content:  Current energy scenario - India and World,  Current energy consumption pattern in global and Indian industry,  Principles of Energy management,  Energy policy,  Energy action planning,  Energy security and reliability,  Energy and environment,  Need of Renewable and energy efficiency.
  4. 4. Energy can be classified into several types based on the following criteria: • Primary and Secondary energy • Commercial and Non commercial energy. • Renewable and Non-Renewable energy
  5. 5. Primary and Secondary Energy
  6. 6. • Primary energy sources are those that are either found or stored in nature. • Common primary energy sources are coal, oil, natural gas, and biomass (such as wood). • Coal, oil or gas converted into steam and electricity. • Steam and electricity are called secondary energy sources
  7. 7. Commercial Energy and Non Commercial Energy • The energy sources that are available in the market for a definite price are known as commercial energy. • electricity, coal and refined petroleum products. • The energy sources that are not available in the commercial market for a price are called as non-commercial energy. • Non-commercial energy sources include fuels such as firewood, cattle dung and agricultural wastes,
  8. 8. Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy • Renewable energy is energy obtained from sources that are essentially inexhaustible. • Examples : wind power, solar power, geothermal energy, tidal power and hydroelectric power . • The most important feature of renewable energy is that it can be harnessed without the release of harmful pollutants. • Non-renewable energy is the conventional fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas, which are likely to deplete with time.
  9. 9. Global Primary Energy Reserves Coal The USA had the largest share of the global reserve (25.4%) followed by Russia (15.9%), China (11.6%). India was 4th in the list with 8.6%. Oil Saudi Arabia had the largest share of the reserve with almost 23%.
  10. 10. Global Primary Energy Reserves Gas The Russian Federation had the largest share of the reserve with almost 27%.
  11. 11. Energy Distribution Between Developed and Developing Countries  80 percent of the world's population lies in the developing countries, their energy consumption amounts to only 40 percent of the world total energy consumption. The high standards of living in the developed countries are attributable to high energy consumption levels.
  12. 12. Indian Energy Scenario Coal dominates the energy mix in India, contributing to 55% of the total primary energy production.  Coal Supply  India has huge coal reserves, this amounts to almost 8.6% of the world reserves and it may last for about 230 years at the current Reserve to Production (R/P) ratio. Reserves/Production (R/P) ratio- If the reserves remaining at the end of the year are divided by the production in that year, the result is the length of time that the remaining reserves would last if production were to continue at that level.
  13. 13. - India is the fourth largest producer of coal and lignite in the world. Coal production states - Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Jharkhand, West Bengal. Oil Supply – Oil accounts for about 36 % of India's total energy consumption. Natural Gas Supply – Natural gas accounts for about 8.9 per cent of energy consumption in the country.
  14. 14. Nuclear Power Supply - Nuclear Power contributes to about 2.4 per cent of electricity generated in India. Electrical Energy Supply  THERMAL - 7480 MW  GAS - 672 MW  HYDRO - 2585 MW Sector Wise Energy Consumption in India
  15. 15. Energy Scenario in India
  16. 16. Energy and Environment The usage of energy resources in industry leads to environmental damages by polluting the atmosphere.  Examples of air pollution are- Sulphur dioxide (SO2) Nitrous oxide (NOX) Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from boilers and furnaces Chloro-fluro carbons (CFC) emissions from refrigerants use, etc. In chemical and fertilizers industries, toxic gases are released Cement plants and power plants spew out particulate matter Greenhouse Effect
  17. 17. Energy and Environment Fig: Inputs & Outputs of Process
  18. 18. Energy Management Definition of Energy Management – The fundamental goal of energy management is to produce goods and provide services with the least cost and least environmental effect. – "The judicious and effective use of energy to maximize profits (minimize costs)” – "The strategy of adjusting and optimizing energy, using systems and procedures so as to reduce energy requirements per unit of output while holding constant or reducing total costs of producing the output from these systems"
  19. 19. Energy Management Objective of Energy Management – Is to achieve and maintain optimum energy procurement and utilisation, throughout the organization – To minimise energy costs / waste without affecting production & quality – To minimise environmental effects.
  20. 20. Energy Security  The basic aim of energy security for a nation is to reduce its dependency on the imported energy sources for its economic growth.  The strategies that can be used to meet future challenges to their energy security are- Building stockpiles (storage) Diversification of energy supply sources Increased capacity of fuel switching decrease use of conventional increase use of Non-conventional
  21. 21. Energy Security Development of renewable energy sources. Energy efficiency / Energy efficiency is achieved when energy intensity in a specific product, process or area of production or consumption is reduced without affecting output, consumption or comfort levels. Sustainable development / Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs Examples: Solar and wind energy
  22. 22. Energy Conservation and its Importance  Coal and other fossil fuels, are likely to deplete soon.  In the last two hundred years, we have consumed 60% of all resources.  For sustainable development, we need to adopt energy efficiency measures.  Today, 85% of primary energy comes from non renewable, and fossil sources (coal, oil, etc.).  These reserves are continually diminishing with increasing consumption and will not exist for future generations
  23. 23. Energy Conservation Energy conservation is achieved when growth of energy consumption is reduced.  Replacing traditional light bulbs with Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) means you will use only 1/4th of the energy to light a room. Also reduces Pollution levels.  Energy efficiency means using less energy to perform the same function.
