Scenario-Based Design

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Scenario-Based Design

  1. 1. Scenario-Based DesignHans Põldoja
  2. 2. cbaThis work is licensed under the Creative CommonsAttribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Estonia License. To view a copy ofthis license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ee/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street,Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.
  3. 3. “Scenarios are stories.They are stories about people and their activities.” (John M. Carroll) (Carroll, 1999)
  4. 4. Scenario’s elements• Setting — description of the starting state of the episode and objects that are involved• Actors• Goals• Actions — things that actors do• Events — things that happen to actors• Objects (Carroll, 1999)
  5. 5. GoalsHarry is interested in bridge failures; as a child, he saw asmall bridge collapse when its footings were undermined after aheavy rainfall.He opens the case study of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge andrequests to see the film of its collapse. He is stunned to seethe bridge first sway, then ripple, and ultimately lurch apart.He quickly replays the film, and then opens the associatedcourse module on harmonic motion.He browses the material (without doing the exercises), savesthe film clip in his workbook with a speech annotation, andthen enters a natural language query to find pointers to otherphysical manifestations of harmonic motion.He moves on to a case study involving flutes and piccolos. (Carroll, 1999)
  6. 6. ActionsHarry is interested in bridge failures; as a child, he saw asmall bridge collapse when its footings were undermined after aheavy rainfall.He opens the case study of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge andrequests to see the film of its collapse. He is stunned to seethe bridge first sway, then ripple, and ultimately lurch apart.He quickly replays the film, and then opens the associatedcourse module on harmonic motion.He browses the material (without doing the exercises), savesthe film clip in his workbook with a speech annotation, andthen enters a natural language query to find pointers to otherphysical manifestations of harmonic motion.He moves on to a case study involving flutes and piccolos. (Carroll, 1999)
  7. 7. ObjectsHarry is interested in bridge failures; as a child, he saw asmall bridge collapse when its footings were undermined after aheavy rainfall.He opens the case study of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge andrequests to see the film of its collapse. He is stunned to seethe bridge first sway, then ripple, and ultimately lurch apart.He quickly replays the film, and then opens the associatedcourse module on harmonic motion.He browses the material (without doing the exercises), savesthe film clip in his workbook with a speech annotation, andthen enters a natural language query to find pointers to otherphysical manifestations of harmonic motion.He moves on to a case study involving flutes and piccolos. (Carroll, 1999)
  8. 8. Scenario types• Problem scenarios — describe current situation features (what users can do)• Activity scenarios — propose transformation from current practice into new design features• Information scenarios — how users perceive, interpret and make sense of information• Interaction scenarios — physical actions and system responses that enact and respond to the users’ task goals and needs (Rosson & Carroll, 2002; Palotta, 2007)
  9. 9. Five reasons for scenario-based design• Vivid descriptions of end-user experiences evoke reflection about design issues• Scenarios concretely fix an interpretation and a solution, but are open-ended and easily revised• Scenarios can be written at multiple levels, from many perspectives and for many purposes• Scenarios can be abstracted and categorized• Scenarios anchor design discussion in work, supporting participation among stakeholders and appropriate design outcomes (Carroll, 1999)
  10. 10. Examples
  11. 11. Scenario 1: First experience with EduFeedrJohn is teaching an open online course where he has more than 30participants. All the participants have their individual blogs where theypublish the weekly assignment. John is using a feed reader to follow all thestudent blogs. He is also trying to comment all the posts that have aninspiring ideas.In the middle of the course John notices that it becomes increasinglycomplicated to manage the course. Several participants are not able to keepup with the tempo of the course. In the feed reader it is not easy to seehow far different participants have proceeded with the course.One day John reads about new feed reader EduFeedr that has special featuresto support online courses. It an online feed reader similar to GoogleReader. John creates an account and starts exploring the possibilities. Hecan easily import all the feeds from his current feed reader.After importing the feeds he notices that the students’ posts are somehowgrouped by the assignments. This way it is easy to see how far theparticipants have proceeded with their work.It is possible to browse students posts by a tag cloud. Among other tagsthere is a tag "urgent". John clicks on the tag and finds out that a fewstudents who needed fast feedback to proceed with their home task have usedthat tag.There is also an image that displays the social network between the studentblogs. John can see which blogs are more actively linked and commented.John is impressed by these possibilities. He decides to get a cup of coffeeand explore the other features of EduFeedr.
  12. 12. Participatory design sessions• 2...3 participants and 1 designer• Structured discussion about 3...4 scenarios• Prepared questions about the scenarios• Should not last more than 2 hours
  13. 13. Example questions• Did the scenario wake-up any thoughts?• Could you image yourself to the role of the teacher?• Is there something you would like to change in the scenario?
  14. 14. References• Carroll, J.M. (1999). Five Reasons for Scenario-Based Design. In: Proceedings of the 32nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.• Rosson, B.M., Carroll, J.M. (2002). Usability Engineering: Scenario-Based Development of Human Computer Interaction. London: Academic Press.• Palotta,V. (2007). Scenario-Based Design. http://diuf.unifr.ch/pai/uc/ miscellaneous/Scenario-based_Design.pdf
  15. 15. Photos• Teemu Leinonen, http://lemill.org/trac/attachment/wiki/DesignSessionResults/ finland-02.jpg
  16. 16. Thank You!• hans.poldoja@tlu.ee• http://imkedesign.wordpress.com

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