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Open Educational Resources and Practices in Estonia


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The Belt and Road OER Community webinar presentation, 29 November 2018

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Open Educational Resources and Practices in Estonia

  1. 1. Open Educational Resources and Practices in Estonia Hans Põldoja Tallinn University
  2. 2. Hans Põldoja Head of Studies, Associate Professor of Educational Technology Tallinn University, School of Digital Technologies Education: Aalto University, School of Arts, Design and Architecture (2016) Tallinn Pedagogical University (2003)
  3. 3. Estonia Population: 1,319,000 Area: 45,000 km2 Official language: Estonian Students: General education: 147,000 Vocational education: 24,000 Higher education: 46,000 516 schools, 14,000 teachers 38 vocational education institutions 20 higher education institutions (incl 6 universities in public law)
  4. 4. Educational policy in Estonia
  5. 5. • Change in the approach to learning • Competent and motivated teachers and school leadership • Concordance of lifelong learning opportunities with the needs of labour market • A digital turn in lifelong learning • Equal opportunities and increased participation in lifelong learning The Estonian Lifelong Learning Strategy 2014–2020
  6. 6. • Incorporating a digital culture into the learning process • Supporting digital learning resources in schools • Accessing a modern digital infrastructure for learning • Creating and implementing assessment models for digital competence • Creating learning opportunities for adults to acquire digital competences The Digital Turn programme
  7. 7. Open Educational Resources
  8. 8. OER repositories in Estonia • e-koolikott (2016–…), 18700 resources, 11700 OER • Koolielu: (2001–…), 5700 resources, 3300 OER • repository: (2009–…), 4600 OER • LeMill: (2006–2015), 3400 OER in Estonian under CC BY-SA
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  10. 10. Digital learning resources for upper secondary schools • Four subject domains out of six: mathematics, science, social studies and arts • More than 10000 resources, all under CC BY license • Developed by 120 teachers • Authoring platform H5P + Drupal • Piloted in 30 schools, launched in October 2018
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  13. 13. LeMill
  14. 14. Creative Commons licenses 0,0% 25,0% 50,0% 75,0% Koolielu (K12, 2001-2016) (vocational education, 2009-2016) e-Koolikott (2016-…) 0,3% 46,1% 1,6% 28,4% 40,9% 48,7% 2,4%2,2%2,4% 0,0% 1,9% 0,2% 7,3%6,6% 42,4% 61,5% 2,2% 4,7% Attribution Attribution-ShareAlike Attribution-NoDerivs Attribution-NonCommercial Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs
  15. 15. e-Koolikott repository H5P resource Learning resource Learning resource Subchapter Learning resource Subchapter Chapter e-Koolikott collection DigiÕppeVaramu (Drupal + H5P) Moodle eKool Stuudium eDidaktikum Authoring LePlanner scenario Learning resource Learning resource Activity Teacher Learner Learning resource Activity Publishing Integrating Using H5P resource Simple web sites Weebly WordPress Blogger Google Sites Web 2.0 tools YouTube SlideShare Kahoot! LearningApps Google Drive Open Web HITSA repository Koolielu repository Legacy systems EIS EscCORE metadata
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  17. 17. (Massive) Open Online Courses
  18. 18. (Massive) Open Online Courses • University of Tartu: high quality MOOCs in programming, chemistry, etc. • Tallinn University: EMMA project, blog-based open online courses
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  21. 21. Blog-based courses
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  24. 24. Course blog Learner blogs Blog-based open online courses
  25. 25. Course format • Course blog + learner blogs • Additional Web 2.0 and social media tools (Twitter, SlideShare, YouTube, …) • Open enrollment • Open educational resources • Assignments through blog posts • Feedback and discussion in comments
  26. 26. Väljataga, T., Põldoja, H., Laanpere, M. (2011). Open Online Courses: Responding to Design Challenges. In H. Ruokamo, M. Eriksson, L. Pekkala, & H. Vuojärvi (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th International Network-Based Education 2011 Conference The Social Media in the Middle of Nowhere (pp. 68-75). Rovaniemi: University of Lapland. Proceedings of the NBE 2011 68 Open Online Courses: Responding to Design Challenges Terje Väljataga Hans Põldoja Mart Laanpere Tallinn University Centre for Educational Technology Narva road 25, 10120 Tallinn, Estonia Tel: +372 6409 355, Fax: +372 6409 355 Open education and open educational resources movement as a recent trend in higher education focuses on providing free access to a wide range of educational resources and online courses. However, such a narrow approach fails to acknowledge the transformative and innovative opportunities openness can offer in higher education. The authors of the paper take a wider perspective to the concept of openness in formal higher education. In addition to open technology, content and knowledge sharing openness in course design is an important dimension to consider. Although open online course design solves many educational problems and challenges, at the same time it also creates new ones. This paper discusses about the re-occurring course design challenges that facilitators face while designing and running open courses. Through a multiple case study a variety of design responses to the design challenges is analyzed and demonstrated. Keywords: open online course model, open educational resources, pedagogical design, multiple case study 1 Introduction The concept of openness has multiple interpretations and dimensions in the context of higher education. Among others, it has been used by proponents of open classroom approach in 1970-ties and by distance education enthusiasts while establishing open universities”. The purpose was to solve a number of educational problems and challenges, for instance, to improve access to