cbaThis work is licensed under the Creative CommonsAttribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Estonia License. To view a copy ofthis license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ee/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street,Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.
Personas as a design tool• Determine what a product should do and how it should behave• Communicate with stakeholders, developers and other designers• Build consensus and commitment to the design• Measure the design’s effectiveness• Contribute to marketing (Cooper & Reimann, 2003)
Personas are based on research• Real-world observations• Ethnographic interviews• Contextual inquiry (Cooper & Reimann, 2003)
Ethnographic interviews• Interview where the interaction happens• Avoid a ﬁxed set of questions• Focus on the goal ﬁrst, tasks second• Avoid making the user a designer• Avoid discussion of technology• Avoid leading questions• Ask for stories, demonstrations and a tour (Cooper & Reimann, 2003)
Contextual inquiry• Context: interview should take place in the environment where the product is actually used• Partnership• Interpretation: reading between the lines• Focus: direct the interview as new issues arise (Cooper & Reimann, 2003)
When research is not possible...• Information about the users supplied by stakeholders and subject matter experts• Market research data such as focus groups and surveys• Market segmentation models• Data gathered from literature reviews and previous studies (Cooper & Reimann, 2003)
Persona types• Primary (1)• Secondary (0...2)• Supplemental• Customer• Served: non-users affected by the use of the product• Negative (Cooper & Reimann, 2003)
Goals• Goals must be inferred from qualitative data• Each goal should be expressed as a simple sentence (Cooper & Reimann, 2003)
User goalsLife goals ✓ Be the best at what I do ✓ Learn all there is to know about this ﬁeldExperience goals ✓ Don’t feel stupid ✓ Don’t make mistakes ✓ Have funEnd goals ✓ Find the best price ✓ Process the customer’s order (Cooper & Reimann, 2003)
Non-user goalsCustomer goals ✓ Be sure about the child’s safetyCorporate goals ✓ Increase market share ✓ Use resources more efﬁcientlyTechnical goals ✓ Support all major browsers ✓ Maintain consistency across platforms (Cooper & Reimann, 2003)
FeedFordward scenario needs feature behaviour Laura wants to set * Guidance * Wizard Laura starts the application and begins remix your information environment up her application filling in the information in the First Persona: Laura, 11 June 2007 so it can track her Run Wizard. It asks her for the blogs Laura Marsden students blogs and post to her own she wants to monitor, and her blog she wants to post to. It asks her to blog. define her contexts and she choosesprofile "I need to "comment on student work for ..." for each cohort she is teaching.Laura is a lecturer in BuiltEnvironment Studies at a traditional know what myUniversity. Shes been experimentingwith using blogs for student work students are Initially the Radar has a lot of items, Laura decides to *Manage attention *Mixerand has found the experience reallygood, but has had problems keeping writing about, track what her *Scan and Decide *Radar and so she decides to try the Mixer. students have been *Defer action *Context She adjusts upwards the slider forup with the sheer volume of posts.As a result she hasnt been and how it writing over the the course she is teaching tomorrow past week so she and slides down the others. Thecommenting on or highlighting relates to the can decide whether number of posts in the radar nowparticular work in a consistent and looks a lot more manageable.methodical manner. real world" to post a comment on their work. She background decides rather than Laura scans the Radar and sees a goodShes also aware that also she * 28 years old, engaged, female comment now shell point made by one student, but whichhasnt been keeping abreast of new * PhD in environmental design and planning do it later when would be made better with andevelopments, particularly local * Currently a lecturer in the School of Built she has more quiet appropriate reference. She drags theconstruction works and planning Environment at University time available - item to her "comment on student workapplications that would make good * Confident experimenter with the Internet but has theres some other for..." context and continues scanning,cases to look at with her students, a lot of gaps in her knowledge that keep cropping up work she has to adding a few more items as she goes.but also with new developments and and vexing her as she doesnt feel very technical do.trends in urban planning generally. * Has used bibliographic tools in the past but Working down the list in the prefers to rely on a known canon of classic works She decides to *Editing control *Context "comment on student work for..."Laura is very enthusiastic about *Publishing control *Entry Editor and textbooks on her bookshelf write comments context, she creates a new Entry inusing technology in her job, but *Conduits: AtomPP and publish them and drags into it the Item shethinks that the amount of time it attributes so that her + Trackback selected earlier - it appears intakes her to work with students * enthusiastic - possible early adopter students can see "references".using her current approach will * less experienced with computers and internet the comments.mean too much work for larger * less experienced in research She writes a comment, and thenstudent groups. saves the entry. She then drags the user needs comment onto "Lauras Teaching Blog". The application publishes the * Keep up with students posts and be able to make comments comment, and sends a Trackback related to them Ping to the students blog refenced * keep up to date with new developments, especially new in the entry. The Entry alters its building projects and planning applications state to show it was published * generate new ideas for student activities This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales License. To view a copy of this license, visit successfully. * effective help for when stuck http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/uk/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA. (The FeedForward Blog, 2007a)