  24. 24. Energy Efficiency Benefits
  25. 25. Energy efficiency is extremely important to all organisations, especially those that are energy intensive.  The four vital requirements for a successful energy management is shown
  26. 26. Top management should give energy efficiency equal importance in their corporate objectives as manpower, raw materials, production and sales. A well charted strategy plan, an effective monitoring system and adequate technical ability for analysing and implementing energy saving options.  Organisation success is based on regularly assessing energy performance, planning and implementing action plans to improve energy efficiency
  27. 27. Steps in Energy Action Planning
  28. 28. Energy Action Planning Top Management Commitment and Support Assess Energy Performances Set Goals Create Action Plan Implement Action Plan Evaluate Progress Recognize Achievements
  29. 29. 1.Top Management Commitment and Support • Commitment is to allocate manpower and funds to achieve continuous improvement. • To establish the energy management programme, leading organizations appoint energy manager, form a dedicated energy team and institute an energy policy.  Appoint an Energy Manager  setting goals  tracking progress  promoting the energy management program. An Energy Manager helps an organization achieve its goals by establishing energy performance as a core value.
  30. 30. 1.Top Management Commitment and Support Location of Energy Manager  According to function and organization structure  between senior management and those who control the end-use of energy. Responsibilities and Duties of Energy Manager  Prepare an annual activity plan and present to management concerning financially attractive investments to reduce energy costs  Establish an energy conservation cell within the firm with management's consent about the mandate and task of the cell.
  31. 31. 1.Top Management Commitment and Support Responsibilities and Duties of Energy Manager  Initiate activities to improve monitoring and process control to reduce energy costs.  Analyze equipment performance with respect to energy efficiency  Ensure proper functioning and calibration of instrumentation required to assess level of energy consumption directly or indirectly.  Prepare information material and conduct internal workshops about the topic for other staff.
  32. 32. 1.Top Management Commitment and Support Responsibilities and Duties of Energy Manager  Establish a methodology how to accurately calculate the specific energy consumption of various products/services or activity of the firm.  Develop and manage training programme for energy efficiency at operating levels.  Create knowledge bank on sectoral, national and inter-national development on energy efficiency technology and management system and information denomination  Develop integrated system of energy efficiency and environmental up gradation.  Co-ordinate implementation of energy audit/efficiency improvement projects through external agencies.
  33. 33. 1.Top Management Commitment and Support Duties of Energy Manager  Report to BEE and State level Designated Agency once a year the information with regard to the energy consumed and action taken on the recommendation  Provide support to Accredited Energy Audit Firm  Provide information to BEE as demanded in the Act  Prepare a scheme for efficient use of energy and its conservation and implement the scheme
  34. 34. 1.Top Management Commitment and Support Form A Dedicated Energy Team  The tasks of energy team are executing energy management activities across different parts of the organization and ensuring integration of best practices. Institute an Energy Policy  Energy policy provides the foundation for setting performance goals and integrating energy management into an organization's culture and operations.
  35. 35. Format of an Energy Policy Declaration of top management's commitment to, and senior and middle management's involvement in, energy management. Statement of policy. Statement of objectives, separated into short and long-term goals.
  36. 36. 2. Assess Energy Performances Data Collection and Management Establishing Baseline  Establish baselines -Determine the starting point from which to measure progress. Benchmark Compare the energy performance of facilities to each other and competitors, and over time to prioritize which facilities to focus on for improvements Analysis and Evaluation Conduct Technical Assessments & Audits
  37. 37. 3. Set Goals Determine Scope  Identify organizational and time parameters for goals. Estimate Potential for Improvement  Review baselines, benchmark to determine the potential and order of upgrades, and conduct technical assessments and audits. Establish Goals  Create and express clear, measurable goals, with target dates, for the entire organization, facilities, and other units.
  38. 38. 4. Create Action Plan Define Technical Steps and Targets Determine Roles and Resources 5. Implement Action Plan Motivate Training Build Capacity Raise Awareness
  39. 39. 6. Evaluate Progress Measure results Gather tracking data Review action plan 7. Recognize Achievements Recommendations Results and conclusions
  40. 40. Energy Policy

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Energy scenario and energy conservation


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