existing study programmes and attract more (or better) students following Huijser, Bedford, and Bull’s (2008) claim that everyone has the right to education. In general, openness in education is attributed to a barrier-free access to education in terms of time, affordability and admission requirements being freely available through the Internet. A recent trend is the open educational resources (OER) movement (Atkins, Brown & Hammond, 2007), which provides free access to a wide range of educational resources and online courses. OER and its importance has been widely documented and demonstrated (Downes, 2007). The key tenet of open education is that “education can be improved by making educational assets visible and accessible and by harnessing the collective wisdom of a community of practice and reflection” (p. 2) (Iiyoshi & Kumar, 2008). The notion of openness in education is clearly triggered by the opportunities technological development offers. In addition to growing access to Internet, the latest evolution of digital technology and Web has fostered a new culture of creating and sharing open content in online communities. It has been possible due to the blurred line between producers and consumers of content allowing shifted attention from access to information toward access to other people (Iiyoshi & Kumar, 2008). In the light of ongoing technological development, there are educators who are exploring ways to expand the notion of openness in education beyond public sharing of educational content. Iiyoshi & Kumar (2008) point out that with the concept of openness we might tend to grow our collections of educational tools and resources and miss the transformative and innovative opportunities “openness” can offer. One of the emerging practices in this direction is the open online course model.
  27. 27. Challenges in blog-based courses • Coordinating and following the course activities • Creating and sustaining the learning community • Designing content and activities • Feedback and assessment
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  29. 29. Põldoja, H., Duval, E., & Leinonen, T. (2016). Design and evaluation of an online tool for open learning with blogs. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 32(2), 64–81. 10.14742/ajet.2450 Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 2016, 32(2). 64 ascilite Design and evaluation of an online tool for open learning with blogs Hans Põldoja Tallinn University, Estonia Erik Duval Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium Teemu Leinonen Aalto University, Finland Blogs are used in higher education to support face-to-face courses, to organise online courses, and to open up courses for a wider group of participants. However the open and distributed nature of blogs creates problems that are not common in other learning contexts. Four key challenges related to the use of blogs in learning were identified from earlier research: fragmented discussions, a lack of coordination structures, weak support for awareness, and a danger of over-scripting. The EduFeedr system has been designed to address these issues. In this paper, the authors present their evaluation of its design and effectiveness in a total of 10 courses. The results indicate that learners find the EduFeedr system useful in following discussions and in comparing their progress with other learners. The coordination and awareness issues are seen as more important than the fragmentation of discussions and a danger of over-scripting. Introduction Blogs are used in higher education to provide a space for reflection, a forum for discussions, a portfolio of completed assignments, and for opening up courses for a wider group of participants. While some recent research has focused on the pedagogical aspects of using blogs in higher education, Sim and Hew (2010) suggest that one focus of future research should be the development of web technologies that will enhance the conversational and interactive aspects of blogging. Our study focuses on designing and evaluating an online tool that aims to address some of the issues that impede the use of blogs in online and blended learning courses. A blog is a website where the content is comprised of posts that are displayed in reverse chronological order. A typical blog is a personal website that is written by a single person; however it is also possible to have several authors. Readers can become engaged by writing comments on blog posts. Syndication technologies such as really simple syndication (RSS) and Atom enable readers to receive new posts and comments automatically. All blogs and their interconnections are often referred to as the blogosphere. The blogosphere can be seen both as a social network and as an ecosystem. The possibilities for using blogs in learning became evident soon after blogs emerged (Oravec, 2003; Williams & Jacobs, 2004). Sim and Hew (2010) identified six major applications for blogs in education: (a) maintaining a learning journal, (b) recording personal life, (c) expressing emotions, (d) communicating with others, (e) assessment, and (f) managing tasks. Kim (2008) suggests that the use of blogs may help to overcome various limitations of other computer- mediated communication systems, such as difficulties in managing communication, passiveness of students, lack of ownership, instructor-centeredness, and limited archives of communication. Previous studies show that reading other blogs and receiving feedback on one’s own blog posts were the more effective aspects of using blogs in learning (Churchill, 2009; Ellison & Wu, 2008). Blogs are useful in disciplines that require students to discuss, write, reflect, and make comments about content or ideas (Cakir, 2013). Blogging has been found particularly beneficial in teacher education because it can motivate learners, foster collaboration and cooperation, promote different instructional practices, and enrich the learning environment (Goktas & Demirel, 2012). Teachers who acquire these competences during the blogging assignments can later apply these methods in their own teaching.