FeedForward scenario needs feature behaviour Zoe wants to add * Ease of use * Input Manager Zoe drags the URLs of the tags from her remix your information environment images using browser onto a blank FeedForward Persona: Zoe, 13 June 2007 particular Flickr InputManager. The application does a quick Zoe Pascal tags to her mix behind-the-scenes check of the site and discovers an RSS feed for the photostream. It adds each one as a newprofile input sourceZoe is very enthusiastic about "Inspire me!" She wants to sort *Serendipity *Mixer Zoe plays with the Mixer sliders to altervisual art, and has been working on a and play with the *Flexibility *Radar the composition of items in the Radar. Sheportfolio of pieces using a lot of uses the Tiles view of Radar, which images to see if any *Visual sorting *Contextdigital collage. Shes been using shows previews in squares. combinations look *Speed *Items ViewFlickr and doing Google Image interestingsearches, but keeps coming back to Zoe creates a new context calleda few key themes. "Friction", and opens its Storyboard. She drags items into it from the Radar, andShe recently started on a local moves and resizes the items to make anpart-time course in Visual Arts interesting displaywhich has a series of structured Zoe drags the "Friction" context ontoactivities that she needs to keep on background Zoe decides she *Flexible export *Items View the Images conduit. The conduit popstop of - she has two part-time wants to make a *Images Conduit * 20 years old, single, female up a "select folder location" dialog, andjobs, waitressing and working as a full work based on * GCSEs Zoe selects the Desktop. FeedForwardvolunteer at a community project, the items she has * Currently studying part-time diploma in Visual inspects the items and extracts theand sometimes finds it difficult to collected and Other scenarios image links; it then downloads the Arts; working in a cafekeep track of everything. arranged. She for this user: images to Zoes Desktop. * Like using the Internet, especially Flickr and wants to make a MySpace large-scale work Course activities She constructs a collage using the * No real interest in using bibliographic services - so needs the full Peer monitoring printouts of the images plus a range of prefers using books images not other media, and then scans the result. * Very visually-oriented previews. Or another persona? attributes * younger * experimenter - possible early adopter, but high threshold She decides to Zoe selects "Friction" in Contexts, and *Ease of editing *Context in the Storyboard view clicks the "New for retention show a small *Ease of publishing *Atom Conduit entry" icon. The Entry Editor launches, * less experienced with computers and internet preview of her with Attachments and she writes a quick bit of text * less experienced in research work via her blog feature about the work. She clicks the "image" user needs icon in the Editor and selects the collage JPG on her desktop. She clicks * Be provoked by inspiring images Save, and the Entry sits on the * Produce new collages from Internet images Storyboard. * Keep up to date on what other students (who arent MySpace users) are creating She then drags the entry onto the * Keep notified of course activities and deadlines This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 "Zoes Blog" icon, and the application UK: England & Wales License. To view a copy of this license, visit * very visual mode of thinking and working http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/uk/ publishes the entry and uploads the or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA. image attachment. (The FeedForward Blog, 2007b)
Maria Maria has studied information science and now she is doing her Masterʼs studies in interactive media. At the same time she has a full time job as a school librarian. Therefore she is interested in combining school assignments with her work as much as possible. At the same time she is a self-directed learner who likes to go in depth in topics that are interesting for her. Goals: Personalization: “It is hard to have a full time job and be a master student at the same time. If possible, then I try to choose assignments that can be connected with my work.” Scaffolding: “I feel that often it is difﬁcult to specify all the resourcesAge: 26 and actions that I have to make in order to achieve my learning objectives. Good examples from other learners help me to reﬁne myEducation: Master student contract.”Occupation: librarian Awareness: “It was good that we had to review our learning contracts. This way I was constantly aware of my objectives and thinking about the strategy to achieve my goals.”Photo by Alessandro Valli,taken from http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/liquene/4435467897/ (LeContract blog, 2010)
Diana Diana is a PhD student and university lecturer in educational sciences. She completed her Masterʼs as a biology teacher and worked in a school for several years. She was eager to try various pedagogical methods and ﬁnally decided to start PhD studies in educational sciences. Now she is teaching a few courses in the university. One of the methods that she is using in her courses is a personal learning contract. She can really see how the learning contracts help some students to improve the way they learn. On the other hand for some students it is difﬁcult to come up with a meaningful learning contract. Goals:Age: 34 Thinking in details: “I can give feedback to studentsʼ goals and help them to reﬁne their learning contracts already in the beginning of theEducation: PhD student course. This encourages them to think in details.”Occupation: university lecturer Planning the learning environment: “It is good to know what kind of resources and tools students are planning to use. This way I can design the learning environment according to their needs.” Staying on track: “We are reviewing the learning contracts in the middle of the course. I can see what kind of progress the studentsPhoto by Russell James Smith,taken from http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/russelljsmith/7006464/ have made and make necessary changes to the course.” (LeContract blog, 2010)
