Personas in Interaction Design


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Lectures slides in Interface and Interaction Design course in Tallinn University. 8 February 2010.

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Personas in Interaction Design

  1. 1. Personas in Interaction Design Hans Põldoja Tallinn University
  2. 2. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http:// or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.
  3. 3. Personas as a design tool • Determine what a product should do and how it should behave • Communicate with stakeholders, developers and other designers • Build consensus and commitment to the design • Measure the design’s effectiveness • Contribute to marketing (Cooper & Reimann, 2003)
  4. 4. Personas are based on research • Real-world observations • Ethnographic interviews • Contextual inquiry (Cooper & Reimann, 2003)
  5. 5. Ethnographic interviews • Interview where the interaction happens • Avoid a fixed set of questions • Focus on the goal first, tasks second • Avoid making the user a designer • Avoid discussion of technology • Avoid leading questions • Ask for stories, demonstrations and a tour (Cooper & Reimann, 2003)
  6. 6. Contextual inquiry • Context: interview should take place in the environment where the product is actually used • Partnership • Interpretation: reading between the lines • Focus: direct the interview as new issues arise (Cooper & Reimann, 2003)
  7. 7. When research is not possible... • Information about the users supplied by stakeholders and subject matter experts • Market research data such as focus groups and surveys • Market segmentation models • Data gathered from literature reviews and previous studies (Cooper & Reimann, 2003)
  8. 8. Persona types • Primary (1) • Secondary (0...2) • Supplemental • Customer • Served: non-users affected by the use of the product • Negative (Cooper & Reimann, 2003)
  9. 9. Persona’s elements • Photo • Background info (age, gender, computer, tech skills, disabilities, ...) • Goals • Information seeking styles • Usability needs (Cooper & Reimann, 2003)
  10. 10. Goals • Goals must be inferred from qualitative data • Each goal should be expressed as a simple sentence (Cooper & Reimann, 2003)
  11. 11. User goals Life goals ✓ Be the best at what I do ✓ Learn all there is to know about this field Experience goals ✓ Don’t feel stupid ✓ Don’t make mistakes ✓ Have fun End goals ✓ Find the best price ✓ Process the customer’s order (Cooper & Reimann, 2003)
  12. 12. Non-user goals Customer goals ✓ Be sure about the child’s safety Corporate goals ✓ Increase market share ✓ Use resources more efficiently Technical goals ✓ Support all major browsers ✓ Maintain consistency across platforms (Cooper & Reimann, 2003)
  13. 13. Examples
  14. 14. FeedFordward scenario needs feature behaviour Laura wants to set * Guidance * Wizard Laura starts the application and begins remix your information environment up her application filling in the information in the First Persona: Laura, 11 June 2007 so it can track her Run Wizard. It asks her for the blogs Laura Marsden student's blogs and post to her own she wants to monitor, and her blog she wants to post to. It asks her to blog. define her contexts and she chooses profile "I need to "comment on student work for ..." for each cohort she is teaching. Laura is a lecturer in Built Environment Studies at a traditional know what my University. She's been experimenting with using blogs for student work students are Initially the Radar has a lot of items, Laura decides to *Manage attention *Mixer and has found the experience really good, but has had problems keeping writing about, track what her *Scan and Decide *Radar and so she decides to try the Mixer. students have been *Defer action *Context She adjusts upwards the slider for up with the sheer volume of posts. As a result she hasn't been and how it writing over the the course she is teaching tomorrow past week so she and slides down the others. The commenting on or highlighting relates to the can decide whether number of posts in the radar now particular work in a consistent and looks a lot more manageable. methodical manner. 'real world'" to post a comment on their work. She background decides rather than Laura scans the Radar and sees a good She's also aware that also she * 28 years old, engaged, female comment now she'll point made by one student, but which hasn't been keeping abreast of new * PhD in environmental design and planning do it later when would be made better with an developments, particularly local * Currently a lecturer in the School of Built she has more quiet appropriate reference. She drags the construction works and planning Environment at University time available - item to her "comment on student work applications that would make good * Confident experimenter with the Internet but has there's some other for..." context and continues scanning, cases to look at with her students, a lot of gaps in her knowledge that keep cropping up work she has to adding a few more items as she goes. but also with new developments and and vexing her as she doesn't feel very 'technical' do. trends in urban planning generally. * Has used bibliographic tools in the past but Working down the list in the prefers to rely on a known canon of classic works She decides to *Editing control *Context "comment on student work for..." Laura is very enthusiastic about *Publishing control *Entry Editor and textbooks on her bookshelf write comments context, she creates a new Entry in using technology in her job, but *Conduits: AtomPP and publish them and drags into it the Item she thinks that the amount of time it attributes so that her + Trackback selected earlier - it appears in takes her to work with students * enthusiastic - possible early adopter students can see "references". using her current approach will * less experienced with computers and internet the comments. mean too much work for larger * less experienced in research She writes a comment, and then student groups. saves the entry. She then drags the user needs comment onto "Laura's Teaching Blog". The application publishes the * Keep up with students posts and be able to make comments comment, and sends a Trackback related to them Ping to the student's blog refenced * keep up to date with new developments, especially new in the entry. The Entry alters its building projects and planning applications state to show it was published * generate new ideas for student activities This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales License. To view a copy of this license, visit successfully. * effective help for when stuck or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA. (The FeedForward Blog, 2007a)
  15. 15. FeedForward scenario needs feature behaviour Zoe wants to add * Ease of use * Input Manager Zoe drags the URLs of the tags from her remix your information environment images using browser onto a blank FeedForward Persona: Zoe, 13 June 2007 particular Flickr InputManager. The application does a quick Zoe Pascal tags to her mix behind-the-scenes check of the site and discovers an RSS feed for the photostream. It adds each one as a new profile input source Zoe is very enthusiastic about "Inspire me!" She wants to sort *Serendipity *Mixer Zoe plays with the Mixer sliders to alter visual art, and has been working on a and play with the *Flexibility *Radar the composition of items in the Radar. She portfolio of pieces using a lot of uses the Tiles view of Radar, which images to see if any *Visual sorting *Context digital collage. She's been using shows previews in squares. combinations look *Speed *Items View Flickr and doing Google Image interesting searches, but keeps coming back to Zoe creates a new context called a few key themes. "Friction", and opens its Storyboard. She drags items into it from the Radar, and She recently started on a local moves and resizes the items to make an part-time course in Visual Arts interesting display which has a series of structured Zoe drags the "Friction" context onto activities that she needs to keep on background Zoe decides she *Flexible export *Items View the Images conduit. The conduit pops top of - she has two part-time wants to make a *Images Conduit * 20 years old, single, female up a "select folder location" dialog, and jobs, waitressing and working as a full work based on * GCSEs Zoe selects the Desktop. FeedForward volunteer at a community project, the items she has * Currently studying part-time diploma in Visual inspects the items and extracts the and sometimes finds it difficult to collected and Other scenarios image links; it then downloads the Arts; working in a cafe keep track of everything. arranged. She for this user: images to Zoe's Desktop. * Like using the Internet, especially Flickr and wants to make a MySpace large-scale work Course activities She constructs a collage using the * No real interest in using bibliographic services - so needs the full Peer monitoring printouts of the images plus a range of prefers using books images not other media, and then scans the result. * Very visually-oriented previews. Or another persona? attributes * younger * experimenter - possible early adopter, but high threshold She decides to Zoe selects "Friction" in Contexts, and *Ease of editing *Context in the Storyboard view clicks the "New for retention show a small *Ease of publishing *Atom Conduit entry" icon. The Entry Editor launches, * less experienced with computers and internet preview of her with Attachments and she writes a quick bit of text * less experienced in research work via her blog feature about the work. She clicks the "image" user needs icon in the Editor and selects the collage JPG on her desktop. She clicks * Be provoked by inspiring images Save, and the Entry sits on the * Produce new collages from Internet images Storyboard. * Keep up to date on what other students (who aren't MySpace users) are creating She then drags the entry onto the * Keep notified of course activities and deadlines This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 "Zoe's Blog" icon, and the application UK: England & Wales License. To view a copy of this license, visit * very visual mode of thinking and working publishes the entry and uploads the or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA. image attachment. (The FeedForward Blog, 2007b)
  16. 16. Design each interface for a single primary persona. (Cooper & Reimann, 2003)
  17. 17. References • Cooper, A., Reinmann, R. (2003). About Face 2.0: The Essentials of Interaction Design. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley Publishing, Inc. • The FeedForward Blog (2007a). How Laura uses FF. feedforward/2007/10/18/how-laura-uses-ff/ • The FeedForward Blog (2007b). How Zoe uses FF. feedforward/2007/10/24/how-zoe-uses-ff/
  18. 18. Thank You! • •