  30. 30. Twitter
  31. 31. Challenges in blog-based courses • Coordinating and following the course activities • Creating and sustaining the learning community • Designing content and activities • Feedback and assessment
  32. 32. Personal introductions / About pages
  33. 33. Learning contracts
  34. 34. Learning contract template • Topic: What is the topic I wish to learn about? • Purpose: What is the purpose of my task? Why do I wish to learn about or learn to do a particular task? • Resources: What kind of technological, material and human resources do I need? How can I get access to these? • Strategy: How do I intend to go about learning this particular topic/task? What action may be involved and in what order will these be carried out? • Outcome evaluation: How will I know when I have completed the task/topic successfully? How shall I judge success? • Reflection: How well did I do? What has worked? What has not worked? Why? What remains to be learnt? What are my strengths and what are my weaknesses? What shall I do next?
  35. 35. Blog rolls
  36. 36. Challenges in blog-based courses • Coordinating and following the course activities • Creating and sustaining the learning community • Designing content and activities • Feedback and assessment
  37. 37. Publishing course content • WordPress pages for lecture notes • SlideShare for presentations • YouTube for videos and screencasts • Mendeley for research publications • Dropbox for resources that cannot be shared in public web (scanned book chapters, etc.)
  38. 38. Designing assignments • Assignments combine practical and theoretical learning goals • Assignments encourage reflection • Assignments allow each learner to come up with an original solution
  39. 39. Student posts as content
  40. 40. Different learning paths
  41. 41. Challenges in blog-based courses • Coordinating and following the course activities • Creating and sustaining the learning community • Designing content and activities • Feedback and assessment
  42. 42. Commenting
  43. 43. Liking
  44. 44. Summary posts
  45. 45. Open Badges
  46. 46. Põldoja, H., Jürgens, P., & Laanpere, M. (2016). Design Patterns for Badge Systems in Higher Education. In M. Spaniol, M. Temperini, D.K.W. Chiu, I. Marenzi, & U. Nanni (eds.), Advances in Web-Based Learning — ICWL 2016 (Vol. 10013, lk 40– 49). Cham: Springer. 10.1007/978-3-319-47440-3_5 Design Patterns for Badge Systems in Higher Education Hans Põldoja (✉) , Pirje Jürgens, and Mart Laanpere Tallinn University, Narva mnt 25, 10120 Tallinn, Estonia {hans.poldoja,pirje.jurgens,mart.laanpere} Abstract. Open Badges as a method for assessment and recognition of learning originates from the context of informal learning. Thus, it cannot be introduced into formal higher education without reconsidering the existing assessment processes.This paper presentsexperiencesfrom three years of using Open Badges in a master level course. In each iteration, the badge system was revised based on learners’ feedback. Special attention was given to supporting learners with different learning styles. To summarize our findings, this paper proposes a set of design patterns for developing badge systems in higher education. While the learning styles proved to be useful as generic design guidelines for separating two alternative learning pathways for the course, more research is needed on advanced learning-style-based learning pathways. Keywords: Open Badges · Assessment · Higher education 1 Introduction Open Badges (OB’s) is a web technology for recognizing and verifying knowledge, competencies or involvements gained in online or offline settings. In a basic sense, badges are digital images that contain embedded information about the accomplish‐ ments. The development of the Open Badges technology started in 2010, when a group of open education activists came up with the initial concept during the Mozilla Drumbeat Festival. Inspired by the use of digital badges in gaming and various social apps, they proposed that badges could be used for verifying learning. The technical specification of the Open Badges Infrastructure (OBI) was developed together with the Mozilla Foundation and released in 2012. While digital badges are typically used within a single environment, OBI was developed as an open standard that allows people to collect badges from different issuers. The initial scenarios about using open badges focused on informal learning contexts [1]. However, in recent years there have been a number of studies about using badges in schools [2, 3] and in higher education [4–6]. Introducing open badges to formal higher education courses provides an opportunity to reconsider the existing assessment procedures. Recent research on open badges has proposed a number of reasons for adopting badges. Ahn, Pellicone, and Butler [7] see badges as motivators for behavior, pedagogical tools for promoting particular learning activities, and credentials for recognizing learning achievements. While Jovanovic and Devedzic [8] identify similar roles for open badges, they discuss additional benefits such as supporting alternative forms of assessment (e.g. peer-assessment), providing learners © Springer International Publishing AG 2016 D.K.W. Chiu et al. (Eds.): ICWL 2016, LNCS 10013, pp. 40–49, 2016. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-47440-3_5
  47. 47. Challenges for Open Education in Estonia • Lack of specific OER policy in state and institutional level • Lack of coordinated OER initiatives in higher education • Lack of a functional open education community • Sustainability of initiatives, repositories and practices • Inconsistent approach to digital learning resources in different levels of education • Lack of research on the outcome and impact of OER
  48. 48. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit Hans Põldoja Head of studies School of Digital Technologies Tallinn University