Carl Carl has completed BA in computer science. He worked as a programmer for more than a decade. Carl is interested travelling, photography, history and foreign cultures. He is also an active user of Web 2.0 environments. With years of experience he has become quite good photographer. A few years ago he decided to quit his programming job and started to work as a freelancer wedding photographer. Now he has more time for hobbies. He has found out that quite a few foreign universities provide online courses in foreign cultures, history, etc. He likes the fact that he can study many interested topics but on the other hand he is worried about the lack of community feeling in online courses.Age: 38 Goals:Education: Bachelorʼs degree, takingonline courses from foreign universities Social networking: “I think that collaboration with other participants is very important in e-learning courses. Learning contracts help me toOccupation: photographer ﬁnd other people with whom I have similar learning goals.” Collaboration: “I realized that learning contracts are specially valuable for group work. This way we can easily divide roles and responsibilities in a group.”Photo by greenkozi,taken from http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/themacinator/3576296437/ (LeContract blog, 2010)
Jakob Jakob is a professor of industrial design. He has been working in the university for almost 30 years. As a designer and researcher he has participated in many R&D projects but his real love is teaching. In last few years Jakob has decided to spend less time on projects and travelling. This means that he has more time for preparing his courses and trying out different things. He has experimented with blogs and social software. In his last course he decided to try personal learning contracts. It took quite a lot of time but he hopes that learning contracts will help him to give a more personal learning experience for his students. Goals:Age: 58 Adjusting the course: “I would like to know what the students expect to learn in my course. Then I can adjust the course assignmentsEducation: PhD according to their needs.”Occupation: professor Personalized support: “I want to give more personalized guidance and support for my students.” Fair grading: “I donʼt like grading but in some courses I am required to do it. I have found that learning contracts help me on fair grading. I rely on learning contracts when I negotiate grades with my students.”Photo by Jesse Courtemanche,taken from http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/jesse757/4170721132/ (LeContract blog, 2010)
Some suggestions• Start brainstorming with sticky notes• Keep certain persons in mind but combine their goals and descriptions into personas• Mindmapping helps when writing persona descriptions
Teemu Examples Hans Mart To get a quick overview of latest posts in the course Goals To have multiple ways for browsing the course To give better feedback for the students Primary persona 34 years old lecturer, long time doctoral student, has background in education but is quite technically savvy, early adopter of new technologies, has long experience in online learning, wantʼs to try out something different in each course, is participating in several projects and Description travelling quite often, has a constant lack of time, often reads the blog posts from his iphone but is planning to write comments later, sometimes leaves the laptop at work and writes comments from his iPad. Understands that the technology may Anne Examples have certain limitations when it is still under development. To have one learning platform that satisﬁes all her needs Goals Terje Negative persona To customize the learning platform Examples according to her taste and needs Kairit ... Description To create a functional learning community To give support and feedback for all Goals students Krista EduFeedr personas Secondary persona To use course data for research purposes Marge Examples 28 years old PhD student, teaching her Marko second online course, average computer user, experienced in using web 2.0 tools, Description very systematic, wants to use course data To be sure that the system is reliable for research purposes. Wantʼs to have a reliable system. Is using desktop RSS To get teachers using the system Educational technologist Customer persona reader in addition to EduFeedr.Not to spend too much time on supporting Goals the users Varje Examples Heikki To get statistics about the use in their institution Not to spend to much time on managing ... the course Description Goals To make students to submit their Teacher assignments on time To be sure that the system is reliable Teacher in a vocational school, has some experience both in using Moodle and in Description using social software. Wantʼs to have his Supplemental personas ﬁrst blog-based course. Is not using RSS reader. Maris Examples Elyna Ilya Student To ﬁnd inspiration from other student blogs Goals To explore other open courses Description ...
Teemu Examples Hans Mart To get a quick overview of latest posts in the course Goals To have multiple ways for browsing the course To give better feedback for the studentsPrimary persona 34 years old lecturer, long time doctoral student, has background in education but is quite technically savvy, early adopter of new technologies, has long experience in online learning, wantʼs to try out something different in each course, is participating in several projects and Description travelling quite often, has a constant lack of time, often reads the blog posts from his iphone but is planning to write comments later, sometimes leaves the laptop at work and writes comments from his iPad. Understands that the technology may have certain limitations when it is still under development.
Design each interface for a single primary persona. (Cooper & Reimann, 2003)
References• Cooper, A., Reinmann, R. (2003). About Face 2.0: The Essentials of Interaction Design. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley Publishing, Inc.• The FeedForward Blog (2007a). How Laura uses FF. http://blogs.cetis.ac.uk/ feedforward/2007/10/18/how-laura-uses-ff/• The FeedForward Blog (2007b). How Zoe uses FF. http://blogs.cetis.ac.uk/ feedforward/2007/10/24/how-zoe-uses-ff/• LeContract blog (2010). http://blog.lecontract.org
Photos• Nicolas Nova, http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/nnova/2081056587/